271 relations: Absolute monarchy, Agriculture, Amin (Qing dynasty), An Jung-geun, Aristocracy (class), Ōei Invasion, Baekjeong, Battle of Port Arthur, Birmingham Museum of Art, Blue and white pottery, Brocade, Buddhism, Bulletproof vest, Bureaucrat, Catholic Persecution of 1801, Celadon, Ceramic art, Chang of Goryeo, Cheonmin, China, Chinese culture, Chinese era name, Choe Yeong, Chongzhen Emperor, Christianity in Korea, Chungin, Cobalt, Columbia University Press, Confucianism, Cotton, Coup d'état, Culture of Korea, Daegu, Daimyō, Danjong of Joseon, Donghak Peasant Revolution, Dongui Bogam, East Rock Institute, Easterners (Korean political faction), Eight Provinces of Korea, Empire of Japan, Empress Myeongseong, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Korean Culture, Epigraphy, Fire arrow, First Sino-Japanese War, French campaign against Korea, Gabo Reform, Ganghwa Island, ..., Gangnido, General Sherman incident, Gim Yuk, Ginseng, Goguryeo, Gojong of Korea, Gojoseon, Gongyang of Goryeo, Goryeo, Gwageo, Gwanghaegun of Joseon, Gwangju, Gyeonggi, Gwangmu Reform, Gyeongbokgung, Gyeongguk daejeon, Gyeongjong of Joseon, Hall of Worthies, Han Yu, Hanbok, Hangul, Hanja, Harbin, Hegemony, Hell Joseon, Heo Jun, Hermit kingdom, Heungseon Daewongun, History of Korea, History of Korean, Honam, Honcheonsigye, Hong Taiji, Hunminjeongeum, Hwacha, Hwang Hui, Hyangyak, Hyeonjong of Joseon, Hyojong of Joseon, Ilseongnok, Imo Incident, Imperial Chinese Tributary System, Injo of Joseon, Isolationism, Itō Hirobumi, Jang Yeong-sil, Japan, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Japanese Resident-General of Korea, Jeon Bongjun, Jeong Cheol, Jeong Dojeon, Jeong Mong-ju, Jeongeup, Jeongjo of Joseon, Jeongjong of Joseon, Jeonju, Jianzhou Jurchens, Jingdezhen porcelain, Jo Gwangjo, Joseon Dynasty politics, Joseon white porcelain, Jungjong of Joseon, Jurchen people, Jwauijeong, Kaesong, Kim Hong-jip, Kim Jo-sun, Kim Jong-seo (general), Korea, Korea under Japanese rule, Korean Buddhism, Korean Confucianism, Korean dialects, Korean Empire, Korean garden, Korean independence movement, Korean language, Korean literati purges, Korean mun, Korean Peninsula, Korean shamanism, Korean tea ceremony, Korean yang, Koreans, Later Jin invasion of Joseon, Liaodong Peninsula, Lieutenant general, List of Joseon monarchs, List of monarchs of Korea, Literature, Magoja, Manchu people, Manchuria, Meiji Restoration, Memory of the World Programme, Ming dynasty, Miura Gorō, Mongol Empire, Moscow State University, Mozi, Munjong of Joseon, Myeongjong of Joseon, Myeonje baegab, Names of Seoul, Nate (web portal), National Treasure (South Korea), Natural science, Neo-Confucianism, Nobi, Noron (Korean political faction), North Korea, Northerners (Korean political faction), Nurhaci, Ouyang Xiu, Piracy, Podocheong, Porcelain, Port Hamilton incident, Portuguese Empire, Prince, Princess Deokhye, Princess Gyeonghye, Protectorate, Protocol (diplomacy), Pyŏlgigun, Pyongyang, Qing dynasty, Qing invasion of Joseon, Queen Jeongsun, Queen Yun, Rain gauge, Ramie, Realism (arts), Russian Empire, Russo-Japanese War, Ryu Seong-ryong, Sangmin, Sarim (Korean political faction), Secret royal inspector, Sejo of Joseon, Sejong the Great, Seongjong of Joseon, Seonjo of Joseon, Seoul, Serfdom, Seven Grievances, Sight glass, Silhak, Silk, Singijeon, Six martyred ministers, Six Ministries of Joseon, Slavery in Korea, Smithsonian Institution, Soron (Korean political faction), South Korea, South Pyongan Province, Southerners (Korean political faction), State Council of Joseon, State religion, Sukjong of Joseon, Sumptuary law, Sungkyunkwan, Sunjo of Joseon, Sunjong of Korea, Taejo of Joseon, Taejong of Joseon, The Dong-a Ilbo, The New York Times, Three offices of Joseon, Tosan County, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Traditional Asian medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Korean medicine, Treaty of Gyehae, Treaty of Portsmouth, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Tsushima Island, Tumen River, Turtle ship, U of Goryeo, Uigwe, Underglaze, UNESCO, United States expedition to Korea, University of California Press, Untouchability, Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty, Viscount, Water clock, Western world, Westerners (Korean political faction), Wihwado Retreat, Wokou, Wonju, Yalu River, Yang Zhu, Yangban, Yejong of Joseon, Yeonggam, Yeongjo of Joseon, Yeonguijeong, Yeonsangun of Joseon, Yi Cheong, Yi Geon, Yi Gu, Yi Gwal, Yi Hae-won, Yi Hong, Yi Jeong, Yi Kang, Yi Seok, Yi Sun-sin, Yi U, Yi Un, Yi Won, 1589 rebellion of Jeong Yeo-rip. Expand index (221 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Amin (Manchu:;, 1585- Dec. 28, 1640) was a Manchu noble and an important military and political leader in the early years of the Qing dynasty.
