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Joseph Greenberg

Index Joseph Greenberg

Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages. [1]

94 relations: African Studies Association, Afroasiatic languages, Ainu language, Allan R. Bomhard, Altaic languages, Amerind languages, Andaman Islands, André Martinet, Anthropology, Australian Aboriginal languages, Austronesian languages, Bantu languages, Bilali Document, Brooklyn, Classification of the Japonic languages, Columbia University, Comparative method, Cryptanalysis, Cultural anthropology, Dené–Caucasian languages, Dené–Yeniseian languages, Donald Ringe, Edward Vajda, Elamo-Dravidian languages, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eurasia, Eurasiatic languages, Formal language, Franz Boas, Functional theories of grammar, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Georgiy Starostin, Greenberg's linguistic universals, Hamites, Harold C. Fleming, Hausa language, Hausa people, Holger Pedersen (linguist), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Indo-Pacific languages, Islam, Jews, Kartvelian languages, Khoisan languages, Korean language, Languages of Africa, Larry Trask, Linguistic typology, Linguistic universal, ..., Linguistics, Lionel Bender, Lyle Campbell, Macrofamily, Malcolm Ross (linguist), Melville J. Herskovits, Merritt Ruhlen, Methodology, Na-Dene languages, New Guinea, Niger–Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nivkh language, Noam Chomsky, Northwestern University, Nostratic languages, Papuan languages, Phonetics, Prague linguistic circle, Proto-Human language, Roger Blench, Roman Jakobson, Ruth Benedict, Sergei Starostin, Signal Corps (United States Army), Sino-Tibetan languages, Stanford University, Stanford, California, Stephen Wurm, Stratum (linguistics), Structuralism, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subgrouping, Synchrony and diachrony, Tasmania, The Languages of Africa, United States, University of Minnesota, Uralic languages, Vladislav Illich-Svitych, William Poser, World War II, Yale University, Yeniseian languages. Expand index (44 more) »

African Studies Association

The African Studies Association (ASA) is an association of scholars and professionals in the United States and Canada with an interest in the continent of Africa.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Ainu language

Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.

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Allan R. Bomhard

Allan R. Bomhard (born 1943) is an American linguist.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Amerind languages

Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.

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Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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André Martinet

André Martinet (Saint-Alban-des-Villards, 12 April 1908 – Châtenay-Malabry, 16 July 1999) was a French linguist, influential by his work on structural linguistics.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Australian Aboriginal languages

The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Bilali Document

The Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic manuscript on West African Islamic law.

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Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.

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Classification of the Japonic languages

The classification of the Japonic languages (Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages) is unclear.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

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Cultural anthropology

Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.

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Dené–Caucasian languages

Dené–Caucasian is a proposed broad language family that includes the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Na-Dené, Yeniseian, Vasconic (including Basque), and Burushaski language families.

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Dené–Yeniseian languages

Dené–Yeniseian is a proposed language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.

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Donald Ringe

Donald "Don" Ringe is an American linguist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Edward Vajda

Edward J. Vajda (Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, September 10, 1958 as Edward M. Johnson; changed his name in 1981) is a historical linguist at Western Washington University.

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Elamo-Dravidian languages

The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran).

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Eskimo–Aleut languages

The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasiatic languages

Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.

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Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

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Franz Boas

Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".

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Functional theories of grammar

Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Georgiy Starostin

Georgiy Sergeevich "George" Starostin (Гео́ргий Серге́евич Ста́ростин; born 4 July 1976) is a Russian linguist who presides the Center of Comparative Studies at the Russian State University for the Humanities.

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Greenberg's linguistic universals

The American linguist Joseph Greenberg (1915-2001) proposed a set of linguistic universals based primarily on a set of 30 languages.

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Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.

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Harold C. Fleming

Harold Crane Fleming (December 23, 1926 – April 29, 2015) was an American anthropologist and historical linguist, specializing in the cultures and languages of the Horn of Africa.

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.

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Hausa people

The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

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Holger Pedersen (linguist)

Holger Pedersen (7 April 1867 – 25 October 1953) was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Pacific languages

Indo-Pacific is a hypothetical language macrofamily proposed in 1971 by Joseph Greenberg and now believed to be spurious.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Kartvelian languages

The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Larry Trask

Robert Lawrence "Larry" Trask (November 10, 1944 – March 27, 2004) was an American–British professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, and an authority on the Basque language and field of historical linguistics.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linguistic universal

A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lionel Bender

Marvin Lionel Bender (August 18, 1934 – February 19, 2008) was an American author and linguist.

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Lyle Campbell

Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.

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In historical linguistics, a macrofamily, also called a superfamily or phylum, is a proposed genetic relationship grouping together language families (also isolates) in a larger scale classification.

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Malcolm Ross (linguist)

Malcolm David Ross (born 1942) is an emeritus professor of linguistics at the Australian National University.

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Melville J. Herskovits

Melville Jean Herskovits (September 10, 1895 – February 25, 1963) was an American anthropologist who helped establish African and African-American studies in American academia.

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Merritt Ruhlen

Merritt Ruhlen (born 1944) is an American linguist who has worked on the classification of languages and what this reveals about the origin and evolution of modern humans.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Na-Dene languages

Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nivkh language

Nivkh or Gilyak (self-designation: Нивхгу диф Nivkhgu dif) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun (a tributary of the Amur), along the lower reaches of the Amur itself, and on the northern half of Sakhalin.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Northwestern University

Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.

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Nostratic languages

Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.

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Papuan languages

The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Prague linguistic circle

The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle was an influential group of linguists, philologists and literary critics in Prague.

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Proto-Human language

The Proto-Human language (also Proto-Sapiens, Proto-World) is the hypothetical direct genetic predecessor of the world's languages.

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Roger Blench

Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.

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Roman Jakobson

Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.

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Ruth Benedict

Ruth Fulton Benedict (June 5, 1887September 17, 1948) was an American anthropologist and folklorist.

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Sergei Starostin

Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.

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Signal Corps (United States Army)

The United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) develops, tests, provides, and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Stanford, California

Stanford is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Clara County, California, United States and is the home of Stanford University.

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Stephen Wurm

Stephen Adolphe Wurm (19 August 1922 – 24 October 2001) was a Hungarian-born Australian linguist.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Subgrouping in linguistics is the division of a language family into its constituent branches.

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Synchrony and diachrony

Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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The Languages of Africa

The Languages of Africa is a 1963 book of essays by Joseph Greenberg, in which the author sets forth a genetic classification of African languages that, with some changes, continues to be the most commonly used one today.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Minnesota

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Vladislav Illich-Svitych

Vladislav Markovich Illich-Svitych (Владисла́в Ма́ркович И́ллич-Сви́тыч, also transliterated as Illič-Svityč; September 12, 1934 – August 22, 1966) was a linguist and accentologist, also a founding father of comparative Nostratic linguistics.

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William Poser

William J. Poser is a Canadian-American linguist who is known for his extensive work with the historical linguistics of Native American languages, especially those of the Athabascan family.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yeniseian languages

The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages Khanty and Selkup. occasionally spelled with -ss-) are a family of languages that were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.

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Redirects here:

Greenberg, Joseph Harold, Joseph H. Greenberg, Joseph Harold Greenberg.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Greenberg

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