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'Abdullah ibn Rawahah ibn Tha'labah (عبدالله ابن رواحة) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Ayn Ghazal (Ain Ghazal, ʿayn ġazāl عين غزال) is a neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman, Jordan, about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886).
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
Adwan (also spelled Edwan, عدوان) is a surname.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin (1937 – 22 March 2004) (الشيخ أحمد إسماعيل حسن ياسين) was a Palestinian imam and politician.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
Ajloun (عجلون, ‘Ajlūn), also spelled Ajlun, is the capital town of the Ajloun Governorate, a hilly town in the north of Jordan, located 76 kilometers (around 47 miles) north west of Amman.
Ajloun Castle (قلعة عجلون; transliterated: Qal'at 'Ajloun), also known as (قلعة الربض; transliterated: Qa'lat ar-Rabad), is a 12th-century Muslim castle situated in northwestern Jordan.
Ajloun Governorate (alternative spelling Ajlun Governorate) (محافظة عجلون) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located north of Amman the capital of Jordan.
Akher Zapheer (أخِر زَفير meaning Last Exhalation) is a Jordanian Grunge Punk, Arabic Rock band from Amman, Jordan, formed in late 2007.
The Al Ghad (الغد meaning The Tomorrow) is a privately owned and the first independent Arabic daily national newspaper published in Jordan and headquartered in Amman.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
Al-Khazneh (الخزنة; "The Treasury"), is one of the most elaborate temples in the ancient Arab Nabatean Kingdom city of Petra.
Al-Maghtas (المغطس), meaning "baptism" or "immersion" in Arabic, is an archaeological World Heritage site in Jordan on the east bank of the Jordan River, officially known as Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan" (Al-Maghtas).
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Salt (السلط Al-Salt — pronounced Es-Sult or Es-Salt) is an ancient agricultural town and administrative centre in west-central Jordan.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Abdullah Saleh (ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947There is a dispute as to Saleh's date of birth, some saying that it was on 21 March 1942. See:. However, by Saleh's own confession, he was born in 1947. – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amman Civil Airport, commonly known as Marka International Airport, is located in Marka district, Greater Amman Municipality, Jordan, some 5 km north-east of Amman city center.
Amman Governorate, officially known as Muhafazat al-Asima (Arabic محافظة العاصمة, English translation: The Capital Governorate), is one of the governorates in Jordan.
Ammon (ʻAmmūn) was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.
Anabasis is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Aqaba Archaeological Museum (Arabic: متحف آثار العقبة) is the official archaeological museum of the city of Aqaba in Jordan.
Aqaba Church is a historic 3rd-century church located in Aqaba, Jordan.
Aqaba (العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located south of Amman, capital of Jordan.
Ar Ramtha, also known as Al-Ramtha (الرمثا), Romtha, Ramtha, Ramoth, or Ermeith is a city situated in the far northwest of Jordan.
The Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan was a short-lived country that was formed in 1958 from the union of Iraq and Jordan.
The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
The Arabian wolf (Canis lupus arabs) is a subspecies of gray wolf which lives on the Arabian peninsula.
Arabic Rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the Arab World.
Arabization of the Jordanian Army command (تعريب قيادة الجيش العربي, Ta'reeb Kiyadat Al-Jaysh Al-Arabi) refers to the dismissal of senior British officers commanding the Arab Legion by King Hussein and the subsequent renaming of the Legion into the Jordanian Armed Forces on 1 March 1956.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arak or araq (عرق, ערק) is a Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof, commonly 50% Alc. Vol./100 proof) in the anise drinks family.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aretas IV Philopatris (حارثة الرابع. Ḥāritat in Nabataean) was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to 40 AD.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Jordan are ethnic Armenians living within the current Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Artemisia is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae.
The national anthem of Jordan is known in Arabic as as-Salām al-Malakī al-ʾUrdunī (السلام الملكي الأردني) meaning The Royal Anthem of Jordan.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Attarat Power Plant is a planned oil shale-fueled power plant in the Attarat Um Ghudran area in Jordan.