An Jung-geun (September 2, 1879 – March 26, 1910; Baptismal name: Thomas) was a Korean-independence activist, nationalist, and pan-Asianist.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
The, known as the Gihae Eastern Expedition (기해 동정) in Korea, was a 1419 invasion from Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, which is located in the middle of the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu.
The Baekjeong (Korean: 백정) were an "''untouchable''” minority group of Korea.
The of Monday 8 February – Tuesday 9 February 1904 marked the commencement of the Russo-Japanese War.
Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art in Birmingham, Alabama, today has one of the finest collections in the Southeastern United States, with more than 24,000 paintings, sculptures, prints, drawings, and decorative arts representing a numerous diverse cultures, including Asian, European, American, African, Pre-Columbian, and Native American.
"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide.
Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks and with or without gold and silver threads.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government.
The Catholic Persecution of 1801, also known as the Sinyu Persecution (신유박해, 辛酉迫害), was a mass persecution of Korean Catholics ordered by Queen Jeongsun during King Sunjo of Joseon's reign.
Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use) and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
King Chang of Goryeo (6 September 1381 – 31 December 1389, r. 1388–1389) was the 33rd and youngest ruler of the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea.
Cheonmin, or "vulgar commoners," were the lowest caste of commoners in dynastical Korea.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Choi Young (1316–1388), also romanized as Choe Yeong, was a Korean general born in Hongseong or Cheorwon during the Goryeo period.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
The practice of Christianity in Korea revolves around two of its largest branches, Protestantism and Catholicism, accounting for 8.6 millionAccording to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office.
The chungin also jungin, were the upper middle class of the Joseon Dynasty in medieval and early modern Korean society.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The traditional culture of Korea refers to the shared cultural heritage of the Korean Peninsula.
Daegu (대구, 大邱, literally 'large hill') formerly spelled Taegu and officially known as the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the nation with over 2.5 million residents.
The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
Danjong of Joseon (9 August 1441 – 24 December 1457, reigned 1452–1455) was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty.
The is a joke: only redlinks ! The Donghak Peasant Revolution, also known as the Donghak Peasant Movement, Donghak Rebellion, Peasant Revolt of 1894, Gabo Peasant Revolution, and a variety of other names, was an armed rebellion in Korea led by aggravated peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a panentheistic snobism (in any case: not in the lead) religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.
The Dongui Bogam (동의보감) is a Korean book compiled by the royal physician, Heo Jun (1539 – 1615) and was first published in 1613 during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
East Rock Institute (ERI) is an American nonprofit research and educational organization dedicated to "the enhancement and deepening of cultural understanding between Eastern and Western societies." It was founded by Dr.
The Easterners (Korean: Dongin, Hangul: 동인, Hanja: 東人, literally East people) were a political faction of the Joseon dynasty.
During most of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea was divided into eight provinces (do; 도; 道).
