143 relations: Act of Parliament, Aktiengesellschaft, Aktieselskab, Alaska, Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Natives, American Bar Association, Asset, Australia, Australian Securities and Investments Commission, Austria, Bank, Bazacle Milling Company, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canada Business Corporations Act, Charles II of England, Civil code, Colonialism, Common law, Companies Act 2006, Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands, Consumers' co-operative, Copper, Corporate law, Corporation, Corporation sole, Corporations Act 2001, Czech Republic, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Delaware General Corporation Law, Dissolution (law), Double taxation, Dutch East India Company, East India Company, East Indies, Economy of the Song dynasty, Elizabeth I of England, Euronext Amsterdam, Exchequer of Pleas, Family business, Federal government of the United States, Financial statement, France, Germany, Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, Guild, Harvard College, ..., Harvard University, Holding company, Hudson's Bay Company, Incorporation (business), India, Industrial Revolution, Intermediary corporation, Internal Revenue Code, Italy, Japan, John Marshall, Joint Stock Companies Act 1844, Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, Jurisdiction (area), Kabushiki gaisha, Legal liability, Legal person, Lennard's Carrying Co Ltd v Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd, Liechtenstein, Limited company, Limited liability company, Limited liability limited partnership, Limited liability partnership, Limited partnership, Liquidation, List of business entities, Local and personal Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Local Autonomy Act, London, London Company, Lord Chancellor, Low-profit limited liability company, Massachusetts General Court, Middle Ages, Mochibun kaisha, Model Business Corporation Act, Monopoly, Moscow, Municipalities of Japan, Muscovy Company, NASDAQ, National bank, National Bank Act, Nevada, New York Stock Exchange, Nonprofit organization, Northern Ireland, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Open joint-stock company, Parent company, Partnership, Plymouth Company, Prefectures of Japan, President and Fellows of Harvard College, Privacy, Private limited company, Privately held company, Pro se legal representation in the United States, Province, Public company, Public limited company, Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Royal charter, S corporation, Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd, Saudi Arabia, Share (finance), Shareholder, Slovakia, Società per azioni, Sole proprietorship, Spain, Společnost s ručením omezeným, Statutes of Mortmain, Stock, Stora Enso, Subsidiary, Supreme Court of the United States, Sweden, Switzerland, Toulouse, Trust company, Trust law, Ukraine, Ukrainian hryvnia, United Kingdom, United States, United States Constitution, United States dollar, Unlimited company, Unlimited liability corporation, Voluntary association, Working capital. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated AG) is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership (i.e. one which is owned by its shareholders) and may be traded on a stock market.
Aktieselskab (abbr.: ⅍, A/S or a/s, Unicode U+214d ⅍; literally meaning: "stock company") is the Danish name for a stock-based corporation.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 18, 1971, constituting at the time the largest land claims settlement in United States history.
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) is an independent Australian government body that acts as Australia's corporate regulator.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Society of Moulins du Bazacle was founded in Toulouse in the 12th century by the citizens of the city, seven centuries before the Industrial Revolution, to share the operation of a series of mills installed on the site of the Bazacle.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada Business Corporations Act ("CBCA") is an Act of the Parliament of Canada regulating Canadian business corporations.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Companies Act 2006 (c 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which forms the primary source of UK company law.
The Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands was an early joint stock association, which began with private exploration and enterprise, and was to have been incorporated by King Edward VI in 1553, but received its full Royal Charter in 1555.
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.
The Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the Corporations Act, or CA 2001) is an Act of the Commonwealth of Australia which sets out the laws dealing with business entities in Australia at federal and interstate level.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward,, was a landmark decision in United States corporate law from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contracts Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.
The Delaware General Corporation Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the U.S. state of Delaware.
In law, dissolution has multiple meanings.
Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes).
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
For over three centuries during the Song dynasty (960–1279) China experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam.
The Exchequer of Pleas or Court of Exchequer was a court that dealt with matters of equity, a set of legal principles based on natural law and common law in England and Wales.
A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family — related by blood or marriage or adoption — who has both the ability to influence the vision of the business and the willingness to use this ability to pursue distinctive goals.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Financial statements (or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH and also GesmbH in Austria) is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equivalent to a société à responsabilité limitée) and Liechtenstein.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An is a type of corporation which existed under Japanese law from 2002 until 2008.
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
The Joint Stock Companies Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c.110) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that expanded access to the incorporation of joint-stock companies.