ِAutostrad (أوتوستراد) is a Jordanian indie band from Amman, Jordan, formed in 2007.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Aziz Maraka (Arabic: عزيز مرقة; born 22 June 1983), is a Jordanian music composer, singer, performer, recording artist, and producer.
The Azraq Wetland Reserve is a nature reserve located near the town of Azraq in the eastern desert of Jordan.
Azraq (الأزرق meaning "the blue one") is a small town in Zarqa Governorate in central-eastern Jordan, east of Amman.
Baba ghanoush (bābā ghannūj, also appears as baba ganoush or baba ghanouj) is a Levantine or Syrian dish of mashed, cooked eggplant that is mixed with tahina (made from sesame seeds), olive oil, and various seasonings.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
Balqa' (البلقاء Al Balqā’) is one of the governorates of Jordan.
Beni Sakhr is the name of a large Bedouin tribe living in Jordan.
The baptism of Jesus is described in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
The Barbary falcon (Falco pelegrinoides) is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a crow.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of Aqaba (6 July 1917) was fought for the Red Sea port of Aqaba (now in Jordan).
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of Karameh (معركة الكرامة) was a 15-hour military engagement between the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and combined forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) in the Jordanian town of Karameh on 21 March 1968, during the War of Attrition.
The Battle of Mu'tah (معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beer in Jordan has existed since its first introduction in the region thousands of years ago in ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt; today the country has several companies producing beer.
Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
The Canadian passport (Passeport canadien) is the passport issued to citizens of Canada.
The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christians of Iraq are considered to be one of the oldest continuous Christian communities in the world.
Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, Christians having resided in Jordan after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ early in the 1st century AD.
Chronic poverty is a phenomenon whereby an individual or group is in a state of poverty over extended period of time.
The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitution of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was adopted on 11 January 1952 and has been amended many times.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The cubic foot (symbol ft3) is an imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, and partially in Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean cypress (also known as Italian cypress, Tuscan cypress, Persian cypress, or pencil pine), is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southern Albania, southern coastal Croatia (Dalmatia), southern Montenegro, southern Greece, southern Turkey, Cyprus, northern Egypt, western Syria, Lebanon, Malta, Italy, Israel, western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dana Biosphere Reserve is Jordan's largest nature reserve, located in south-central Jordan.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
The Umayyad Desert Castles, of which the Desert Castles of Jordan represent a prominent part, are fortified palaces or castles in what was the then Umayyad province of Bilad ash-Sham.
The desert monitor, Varanus griseus, is a species of monitor lizards of the order Squamata found living throughout North Africa and Central and South Asia.
Diana Karazon (ديانا كرزون) (born October 30, 1983 in Kuwait) is a Jordanian and of Palestinian origin and Syrian, singer of Arabic pop, television host, and actress.
The Disi Water Conveyance Project is a water supply project in Jordan.
Downtown Amman (البلد, al-Balad) is the old commercial area of Amman, Jordan.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
A dunam (دونم; dönüm), also known as a donum or dunum and as the old, Turkish, or Ottoman stremma, was the Ottoman unit of area equivalent to the Greek stremma or English acre, representing the amount of land that could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a day.
Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Jordan's GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, and rose 36% in the 1990s.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
The Second Egyptian–Ottoman War or Second Turko–Egyptian War lasted from 1839 until 1841 and was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes referred as the (Second) Syrian War.
El Morabba3 (المربّع meaning "The Square") is a Jordanian Arabic Rock band from Amman, Jordan, formed in 2009.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Ful medames (فول مدمس,; other spellings include ful mudammas and foule mudammes), or simply fūl, is a dish of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, garlic, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and other vegetable, herb and spice ingredients.
The Galilee earthquake of 363 was a pair of severe earthquakes that shook the Galilee and nearby regions on May 18 and 19.
General Directorate of Gendarmerie (GDG) or Darak forces (Arabic: المديرية العامة لقوات الدرك) is a public security agency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which lies under the jurisdiction of the country's Ministry of Interior.
German-Jordanian University (GJU) is a prestigious public university located near Madaba, Jordan.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") was an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.