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empress Myeongseong or Empress Myung-Sung (19 October 1851 – 8 October 1895), known informally as Queen Min, was the first official wife of Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of Joseon and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Korean Culture is a Korean language encyclopedia published by the Academy of Korean Studies and DongBang Media Co.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of several French Catholic missionaries.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
Ganghwa Island, also known by its native name Ganghwado, is a South Korean island in the estuary of the Han River.
The Honil Gangni Yeokdae Gukdo Ji Do ("Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and Capitals."Kenneth R. Robinson in Imago Mundi, Vol. 59 No. 2 (June 2007) pp. 177-192, via Ingenta Connect.), often abbreviated as Kangnido, is a world map created in Korea, produced by Yi Hoe and Kwon Kun in 1402.
The General Sherman incident (Korean: 제너럴셔먼호 사건) was the destruction of an American armed merchant marine side-wheel steamer that visited Korea in 1866.
Gim Yuk (Hangul: 김육; Hanja: 金堉; 1570 – September 1658) was a Korean Neo-Confucian scholar, politician and writer of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty and the first Emperor of Korea.
Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient Korean kingdom.
King Gongyang of Goryeo (9 March 1345 – 17 May 1394, r. 1389 – 1392) was the 34th and final ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The gwageo or kwago were the national civil service examinations under the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea.
Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae (3 June 1575 – 7 August 1641; reigned 1608–1623) was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty.
Gwangju is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, a suburb southeast of Seoul.
The Gwangmu Reform (광무개혁,光武改革, Gwangmu Gaehyeok) was a chain of events that was aimed at modernizing and westernizing the Korean Empire as a late starter in the industrial revolution.
Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, was the main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.
Gyeongguk daejeon is a complete code of law that comprises every law, acts, customs, ordinances released since the late Goryeo Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty.
Gyeongjong of Joseon (20 November 1688 – 11 October 1724, reigned 1720–1724) was the 20th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
The Hall of Worthies, or Jiphyeonjeon, was a royal research institute set up by Sejong the Great of the Korean Joseon Dynasty in March 1420.
Han Yu (76825 December 824) was a Chinese writer, poet, and government official of the Tang dynasty who significantly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism.
Hanbok (South Korea) or Joseon-ot (North Korea) is the representative example of traditional Korean dress.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hell Joseon or Hell Chosun (헬조선) is a new internet phrase and meme of South Korea that was popularized in the 2010s.
Heo Jun (허준, 1537?/1539 – 9 October 1615) was a court physician of the Yangcheon Heo clan during the reign of King Seonjo of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea.
The term hermit kingdom can be used to refer to any country, organization or society which willfully walls itself off, either metaphorically or physically, from the rest of the world - The country of North Korea is a prime example of a hermit kingdom.
Heungseon Daewongun (흥선대원군, 興宣大院君, 21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898), also known as the Daewongun (대원군, 大院君), Guktaegong (국태공, 國太公, "The Great Archduke") or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewonwang (흥선헌의대원왕, 興宣獻懿大院王) and also known to contemporary western diplomats as Prince Gung, was the title of Yi Ha-eung, regent of Joseon during the minority of Emperor Gojong in the 1860s and until his death a key political figure of late Joseon Korea.
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago.
The Korean language is attested from the early centuries of the Common Era in Chinese characters.
Honam (literally "south of the lake") is a region coinciding with the former Jeolla Province in what is now South Korea.
The Honcheonsigye is an astronomical clock created by Song I-yeong in 1669.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Hunminjeongeum (lit. The Correct/Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People) is a document describing an entirely new and native script for the Korean language.
A hwacha or hwach'a (화차; 火車) (fire cart) was a multiple rocket launcher developed by Korea based on ancient Han Chinese technological innovations, and first deployed in the defence of the Korean peninsula against Japanese invasions in the 1590s.
Hwang Hui (8 March 1363 – 28 February 1452) was a politician of the Goryeo dynasty and Joseon Dynasty, who once served as prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty from 1431 to 1449.
In the history of Korea Hyangyak was a contractual arrangement that allowed for a degree of local government.
Hyeonjong of Joseon (14 March 1641 – 17 September 1674) was the 18th monarch of the Korean Joseon Dynasty, reigning from 1659 to 1675.
Hyojong of Joseon (3 July 1619 – 23 June 1659) was the seventeenth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1649 to 1659.