The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c.47) was a consolidating statute, recognised as the founding piece of modern United Kingdom company law legislation.
A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts or government entity which are different from neighbouring areas.
A or kabushiki kaisha, commonly abbreviated KK, is a type of defined under the Companies Act of Japan.
In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Lennard's Carrying Co Ltd v Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd AC 705 is a famous decision by the House of Lords on the ability to impose liability upon a corporation.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.
A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.
The limited liability limited partnership (LLLP) is a relatively new modification of the limited partnership, a form of business entity recognized under United States commercial law.
A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities.
A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner.
In United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end.
A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per corporate law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable.
Private Acts are laws in the United Kingdom which apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity.
The, passed by the House of Representatives and the House of Peers on March 28, 1947 and promulgated as Law No.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
A low-profit limited liability company (L3C) is a legal form of business entity in the United States that was created to bridge the gap between non-profit and for-profit investing by providing a structure that facilitates investments in socially beneficial, for-profit ventures by simplifying compliance with Internal Revenue Service rules for program-related investments, a type of investment that private foundations are allowed to make.
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
are a class of corporations under Japanese law.
The Model Business Corporation Act (MBCA) is a model set of law prepared by the Committee on Corporate Laws of the Section of Business Law of the American Bar Association and is followed by twenty-four states.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal.
The Muscovy Company (also called the Russian Company or the Muscovy Trading Company, Московская компания, Moskovskaya kompaniya) was an English trading company chartered in 1555.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.
In banking, the term national bank carries several meanings.
The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks, and created the United States National Banking System.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States.
A public joint-stock company, abbreviated PJSC (Публичное акционерное общество, abbreviated ПАО) or open joint-stock company, abbreviated OJSC (Открытое акционерное общество, abbreviated ОАО), is a type of company in many successor states of the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia.
A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by doing and influencing or electing its board of directors.
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.
The Plymouth Company was an English joint-stock company founded in 1606 by James I of England with the purpose of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
Japan is divided into 47, forming the first level of jurisdiction and administrative division.
The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation) is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Board of Overseers.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
A private limited company is a type of business entity in "private" ownership used in many jurisdictions in contrast to "public" ownership, with some differences from country to country.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Pro se legal representation comes from Latin, literally meaning "on behalf of themselves", which basically means advocating on one's own behalf before a court, rather than being represented by a lawyer.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, (30 July 1856 – 19 August 1928) was an influential Scottish Liberal and later Labour imperialist politician, lawyer and philosopher.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
An S corporation, for United States federal income tax purposes, is a closely held corporation (or, in some cases, a limited liability company (LLC) or a partnership) that makes a valid election to be taxed under Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code.
is a landmark UK company law case.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Società per azioni (S.p.A.) is a form of corporation in Italy, meaning "company limited by shares" (although often translated as "joint-stock company", which may or may not be a limited liability entity).
A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Společnost s ručením omezeným is the Czech and Slovak legal structure for a private limited company (as it is known in the UK) or a LLC (as it is known in the United States).
The Statutes of Mortmain were two enactments, in 1279 and 1290, by Edward I of England aimed at preserving the kingdom's revenues by preventing land from passing into the possession of the Church.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
Stora Enso Oyj (Stora and Enso) is a pulp and paper manufacturer headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, with significant operations in four continents.
A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
A trust company is a corporation, especially a commercial bank, organized to perform the fiduciary of trusts and agencies.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (гривня,, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
An unlimited company or private unlimited company is a hybrid company (corporation) incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.
An unlimited liability corporation (ULC) is a Canadian corporation designation, wherein shareholders are liable up to unlimited amounts for any liability, act or default of the corporation.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
Working capital (abbreviated WC) is a financial metric which represents operating liquidity available to a business, organisation or other entity, including governmental entities.
Akciova spolecnost, Akciová společnost, Akciová spoločnosť, CJSC, Closed Joint Stock Company, Closed Joint stock company, Closed joint stock company, Closed joint-stock company, Joint Stock, Joint Stock Company, Joint stock, Joint stock companies, Joint stock company, Joint stock corporation, Joint stock principle, Joint-Stock Company, Joint-stock, Joint-stock companies, Joint-stock corporation, Jushik hoesa, Limited liability joint-stock company, NJSC, National joint stock company, Public Joint Stock Company, Public Joint-Stock Company, Public joint stock company, Public joint-stock company, Societa per Azioni, Stock Corporation, Stock corporation, Trading house.