Ghassulian refers to a culture and an archaeological stage dating to the Middle and Late Chalcolithic Period in the Southern Levant (c. 4400 – c. 3500 BC).
The glass lizards or glass snakes are a genus, Ophisaurus (from the Greek 'snake-lizard'), of reptiles that resemble snakes, but are actually lizards.
Global Arab Network (GAN) (in Arabic غلوبال اراب نتورك) is a comprehensive news and information service about the Arab world in English and Arabic, registered and based in London, UK.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
Jordan is divided into twelve governorates (muhafazah) by the administrative divisions system of the Ministry of Interior.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Green Line, or (pre-) 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Halva (halawa, alva, haleweh, halava, helava, helva, halwa, halua, aluva, chalva, chałwa) is any of various dense, sweet confections served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish diaspora.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
The Hashemite University (الجامعة الهاشمية), often abbreviated HU, is one of the Jordanian state-run universities.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Jordan has an advanced health care system, although services remain highly concentrated in Amman.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.
Hikma Pharmaceuticals is an international pharmaceutical company based in London, that manufactures branded and non-branded generic and in-licensed pharmaceutical products.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The honey badger (Mellivora capensis), also known as the ratel, is the only species in the mustelid subfamily Mellivorinae and its only genus Mellivora.
The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (also called hoodie) is a Eurasian bird species in the ''Corvus'' genus.
Hoopoes are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers.
The house crow (Corvus splendens), also known as the Indian, greynecked, Ceylon or Colombo crow, is a common bird of the crow family that is of Asian origin but now found in many parts of the world, where they arrived assisted by shipping.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
The Howeitat or Howaytat (الحويطات) are a large tribal confederation of Transjordan, an area in present-day Jordan, Palestinian territories and Saudi Arabia.
Hummus (or; حُمُّص, full Arabic name: hummus bi tahini حمص بالطحينة) is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1853/18544 June 1931) was a Hashemite Arab leader who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
Hussein bin Abdullah (حسين بن عبد الله, Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdullāh; born 28 June 1994) is the heir apparent of King Abdullah II of Jordan.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ikhwan raids on Transjordan were a series of plunders by the Ikhwan, irregular Arab tribesmen of Najd, on Transjordan between 1922 and 1924.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Index of Freedom in the World is an index of civil liberties published in late 2012 by Canada's Fraser Institute, Germany's Liberales Institut, and the U.S. Cato Institute.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Jordan include.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
An internationalized country code top-level domain is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
Interpellation is a formal request of a parliament to the respective government.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iraqis in Jordan are estimated to number between 200.000 and comprise approximately 4-5 per cent of the total population.
Irbid (إربد), known in ancient times as Arabella or Arbela, is the capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate.
Irbid or Irbed (إربد) is a governorate of Jordan, located north of Amman, the country's capital.
Iris chrysographes, commonly known as the black iris, is a plant species that belongs to the genus Iris.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel–Jordan peace treaty or in full "Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: Heskem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisra'el Le-Yarden; معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; Arabic transliteration: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah), sometimes referred to as Wadi Araba Treaty, was signed in 1994.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jabal Umm ad Dami, in historic Wadi Rum, is the highest mountain in Jordan.
JadaL (Controversy.) (جدل.) is a Jordanian Arabic Rock band and music project from Amman, Jordan, formed in 2003 by Composer/Music Producer/Guitarist Mahmoud Radaideh, which has held various members over the years.
The Jawa Dam is the remains of an ancient masonry gravity dam on Wadi Rajil at Jawa in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, north of Azraq.
Jerash (Arabic: جرش, Ancient Greek: Γέρασα) is the capital and the largest city of Jerash Governorate, Jordan, with a population of 50,745 as of 2015.
Jerash Festival for Culture and Arts, is an annually held event held in Jerash, Jordan.
Jerash Governorate (محافظة جرش) is one of 12 governorates in Jordan.
The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization that accredits more than 21,000 US health care organizations and programs.