Ilseongnok or Diary of Self-examination is a daily record of events at court made in order that the monarch might reflect upon them, ostensibly towards better government.
The Imo Incident, also sometimes known as the Imo Mutiny, Soldier's riot or Jingo-jihen in Japan, was a violent uprising and riot in Seoul beginning on July 23, 1882, by soldiers of the Korean army who were later joined by disaffected members of the wider Korean population.
The Imperial Chinese Tributary System is a term created by John King Fairbank to describe "a set of ideas and practices developed and perpetuated by the rulers of China over many centuries".
Injo of Joseon (7 December 1595 – 17 June 1649, r. 1623–1649) was the sixteenth king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea.
Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance.
Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.
Jang Yeong-sil (c. 1390 – after 1442) was a Korean engineer, scientist and inventor during the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910.
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
When Korea was a protectorate of the Empire of Japan, Japan was represented by the Resident-General.
Jeon Bong-jun (1854 - 1895) was born in Taein, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.
Jeong Cheol (정철, 1536–1593) was a Korean statesman and poet.
Jeong Dojeon (Korean: 정도전, Hanja: 鄭道傳, 1342 – October 6, 1398), also known by his pen name Sambong (Korean: 삼봉), was a prominent Korean scholar-official during the late Goryeo to the early Joseon periods.
Jeong Mong-ju or Jung Mong-joo (Korean: 정몽주, Hanja: 鄭夢周, January 13, 1338 – April 26, 1392), also known by his pen name Poeun (Korean: 포은), was a prominent Korean scholar-official and diplomat during the late Goryeo period.
Jeongeup, also known as Jeongeup-si, is a city in North Jeolla Province, South Korea.
Jeongjo of Joseon (28 October 1752 – 18 August 1800) was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (r. 1776-1800).
Jeongjong of Joseon (18 July 1357 – 15 October 1419), born Yi Bang-gwa, whose changed name is Yi Gyeong, was the second king of Joseon (or Chosun) Dynasty (1399–1400).
Jeonju is the 16th largest city in South Korea and the capital of North Jeolla Province.
The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty.
Jingdezhen porcelain is Chinese porcelain produced in or near Jingdezhen in southern China.
Jo Gwangjo (23 August 1482 – 10 January 1520), also often called by his pen name Jeong-am, was Korean Neo-Confucian scholar who pursued radical reforms during the reign of Jungjong of Joseon in the early 16th century.
The politics of the Joseon Dynasty, which ruled Korea from 1392 to 1897, were governed by the reigning ideology of Korean Confucianism, a form of Neo-Confucianism.
Joseon white porcelain or Joseon baekja refers to the white porcelains produced during the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910).
Jungjong of Joseon (16 April 1488 – 29 November 1544, r. 1506–1544), born Yi Yeok or Lee Yeok, ruled during the 16th century in what is now Korea.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Jwauijeong was the Second State Councillor of the Uijeongbu (State Council), subordinate in rank only to the Yeonguijeong, during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1392 -1910).
Kaesong or Gaeseong is a city in North Hwanghae Province in the southern part of North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty.
Kim Hong-jip (1842–1896) was a Korean politician best known for his role as prime minister during the Gabo Reform period from 1895-1896.
Kim Jo-Sun (김 조순, born June 13, 1975) is a female South Korean archer and Olympic champion.
General Kim Jongseo, (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞) (1383 – 10 November 1453) a prominent general, was sent by King Sejong the Great, north to destroy the Manchu in 1433.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism.
Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula.
The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.
Korean gardens are natural, informal, simple and unforced, seeking to merge with the natural world.
The Korean independence movement was a military and diplomatic campaign to achieve the independence of Korea from Japan.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The term "Literati purges" is a translation of Korean term 'sahwa' (사화 士禍) by Edward W. Wagner, Harvard professor of Korean history.
The mun was introduced as the main currency of Korea in 1633 and stayed in use until 1892.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
Korean shamanism, also known as Shinism (Hangul 신교, Hanja 神敎; Shingyo or Shinkyo, "religion of the spirits/gods"), or Shindo (Hangul: 신도; Hanja: 神道, "way of the spirits/gods"), is the collective term for the ethnic religions of Korea which date back to prehistory, and consist in the worship of gods (신 shin) and ancestors (조상 josang).
