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# Jones polynomial

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the Jones polynomial is a knot polynomial discovered by Vaughan Jones in 1984. [1]

## Alexander polynomial

In mathematics, the Alexander polynomial is a knot invariant which assigns a polynomial with integer coefficients to each knot type.

## Alexander's theorem

In mathematics Alexander's theorem states that every knot or link can be represented as a closed braid.

## Bracket polynomial

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the bracket polynomial (also known as the Kauffman bracket) is a polynomial invariant of framed links.

## Braid group

In mathematics, the braid group on strands (denoted), also known as the Artin braid group, is the group whose elements are equivalence classes of n-braids (e.g. under ambient isotopy), and whose group operation is composition of braids (see). Example applications of braid groups include knot theory, where any knot may be represented as the closure of certain braids (a result known as Alexander's theorem); in mathematical physics where Artin's canonical presentation of the braid group corresponds to the Yang–Baxter equation (see); and in monodromy invariants of algebraic geometry.

## Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society

The Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society is a quarterly mathematical journal published by the American Mathematical Society.

## Chern–Simons theory

The Chern–Simons theory, named after Shiing-Shen Chern and James Harris Simons, is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type, developed by Edward Witten.

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Colin Adams (mathematician)

Colin Conrad Adams (born October 13, 1956) is a mathematician primarily working in the areas of hyperbolic 3-manifolds and knot theory.

## Dror Bar-Natan

Dror Bar-Natan (דרוֹר בָר-נָתָן; born January 30, 1966) is a Professor at the University of Toronto Department of Mathematics, Canada.

## Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

## Euler characteristic

In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler&ndash;Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent.

## Finite type invariant

In the mathematical theory of knots, a finite type invariant, or Vassiliev invariant, is a knot invariant that can be extended (in a precise manner to be described) to an invariant of certain singular knots that vanishes on singular knots with m + 1 singularities and does not vanish on some singular knot with 'm' singularities.

## Fundamental representation

In representation theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, a fundamental representation is an irreducible finite-dimensional representation of a semisimple Lie group or Lie algebra whose highest weight is a fundamental weight.

## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

## Hernando Burgos-Soto

Hernando Burgos Soto is a Canadian (Colombian born) writer and mathematician, professor of mathematics at George Brown College.

## HOMFLY polynomial

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the HOMFLY polynomial, sometimes called the HOMFLY-PT polynomial or the generalized Jones polynomial, is a 2-variable knot polynomial, i.e. a knot invariant in the form of a polynomial of variables m and l. A central question in the mathematical theory of knots is whether two knot diagrams represent the same knot.

## Hyperbolic volume

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the hyperbolic volume of a hyperbolic link is the volume of the link's complement with respect to its complete hyperbolic metric.

## Irreducible representation

In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\rho, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper subrepresentation (\rho|_W,W), W \subset V closed under the action of \. Every finite-dimensional unitary representation on a Hermitian vector space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations.

## Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications

The Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications was established in 1992 by Louis Kauffman and was the first journal purely devoted to knot theory.

## Khovanov homology

In mathematics, Khovanov homology is an oriented link invariant that arises as the homology of a chain complex.

## Knot (mathematics)

In mathematics, a knot is an embedding of a circle S^1 in 3-dimensional Euclidean space, R3 (also known as E3), considered up to continuous deformations (isotopies).

## Knot complement

In mathematics, the knot complement of a tame knot K is the three-dimensional space surrounding the knot.

## Knot invariant

In the mathematical field of knot theory, a knot invariant is a quantity (in a broad sense) defined for each knot which is the same for equivalent knots.

## Knot polynomial

In the mathematical field of knot theory, a knot polynomial is a knot invariant in the form of a polynomial whose coefficients encode some of the properties of a given knot.

## Knot theory

In topology, knot theory is the study of mathematical knots.

## Kontsevich invariant

In the mathematical theory of knots, the Kontsevich invariant, also known as the Kontsevich integral of an oriented framed link, is a universal Vassiliev invariant in the sense that any coefficient of the Kontsevich invariant is of a finite type, and conversely any finite type invariant can be presented as a linear combination of such coefficients.

## Laurent polynomial

In mathematics, a Laurent polynomial (named after Pierre Alphonse Laurent) in one variable over a field \mathbb is a linear combination of positive and negative powers of the variable with coefficients in \mathbb.

## Link (knot theory)

In mathematical knot theory, a link is a collection of knots which do not intersect, but which may be linked (or knotted) together.

## Louis Kauffman

Louis Hirsch Kauffman (born February 3, 1945) is an American mathematician, topologist, and professor of Mathematics in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer science at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

## Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich (Макси́м Льво́вич Конце́вич;; born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician.

## Mikhail Khovanov

Mikhail Khovanov (Михаил Хованов; born 1972) is a Russian-American professor of mathematics at Columbia University.

## Morwen Thistlethwaite

Morwen B. Thistlethwaite is a knot theorist and professor of mathematics for the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.

## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

## Palindrome

A palindrome is a word, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar.

## Potts model

In statistical mechanics, the Potts model, a generalization of the Ising model, is a model of interacting spins on a crystalline lattice.

## Reidemeister move

In the mathematical area of knot theory, a Reidemeister move is any of three local moves on a link diagram.

## Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

## Root of unity

In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that gives 1 when raised to some positive integer power.

## Skein relation

Skein relations are a mathematical tool used to study knots.

## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

## Tangle (mathematics)

In mathematics, a tangle is generally one of two related concepts.

## Temperley–Lieb algebra

In statistical mechanics, the Temperley–Lieb algebra is an algebra from which are built certain transfer matrices, invented by Neville Temperley and Elliott Lieb.

## Unknot

The unknot arises in the mathematical theory of knots.

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the unlink is a link that is equivalent (under ambient isotopy) to finitely many disjoint circles in the plane.

## Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.

## Vaughan Jones

Sir Vaughan Frederick Randal Jones (born 31 December 1952) is a New Zealand and American mathematician, known for his work on von Neumann algebras and knot polynomials.

## Volume conjecture

In the branch of mathematics called knot theory, the volume conjecture is the following open problem that relates quantum invariants of knots to the hyperbolic geometry of knot complements.

## Wilson loop

In gauge theory, a Wilson loop (named after Kenneth G. Wilson) is a gauge-invariant observable obtained from the holonomy of the gauge connection around a given loop.

## Writhe

In knot theory, there are several competing notions of the quantity writhe, or Wr.

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

## References

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