The Special Operation Forces of the Jordanian Armed Forces serve as Jordan's premiere special forces unit.
Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) (Arabic هيئة الطاقة الذرية الأردنية) was established in place of the Jordan Nuclear Energy Commission.
Jordan Hospital is a medical center in Amman, Jordan, established in 1993 under royal patronage.
The Jordan national basketball team is the official basketball team of Jordan in international competitions and it is one of the top teams in Asia.
The Jordan national football team (المنتخب الأردني لكرة القدم), is the national team of Jordan and is controlled by the Jordan Football Association, the governing body for football in Jordan.
The Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts is a major contemporary art museum located in Amman, Jordan.
Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) is the state broadcaster of Jordan.
The Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is a 5MWth multipurpose research reactor located on the campus of Jordan University of Science and Technology in Ar Ramtha city in northern Jordan.
The Jordan Rift Valley (בִּקְעָת הַיַרְדֵּן Bik'at HaYarden, الغور Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr), also called the Syro-African Depression, is an elongated depression located in modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Palestine.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Jordan Trail is a long trail in Jordan.
The Jordan University of Science and Technology (جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا الأردنية Jami'at Al-Ulum wa Al-Tiknolojia Al-Urdunia), often abbreviated JUST, is a comprehensive, state-supported university located on the outskirts of Irbid, at Ar Ramtha in northern Jordan.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
The Jordan national women's football team (منتخب الأردن لكرة القدم للسيدات), is the national team of Jordan.
The United States–Jordan Free Trade Agreement, signed on 24 October 2000, was the first free trade agreement (FTA) the United States signed with an Arab country (and the fourth FTA overall behind Israel, Canada, and Mexico).
The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Jordanian Arabic is a continuum of mutually intelligible varieties of Levantine Arabic spoken by the population of the Kingdom of Jordan.
The Jordan Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة الأردنية), also referred to as the Arab Army (الجيش العربي), are the military forces of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
The Jordanian dinar (دينار; code: JOD; unofficially abbreviated as JD) has been the currency of Jordan since 1950.
Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank (in Arabic: قرار فك الارتباط), in which Jordan surrendered the claim to sovereignty over the West Bank, took place on 31 July 1988.
General elections were held in Jordan on 20 September 2016 to elect the 18th Lower House of Parliament.
The House of Representatives of Jordan is the elected lower house of the Jordanian parliament which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of Jordan.
The Senate of Jordan is the upper house of the Jordanian parliament which, along with the House of Representatives forms the legislature of Jordan.
Jordan's long history implies that wine was produced there in ancient times, as far back as Nabatean times.
Jund al-Urdunn (جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ, translation: "Military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad ash-Sham during the period of the Arab Caliphates.
Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary Islands.
Kanafah (كُنافة,, dialectal) is a traditional Palestinian dessert made with cheese pastry soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup.
Karak (الكرك) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located south-west of Amman, Jordan's capital.
The Karak revolt was an uprising against Ottoman authority in the Transjordanian town of Al-Karak, which erupted on 4 December 1910.
Al-Karameh (الكرامة), or simply Karameh, is a town in central Jordan, near the Allenby Bridge which spans the Jordan River.
A kaza (qaḍāʾ,, plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah,; kazâ) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states.
Khaled Mashal (خالد مشعل, Levantine Arabic:, born 28 May 1956) is a Palestinian political leader and the leader of the Islamic Palestinian organization Hamas since the Israeli assassination of Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi in 2004.
Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
The King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) is a Jordanian defence company.
King Hussein Cancer Center under expansion. The King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) (Arabic مركز الحسين للسرطان),,.
Aqaba Airport ❲also known as King Hussein Int'l Airport ❳ (مطارالملك الحسين الدولي) is an airport located in the vicinity of Industrial City (Aqaba International Industrial Estate – مدينة العقبة الصناعية الدولية), northern suburb of Aqaba in Jordan.