The Korean tea ceremony or darye (茶禮) is a traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea.
The yang (양/兩) was the currency of Korea between 1892 and 1902.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
The Later Jin invasion of Joseon occurred in early 1627 when the Later Jin prince Amin lead an invasion of Korea's Joseon kingdom.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Joseon Dynasty ruled Korea, succeeding the 400-year-old Goryeo Dynasty in 1392 through the Japanese annexation in 1910.
This is a list of monarchs of Korea, arranged by dynasty.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The magoja is a type of long jacket worn with hanbok, the traditional clothing of Korea, and is usually worn on top of the jeogori (short jacket).
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Viscount was a lieutenant general in the early Imperial Japanese Army.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
Munjong of Joseon (15 November 1414 – 1 June 1452) was the fifth King of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1450 to 1452.
Myeongjong of Joseon (3 July 1534 – 3 August 1567, r. 1545–1567) was the 13th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Myeonje baegab (면제배갑, 綿製背甲) was a soft bulletproof vest invented in 1867 in the Joseon dynasty.
Seoul has been known in the past by the successive names Wiryeseong (위례성; 慰禮城, Baekje era), Namgyeong (남경; 南京, Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성; 漢城, Joseon era) or Hanyang (한양; 漢陽).
Nate is a South Korean web portal, developed by SK Communications.
A National Treasure is a tangible treasure, artifact, site, or building which is recognized by the South Korean government as having exceptional artistic, cultural and historical value to the country.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Nobi were members of the slave class during the Korean dynasties of Goryeo and Joseon.
The Noron were a political faction of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northerners (literally North people) were a political faction of the Joseon Dynasty.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Ouyang Xiu (1 August 1007 – 22 September 1072), courtesy name Yongshu, also known by his art names Zuiweng ("Old Drunkard") and Liu Yi Jushi ("Retiree Six-One"), was a Chinese scholar-official, essayist, historian, poet, calligrapher, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Podocheong (포도청; Hanja: 捕盜廳), literally Agency for Thieves Arresting, is a government body that was responsible for the arrest and punishment of criminals during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
The Geomun Island Incident or the Port Hamilton Incident was the occupation of the Geomundo (also Komundo or Port Hamilton) by the Royal Navy from 15 April 1885 to 27 February 1887.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 191221 April 1989) was the last princess of the Korean Empire.
Princess Gyeonghye (1435–1473), also known as Princess Pyeongchang before her marriage, was a Joseon princess and the eldest child of Munjong of Joseon.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state.
The Pyŏlgigun or Byeolgigun (Korean: 별기군, "Special Skills Force" or "Special Army") was the first modernised military force of Korea.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing invasion of Joseon occurred in the winter of 1636 when the newly established Manchu Qing dynasty invaded Korea's Joseon kingdom, establishing its status as the center of the Imperial Chinese tributary system and formally severing Joseon's relationship with the Ming dynasty.
Queen Jeongsun or Queen Jung-Soon (정순왕후 김씨, 2 December 1745 – 11 February 1805) also known as Queen Dowager Yesun (예순왕대비) was a Queen consort of Korea as married to King Yeongjo (1724–1776), and the regent of Korea from 1800 to 1805 as the guardian of her minor step great-grandson, Sunjo of Joseon (1790–1834, reigned 1800–1834).
Queen Lady Yun (Korea:폐비윤씨, hanja: 廢妃 尹氏, 15 July 1445 – 29 August 1482), was a Queen consort of Joseon Korea by marriage to King Seongjong.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
Ramie is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Ryu Seong-ryong (November 1542 – May 1607), was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
The sangmin were the common people of Joseon Korea.
The Sarim (sometimes Saarim), or "forest of scholars," was a powerful faction of literati that dominated Middle and Late Joseon politics in Korea.
Secret royal agent, or Amhaeng-eosa (암행어사, 暗行御史, Ombudsman) was a temporary position unique to Joseon Dynasty, in which an undercover official directly appointed by the king was sent to local provinces to monitor government officials and look after the populace while traveling incognito.
Sejo of Joseon (korean:조선 세조, 2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468, r. 1455–1468) was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Sejong the Great (7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
Seongjong of Joseon (August 20, 1457 – January 20, 1494) was the ninth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Seonjo of Joseon (26 November 1552 – 16 March 1608) ruled Korea from 1567 to 1608.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Seven Grievances (Manchu: nadan koro) was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci on the Thirteenth day of the Fourth lunar month in the Third year of Tianming era (7 May 1618).
A sight glass or water gauge is a type of level sensor, a transparent tube through which the operator of a tank or boiler can observe the level of liquid contained within.
Silhak was a Korean Confucian social reform movement in late Joseon Dynasty.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Singijeon or shinkichon (magical machine arrows) was a type of Korean (Joseon) fire arrow rocket, used during the era of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1897).
The six martyred ministers or Sayuksin were six ministers of the Joseon Dynasty who were executed by King Sejo in 1456 for plotting to assassinate him and restore the former king Danjong to the throne.
The Six Ministries of Joseon were the major executive bodies of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Slavery in Korea existed since antiquity.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Soron were a political faction of the Joseon Dynasty.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Pyongan Province (Phyŏngannamdo) is a province of North Korea.
The Southerners (literally "South people") were a political faction of the Joseon Dynasty.
The State Council of Joseon or Uijeongbu was the highest organ of government under the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sukjong of Joseon (7 October 1661 – 12 July 1720) was the 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1674 to 1720.
Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.
Sungkyunkwan, was the foremost educational institution in Korea during the late Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties.
Sunjo of Joseon (29 July 1790 – 13 December 1834, reigned 1800–1834) was the 23rd king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Sunjong, the Emperor Yunghui (25 March 1874 – 24 April 1926), was the second and the last Emperor of Korea, of the Yi dynasty, ruling from 1907 until 1910.
Taejo of Joseon (27 October 1335 – 24 May 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.
Taejong of Joseon (13 June 1367 – 30 May 1422) was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.
The Dong-A Ilbo (literally East Asia Daily) is a newspaper in Korea since 1920 with daily circulation of more than 1.2 million and opinion leaders as its main readers.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Three Offices, or Samsa (삼사·三司), is a collective name for three government offices in Joseon Dynasty that functioned as major organ of press and provided checks and balance on the king and the officials.
T'osan County is a county in North Hwanghae province, North Korea.
was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".
Traditional Asian medicine is a collective term for several types of medicine practiced in Asia.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학(Hanuihak), Hanja: 韓醫學) or (Hangul: 향약 (Hyangyak), Hanja: 鄕藥) refers to the traditional medicine practices that originated and developed in Korea.
The Gyehae Treaty was signed in 1443 ("gyehae" is the Korean name of the year in the sexagenary cycle) between the Joseon dynasty and Sō Sadamori as a means of controlling Japanese piracy and legitimizing trade between Tsushima island and three Korean ports.
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
is an island of the Japanese archipelago situated in the Korea Strait, approximately halfway between the Japanese mainland and the Korean Peninsula.
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman or Duman River, is a long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into the Sea of Japan.
A turtle ship, also known as Geobukseon (거북선), was a type of large Korean warship that was used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century.
U of Goryeo 우, often written Woo, but pronounced "Oo" (25 July 1365 – 31 December 1389) ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388.
Uigwe is the generic name given to a vast collection of approximately 3,895 books recording in detail the royal rituals and ceremonies of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Underglaze is a method of decorating pottery in which the decoration is applied to the surface before it is glazed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States expedition to Korea, the Shinmiyangyo, or simply the Korean Expedition, in 1871, was the first American military action in Korea.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty (also known as The True Record of the Joseon Dynasty) are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, which were kept from 1413 to 1865.
A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Westerners (Hangul: 서인, Korean: Seoin, literally West Person, Hanja:西人) was a political faction that dominated Korea in the 17th century.
Turning back the army from Wihwa Island refers to the 1388 episode in the Korean history where General Yi Songgye of the Koryo dynasty, who had been sent to go north into northeast China to battle with the new Ming dynasty army in support of the Mongols, decided on Wihwa Island (.
Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.
Wonju is the most populous city in Gangwon province, South Korea.
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.
Yang Zhu (440–360 BC), also known as Yang Zi or Yangzi (Master Yang), was a Chinese philosopher during the Warring States period.
The Yangban (양반, 兩班), were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
Yejong of Joseon (12 February 1450 – 31 December 1469) was the 8th king of the Joseon Dynasty Korea.