The King’s Highway was a trade route of vital importance in the ancient Near East, connecting Africa with Mesopotamia.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
The Kura rebellion was among the first uprisings against the British mandate and the authority of emir Abdullah in Transjordan.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The lappet-faced vulture or Nubian vulture (Torgos tracheliotos) is an Old World vulture belonging to the bird order Accipitriformes, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks.
Law enforcement in Jordan is the purview of the "Public Security Force" (includes approximately 50,000 persons), the Jordanian national police, which is subordinate to the Public Security Directorate of the Ministry of Interior.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) is a small falcon.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic Sign Language, also known as Syro-Palestinian Sign Language, is the deaf sign language of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
This list of Airport Service Quality Award winners is a representation of the world's airports, which have been recognised by the Airports Council International (ACI) to be leading in customer satisfaction and have thus received an Airport Service Quality Award (ASQ).
This is a list of Arab countries and territories by population, which is sorted by the 2015 mid-year normalized demographic projections.
The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state and monarch.
This article lists some but by no means all of the oldest known church buildings in the world.
This is a list of submissions to the 88th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.
Liwa, or Liwā’, is an Arabic term meaning ensign, or banner.
Lloyd's List is one of the world's oldest continuously running journals, having provided weekly shipping news in London as early as 1734.
The long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) is a species of hedgehog native to Central Asian countries and some countries of the Middle East.
Ma'an (معان) is a city in southern Jordan, southwest of the capital Amman.
Ma'an (معان) is one of the governorates of Jordan, it is located south of Amman, Jordan's capital.
The Ma'in Hot Springs (حمامات معين., hammamat ma'in) are a series of hot mineral springs and waterfalls located between Madaba and the Dead Sea in Madaba Governorate, Jordan.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from Makhaira (a sword); ِقلعة مكاور Qal'atu Mkawer) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river on the eastern side of the Dead Sea.
Madaba (مادبا; Biblical Hebrew: Meidvah) is the capital city of Madaba Governorate in central Jordan, with a population of about 60,000.
Madaba (Arabic مادبا) is one of the governorates of Jordan.
The Madrid Conference of 1991 was a peace conference, held from 30 October to 1 November 1991 in Madrid, hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union.
Mafraq (المفرق Al-Mafraq, local dialects: Mafrag or Mafra', "crossroads") is the capital city of Mafraq Governorate in Jordan, located 80 km to the north from the capital Amman in crossroad to Syria to the north and Iraq to the east.
Mafraq (Arabic محافظة المفرق Al-Mafraq, local dialects Mafrag or Mafra') is one of the governorates of Jordan, located to the north-east of Amman, capital of Jordan.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Make Life Skate Life is non-profit organization that works to create community-built skateparks around the world.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Mansaf (منسف) is a traditional Arab dish made of lamb cooked in a sauce of fermented dried yogurt and served with rice or bulgur.
Marsa Zayed is a $10 billion redevelopment project in Aqaba, Jordan.
Martyrs' Memorial is a memorial and museum in Amman, Jordan.
Marwan al-Muasher (مروان المعشر) (born 1956) is a Jordanian diplomat and politician who was Jordan's foreign minister from 2002 to 2004 and its deputy prime minister during 2004 and 2005.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was a series of letters exchanged during World War I in which the British government agreed to recognize Arab independence after the war in exchange for the Sharif of Mecca launching the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
King Mesha of Moab (Hebrew: מֵישַׁע; Moabite: 𐤌𐤔𐤏 — Mēša‘) was a king of Moab in the 9th century BC, known most famously for having the Mesha Stele inscribed and erected at Dibon.
The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).
Meze or mezze (also spelled mazzeh or mazze; maze; meze; məzə; mezés; мезe / meze; мезе; мезе; muqabbilāt; Meze; мезе) is a selection of small dishes served to accompany alcoholic drinks in the Near East, the Balkans, and parts of Central Asia.
The Ministry of Interior of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: وزارة الداخلية) is part of the Cabinet of Jordan.
Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Montreal is a Crusader castle on the eastern side of the Arabah, perched on the side of a rocky, conical mountain, looking out over fruit trees below.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Mount Nebo (جبل نيبو Jabal Nībū; הַר נְבוֹ Har Nevo) is an elevated ridge in Jordan, approximately above sea level, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the place where Moses was granted a view of the Promised Land.