Yeong-gam or Younggam (hangul:영감, in hanja:令監) is a nickname or Korean honorific for an old man in Korea.
Yeongjo of Joseon (31 October 1694 – 22 April 1776, reigned 16 October 1724 – 22 April 1776) was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Yeonguijeong was a title created in 1400, during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1392-1910) and given to the Chief State Councillor as the highest government position of "Uijeongbu" (State Council).
Yeonsan-gun or Prince Yeonsan (23 November 1476 – 20 November 1506, r. 1494–1506), born Yi Yung or Lee Yoong, was the 10th king of Korea's Joseon Dynasty.
Prince Yi Cheong of Korea (born 23 April 1936) is a member of the former Imperial Family of Korea and the genealogical male-line heir of Emperor Gojong.
Colonel Prince Yi Geon (October 28, 1909 – December 21, 1990), also Ri Ken and, was a Korean prince and a cavalry officer in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War.
Prince Yi Gu, the Prince Imperial Hoeun (29 December 1931 16 July 2005) was a Korean prince.
Lee Gwal (1587 – 15 February, 1624) was a general during the Joseon Dynasty, Korea.
Princess Yi Haewŏn (born April 24, 1919) is a descendant of the Joseon dynasty (Empire of Korea).
Yi Hong (born 1974 in Seoul) is a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty rulers, who works as a model and entertainer.
Yi Jeong (이정; 1541–1622?) was a Korean painter, one of the most popular of his time.
Yi Kang, the Prince Imperial Uihwa (also Euihwa), (born 30 March 1877 – 15 August 1955) was the fifth son of Emperor Gojong of Korea and his concubine, Lady Chang, who was a court lady-in-waiting.
Yi Seok (born 3 August 1941) is a prince of the House of Yi, the Korean royal family.
Yi Sun-sin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598) was a Korean naval commander famed for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin war in the Joseon Dynasty, who became an exemplar of conduct to both the Koreans and Japanese.
Colonel Yi U (15 November 1912 – 7 August 1945) was the 4th head of Unhyeon Palace, a member of the imperial family of Korea, and a lieutenant colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War.
Lieutenant General Prince Imperial Yeong, the Yi Un, Crown Prince Uimin (also Euimin), also known as Yi Un, Yi Eun, Lee Eun, and Un Yi (20 October 1897 – 1 May 1970), was the 28th Head of the Korean Imperial House, an Imperial Japanese Army general and the last crown prince of Korea.
Yi Won, the Hereditary Prince Imperial (born 23 September 1962) is a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty (a.k.a. Yi Dynasty) and one of several who claim to be head of the House of Yi.
The rebellion of Jeong Yeo-rip in 1589, known in Korean as the Gichuk oksa (기축옥사, 己丑獄事), was one of the bloodiest political purges in Korea's Joseon Dynasty.
Ch'ao-hsien, Chaoxian, Cho sun, Choseon, Choseon Dynasty, Choseon dynasty, Choson, Choson Dynasty, Choson Kingdom, Choson Wangjo, Choson dynasty, Chosons, Chosun, Chosun Dinasty, Chosun Dynasty, Chosôn dynasty, Chosŏn, Chosŏn Dynasty, Chosŏn Korea, Chosŏn Wangjo, Chosŏn dynasty, Chosŏn era, Cháoxian, Chōsen, Corea in the 19th century, Corea in the long 19th century, Corea in the long nineteenth century, Corea in the nineteenth century, Corean Kingdom, Cosen, Early modern Corea, Early modern Korea, Great Joseon State, Joseon Dynasty, Joseon Kingdom, Joseon Korea, Joseon Wangjo, Joseon dynasty, Joseon era, Joseon period, Josun, Kingdom of Choson, Kingdom of Corea, Kingdom of Joseon, Kingdom of Korea, Korea in the 19th century, Korea in the long 19th century, Korea in the long nineteenth century, Korea in the nineteenth century, Korean Kingdom, Lee dynasty, Monarchy in Corea, Monarchy in Korea, Monarchy of Corea, Monarchy of Korea, Ri Dynasty, Royal Corea, Royal Korea, Tyosen, Yi era, Yi period, 大朝鮮國, 朝鮮, 朝鮮國, 朝鮮王朝, 대조선국, 조선, 조선국, 조선왕조.