Muadh ibn Jabal (مُعاذ ابن جبل; 603 – 639) was a Sahaba (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
A (محافظات) is a first-level administrative division of many Arab countries, and a second-level administrative division in Saudi Arabia.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
The nahias (ناحية, plural nawahi) are the administrative centres ("chief towns") in Jordan.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
There are at least seven nature reserves in Jordan.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) is a desert-dwelling goat species found in mountainous areas of Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Omar Al-Abdillat (عمر العبدلات; transliterated: `Umar al-`Abdallāt) is a Jordanian singer-songwriter credited with popularizing Bedouin music.
Omar Razzaz (عمر الرزاز; born 1 January 1961) is the current Prime Minister of Jordan.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
The Lordship of Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (Old French for "beyond the Jordan", also called Lordship of Montreal) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan River, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Jordan: Jordan – country located in Southwest Asia, bordering Syria to the north, Iraq to the north-east, Israel and the Palestinian territories to the west, and Saudi Arabia to the east and south.
Ouzo (ούζο) is a dry anise-flavoured aperitif that is widely consumed in Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon and Israel.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestine sunbird (Cinnyris osea) is a small passerine bird of the sunbird family which is found in parts of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون) are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Papyrus Anastasi I (officially designated papyrus British Museum 10247) is an ancient Egyptian papyrus containing a satirical text used for the training of scribes during the Ramesside Period (i.e. Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties).
The Parliament of Jordan (مجلس الأمة) is the bicameral Jordanian national assembly.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pastis is an anise-flavoured spirit and apéritif from France, typically containing less than 100 g/l sugar and 40–45% ABV (alcohol by volume).
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies in Palestine.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The pharaoh eagle-owl (Bubo ascalaphus) is a species of owl in the family Strigidae.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada and a gherkin in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
The politics of Jordan takes place in a framework of a parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Jordan is head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Port of Aqaba is the only port in Jordan, and is owned and operated by the Aqaba Port Corporation.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Jordan is the head of government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
The Private Hospitals Association (PHA) is a private, voluntary, non-profit organization that was established in 1984, representing the private hospitals in Jordan.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Jordan Public Security Directorate, or PSD (Arabic: مديرية الأمن العام) is a public security agency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which lies under the jurisdiction of the country's Ministry of Interior.
Qasim Pasha al-Ahmad (died 1834) was the chief of the Jamma'in subdistrict of Jabal Nablus during the Ottoman and Egyptian periods in Palestine in the mid-19th century.
Qasr al Hallabat is a town in the Zarqa Governorate of north-western Jordan, north-east of the capital of Amman.
Qasr Mshatta (قصر المشتى, "Winter Palace") is the ruin of an Umayyad winter palace, probably commissioned by Caliph Al-Walid II during his brief reign (743-744).
Qasr al-Azraq (قصر الأزرق, "Blue Fortress") is a large fortress located in present-day eastern Jordan.
Qatayef or Katayef (قطايف) is a Levantine dessert commonly served during the month of Ramadan, a sort of sweet dumpling filled with cream or nuts.
Queen Alia International Airport (مطار الملكة علياء الدولي; transliterated: Matar Al-Malikah Alia Ad-Dowali) is Jordan's main and largest airport and is located in Zizya south of the capital city, Amman.
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.
Quweira Solar Power Plant is a 103 MW photovoltaic power station in Quweira, Jordan.
Raki or rakı is an unsweetened, occasionally (depending on area of production) anise-flavored, alcoholic drink that is popular in Albania and Greece (where it is distinctly different and comes as an unflavoured distillate, unlike its Turkish counterpart), Iran, Turkic countries, and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Red Sea–Dead Sea Conveyance, sometimes called the Two Seas Canal, is a planned pipeline that runs from the coastal city of Aqaba by the Red Sea to the Lisan area in the Dead Sea.
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Ro'ya TV is a private Jordanian TV, was launched on January 1, 2011.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Automobile Museum (Arabic: متحف السيارات الملكي) is an automobile museum in Amman, Jordan.
Royal Jordanian Airlines (الملكيَّة الأردنيَّة; transliterated: Al-Malakiyyah al-'Urduniyyah) is the flag carrier airline of Jordan with its head office in Amman, Jordan, operating scheduled international services over four continents from its main base at Queen Alia International Airport.
The Royal Jordanian Army (Arabic: القوّات البرية الاردنيّة, "Jordanian Ground Forces") is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF).
The Royal Society for The Conservation of Nature (RSCN) is an independent voluntary organization that is devoted to the conservation of Jordan's natural resources; it was established in 1966 with the late King Hussein as Honorary President.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Ruwaished is a town in the far east of Jordan.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salvia dominica (Dominica sage, in Arabic (Maru.
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
Sarcopoterium is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Shams Ma'an Power Plant is a 52.5 MW photovoltaic power station in Ma'an, Jordan.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Shaumari Wildlife Reserve is a Jordanian nature reserve near the town of Azraq, approximately east of Amman.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Shoubak revolt was an uprising against Ottoman authority in the Transjordanian town of Shoubak in 1905.
Siege of Al-Karak was a 17-day siege imposed by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt on the Transjordanian town of Al-Karak in 1834.
The Siege of Jerusalem was a military campaign carried out by Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon in 597 BC.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Sinai rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus) is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a type of nuclear fission reactor which are smaller than conventional reactors, and manufactured at a plant and brought to a site to be fully constructed.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The Special Operations Forces Exhibition and Conference (SOFEX) is a special operations and homeland security event that is held every two years at the King Abdullah I airbase in Marka, Jordan.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone.
Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yoghurt, labaneh or suzma yogurt (Greek: στραγγιστό γιαούρτι, لبنة labnah, süzme yoğurt), is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than unstrained yogurt, while preserving yogurt's distinctive sour taste.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Vilayet of Syria (Vilâyet-i Suriye), also known as Vilayet of Damascus,.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Tabbouleh (تبولة taboūleh; also tabouleh, tabbouli, tabouli, or taboulah) is a Levantine vegetarian salad made of mostly finely chopped parsley with tomatoes, mint, onion, bulgur (cracked wheat), and seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
Tafila Wind Farm is 117 MW wind farm located in Tafilah Governorate, Jordan.
At-Tafilah (الطفيلة), also spelled Tafila, is a town with a population of 27559 people in southern Jordan, located southwest of Amman.
Tafilah (الطفيلة) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located about 180 km south-west of Amman, Jordan's capital.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tahini (also tahina; طحينة), also known as Ardeh (Persian: ارده), is a condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame seeds.
Talal bin Abdullah (طلال بن عبد الله,; 26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972) was King of Jordan from the assassination of his father, King Abdullah I, on 20 July 1951, until he was forced to abdicate by Parliament on 11 August 1952.
The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tawjihi or al-Tawjihi (امتحان شهادة الدراسة الثانوية العامة) is the General Secondary Education Certificate Examination in Jordan.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Children's Museum Jordan (Arabic: متحف الاطفال الاردن) is a children's museum in Amman, Jordan.
The Jordan Museum is located in Ras Al-Ein district of Amman, Jordan.
The Jordan Times is an English-language daily newspaper based in Amman, Jordan.
Theeb (ذيب,, "wolf") is a 2014 Jordanian Arabic-language drama thriller film written and directed by Naji Abu Nowar.
Toni Qattan, (طوني قطان) is a Jordanian/Palestinian singer, hails from the town of Beit Jala, he was born on August 11, 1985 in Jerusalem A musical prodigy, at the age of eight he began learning to play guitar in addition to piano.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
The Transjordan memorandum was a British memorandum passed by the Council of the League of Nations on 16 September 1922.
Transjordan, the East Bank, or the Transjordanian Highlands (شرق الأردن), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River, mostly contained in present-day Jordan.
The Trans-Jordan Frontier Force was formed on 1 April 1926, to replace the disbanded British Gendarmerie.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty of London was signed between the United Kingdom and Transjordan on 22 March 1946 and came into force on 17 June 1946.
Tristram's starling or Tristram's grackle (Onychognathus tristramii) is a species of starling native to Israel, Jordan, northeastern Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), western Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman, nesting mainly on rocky cliff faces.
The two-state solution refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which calls for "two states for two groups of people." The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm ar-Rasas (أم الرّصاص) (Kastrom Mefa'a, Kastron Mefa'a) is located 30 km southeast of Madaba, which is the capital city of the Madaba Governorate in central Jordan.
Umm Qais or Qays (أم قيس, "Mother of Qais") is a town in northern Jordan principally known for its proximity to the ruins of the ancient Gadara, also a former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Jordan (الجامعة الأردنية), often abbreviated UJ, is a state-supported university located in Amman, Jordan.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
The Via Traiana Nova (previously known as the Via Regia) was an ancient Roman road built by the emperor Trajan in the province of Arabia Petraea, from Aqaba on the Red Sea to Bostra.
Wadi Feynan or Wadi Faynan is a major wadi (seasonal river valley) and region in southern Jordan, on the border between Tafilah Governorate and Aqaba and Ma'an Governorates.
Wadi Mujib, which is "almost certainly" known in the Hebrew Bible as River Arnon, is a river in Jordan which enters the Dead Sea c below sea level.
The Wahhabi War was fought from early 1811 to 1818, between Egypt Eyalet under the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (nominally under Ottoman rule) and the army of the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State, resulting in the destruction of the latter.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
Water supply and sanitation in Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity, which has been exacerbated by forced immigration as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Six-Day War in 1967, the Gulf War of 1990, the Iraq War of 2003 and the Syrian Civil War since 2011.
The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The white-spectacled bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos) is a member of the bulbul family.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Yarmuk River (نهر اليرموك,, or شريعة المناذرة,; נהר הירמוך,; Hieromices), sometimes spelled Yarmouk, is the largest tributary of the Jordan River.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zade Dirani (Arabic: زيد ديراني, born in 1980), is a Jordanian pianist and composer whose genre blending songs are inspired by Arabic, Latin, pop, and classical music.
Az-Zarqā (الزرقاء; English: The Blue City BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā, ez-Zer'a, or ez-Zarka) is the capital of Zarqa Governorate in Jordan.
Zarqa Governorate (Arabic محافظة الزرقاء Muħāfazat az-Zarqāʔ, local dialects ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is the third largest governorate in Jordan by population.
Zayd ibn Harithah (زيد بن حارثة) (c. 581 – 629 CE) was a companion of Muhammad who was at one stage regarded as his (adoptive) son.
.jo is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Jordan.
The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy which had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1974 Arab League summit was a meeting of Arab leaders held in Rabat, Morocco in 1974.
The 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotel lobbies in Amman, Jordan, on 9 November 2005.
The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.
The Jordanian protests was a series of protests in Jordan that began on January 2011, and resulted in the firing of the cabinet ministers of the government.
For the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification, there were two scheduled inter-confederation play-offs to determine the final two qualification spots to the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
The 2016 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup was the fifth edition of the FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup, the biennial international women's youth football championship contested by the under-17 national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
The 2018 Jordanian protests started as a general strike organized by more than 30 trade unions on 30 May 2018 after the government of Hani Mulki submitted a new tax law to Parliament.
The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 34° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 34th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 40° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 7Hills Skatepark is a 650 sq.
Al-'Urdun, Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah, Al-Mamlakah al, Al-Urdun, Al-Urdunn, Etymology of Jordan, H.K of Jordan, HKJ, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan, ISO 3166-1:JO, JOrdan, Jordan (country), Jordanian Kingdom, Jordanie, Kingdom of Jordan, Kingdom of the Jordan, Languages of Jordan, Name of Jordan, Natural resources of Jordan, Ottoman Jordon, State of Jordan, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Urdan, Urdun, Urdunn, أردنّ, الأردن, المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة.