281 relations: A Chart of Biography, A History of the Corruptions of Christianity, A New Chart of History, Age of Enlightenment, Alessandro Volta, Alexander Bain, Alexander William Williamson, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Chemical Society, American Philosophical Society, Ammonia, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Annales de chimie et de physique, Antoine Lavoisier, Aramaic language, Association of ideas, Baron d'Holbach, Baruch Spinoza, Batley, BBC, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Vaughan, Birmingham, Birstall, West Yorkshire, Blue plaque, Bowood House, Brown University, Burning glass, Calne, Calvinism, Carbon monoxide, Carbonated water, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Catterick, North Yorkshire, Causality, Chamberlain Square, Charcoal, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical revolution, Chemistry, Christopher Bullock, Church of England, City of Leeds, Classical element, Collins English Dictionary, Commentaries on the Laws of England, ..., Conservation of mass, Conversion to Christianity, Copley Medal, Corona discharge, Corporation Act 1661, Coulomb's law, Critique of Pure Reason, Daniel Bernoulli, Daventry Academy, David Hartley (philosopher), David Hume, Determinism, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Dickinson College, Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit, Dissenting academies, Doctor of Law, Duncan Waldron, Edmund Burke, Electric discharge, Electric spark, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electromagnetism, Encyclopædia Britannica, English Dissenters, Erasmus Darwin, Essay on a Course of Liberal Education for Civil and Active Life, Essay on the First Principles of Government, Essex Street Chapel, Eucharist, Eudiometer, Experimental philosophy, Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air, Family of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Fasting, Finishing (textiles), First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia, Foundations of Chemistry, Franz Aepinus, Free will, French Academy of Sciences, French National Convention election, 1792, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Gaseous diffusion, George III of the United Kingdom, Georges Cuvier, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gravel Pit Chapel, Guinea (coin), Guy Fawkes, Hackney (parish), Heckmondwike, Henry Cavendish, Herbert Spencer, Heresy, Heterodoxy, Homerton College, Cambridge, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Immanuel Kant, Independent (religion), Infrared, Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion, Inverse-square law, Isaac Watts, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, James Clerk Maxwell, James Cook, James Keir, James Watt, Jasperware, Jeremy Bentham, Jesus, Johann Jacob Schweppe, John Adams, John Aikin, John Canton, John Dalton, John Goldworth Alger, John Hurford Stone, John Locke, John Seddon of Warrington, John Stuart Mill, John Towill Rutt, John Vaughan (wine merchant), Joseph Johnson (publisher), Joseph Priestley College, Josiah Wedgwood, Kinetic theory of gases, Lectures on History and General Policy, Leeds, Leeds City College, Leeds City Square, Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever, Liberalism, Liming (soil), Linguistics, Lisbon, List of liberal theorists, List of minor planets: 5001–6000, Lower Clapton, Loyalsock Creek, Lunar Society Moonstones, Lunar Society of Birmingham, Lupton family, Malaria, Mass, Materialism, Matthew Boulton, Mercury(II) oxide, Metaphysics, Michael Faraday, Middlesex, Milk sickness, Mill Hill Chapel, Millennialism, Mind–body dualism, Nantwich, National Convention, National Historic Chemical Landmarks, Natural philosophy, Necessitarianism, Needham Market, New College at Hackney, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Nitric oxide, Nitrous oxide, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, Northumberland, Pennsylvania, Observations on Man, Orne, Oxygen, Pamphlet, Paradigm shift, Pathogenic bacteria, Pedagogy, Periodic Videos, Philadelphia, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophy of mind, Phlogiston theory, Photosynthesis, Pneumatic trough, Pneumatics, Political philosophy, Priestley College, Priestley Riots, Princeton University, Progress (history), Providentialism, Rector (ecclesiastical), Redaction, Redox, Reflections on the Revolution in France, Reformation, Republicanism, Rhône-et-Loire, Richard Price, Royal Navy, Royal Society, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Science History Institute, Scurvy, Second Coming, Seditious libel, Simon Schaffer, Socinianism, Soul, Sparkbrook, Spontaneous generation, Steven Johnson (author), Storming of the Bastille, Sulfur dioxide, Sunbury, Pennsylvania, Susquehanna River, Sweetbriar Hall, Teleological argument, Test Act, The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated, The History and Present State of Electricity, The Rudiments of English Grammar, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The System of Nature, Theism, Theological Repository, Theology, Theophilus Lindsey, Thirty-nine Articles, Thomas Cooper (U.S. politician), Thomas Fitzmaurice (MP), Thomas Graham (chemist), Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Paine, Timeline of hydrogen technologies, Toleration, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, Trinity, Unconditional election, Unitarianism, Universal reconciliation, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh, University of Huddersfield, University of Leeds, University of Nottingham, University of Pennsylvania, University of Virginia, Utilitarianism, Virgin birth of Jesus, Warrington, Warrington Academy, West Riding of Yorkshire, Westminster Shorter Catechism, Willem 's Gravesande, William Blackstone, William Cobbett, William Herschel, William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, William Pitt the Younger, William Priestley (Louisiana planter), William Watson (scientist), William Withering, William Wordsworth, Wiltshire, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Wrexham, Yale University, 1794 Treason Trials. 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In 1765, 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley published A Chart of Biography and its accompanying prose description as a supplement to his Lectures on History and General Policy.
A History of the Corruptions of Christianity, published by Joseph Johnson in 1782, was the fourth part of 18th-century Dissenting minister Joseph Priestley's Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion (1772–74).
In 1769, 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley published A New Chart of History and its prose explanation as a supplement to his Lectures on History and General Policy.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Alexander Bain (11 June 1818 – 18 September 1903) was a Scottish philosopher and educationalist in the British school of empiricism and a prominent and innovative figure in the fields of psychology, linguistics, logic, moral philosophy and education reform.
Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 18246 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anna Laetitia Barbauld (by herself possibly, as in French, née Aikin; 20 June 1743 – 9 March 1825) was a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and author of children's literature.
Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Association of ideas, or mental association, is a process by which representations arise in consciousness, and also for a principle put forward by an important historical school of thinkers to account generally for the succession of mental phenomena.
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Batley is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Vaughan MD LLD (19 April 1751 – 8 December 1835) was a British political radical.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Birstall is a village and part of the town of Batley in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England.
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.
Bowood is a grade I listed Georgian country house with interiors by Robert Adam and a garden designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
A burning glass or burning lens is a large convex lens that can concentrate the sun's rays onto a small area, heating up the area and thus resulting in ignition of the exposed surface.
Calne is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, southwestern England,OS Explorer Map 156, Chippenham and Bradford-on-Avon Scale: 1:25 000.Publisher: Ordnance Survey A2 edition (2007).
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
Catterick is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Chamberlain Square or Chamberlain Place is a public square in central Birmingham, England, named after statesman and notable mayor of Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlain.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charles Cotesworth "C.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French military engineer and physicist.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chemical revolution, also called the first chemical revolution, was the early modern reformulation of chemistry that culminated in the law of conservation of mass and the oxygen theory of combustion.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Sir Christopher Llewellyn Bullock, KCB, CBE (10 November 1891 – 16 May 1972), a prominent member of the Bullock family, was Permanent Under-Secretary at the British Air Ministry from 1931 to 1936.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The City of Leeds is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.
The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.
Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity.
The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
The Corporation Act of 1661 was an Act of the Parliament of England (13 Cha. II. St. 2 c. 1).
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
Daventry Academy was a dissenting academy, that is, a school or college set up by English Dissenters.
David Hartley (8 August 170528 August 1757) was an English philosopher and founder of the Associationist school of psychology.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion is a philosophical work by the Scottish philosopher David Hume.
Dickinson College is a private, residential liberal arts college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States.
Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit (1777) is a major work of metaphysics written by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley and published by Joseph Johnson.
The dissenting academies were schools, colleges and seminaries (often institutions with aspects of all three) run by English Dissenters, that is, those who did not conform to the Church of England.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.
Essay on a Course of Liberal Education for Civil and Active Life (1765) is an educational treatise by the 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
Essay on the First Principles of Government (1768) is an early work of modern liberal political theory by 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
Essex Street Chapel, also known as Essex Church, is a Unitarian place of worship in London.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
A eudiometer is a laboratory device that measures the change in volume of a gas mixture following a physical or chemical change.
Experimental philosophy is an emerging field of philosophical inquiryEdmonds, David and Warburton, Nigel.
Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1774–86) is a six-volume work published by 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley which reports a series of his experiments on "airs" or gases, most notably his discovery of oxygen gas (which he called "dephlogisticated air").
Members of the Middleton family have been related to the British royal family by marriage since the wedding of Catherine Middleton and Prince William in April 2011, when she became the Duchess of Cambridge.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finish textile or clothing.
The First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia is a Unitarian Universalist congregation located at 2125 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Foundations of Chemistry is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering conceptual and fundamental issues related to chemistry, including philosophy and history of chemistry, and chemistry education.
Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus (December 13, 1724August 10, 1802) was a German and Russian Empire natural philosopher.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
The French National Convention election elected the National Convention.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
The Gravel Pit Chapel was established in 1715–16 in Hackney, then just outside London, for a Nonconformist congregation, which by the early 19th century began to identify itself as Unitarian.
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.
Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Hackney is a parish in the historic county of Middlesex.
Heckmondwike is a town and electoral ward in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England, south west of Leeds.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
Homerton College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion, written by 18th-century English Dissenting minister and polymath Joseph Priestley, is a three-volume work designed for religious education published by Joseph Johnson between 1772 and 1774.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Isaac Watts (17 July 1674 – 25 November 1748) was an English Christian minister (Congregational), hymn writer, theologian, and logician.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Keir FRS (20 September 1735 – 11 October 1820) was a Scottish chemist, geologist, industrialist, and inventor, and an important member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jasperware, or jasper ware, is a type of pottery first developed by Josiah Wedgwood in the 1770s.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Jacob Schweppe (16 March 1740 – 18 November 1821) was a German-Swiss watchmaker and amateur scientist who developed the first practical process to manufacture bottled carbonated mineral water, based on a process discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1767.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Aikin (15 January 17477 December 1822) was an English doctor and writer.
John Canton FRS (31 July 1718 – 22 March 1772) was a British physicist.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
John Goldworth Alger (1836–1907) was an English journalist and author.
John Hurford Stone (1763–1818) was a British radical political reformer and publisher who spent much of his life in France.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Seddon (1725–1770) was an English Dissenter and rector of Warrington Academy.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Towill Rutt (4 April 1760 – 3 March 1841) was an English political activist, social reformer and nonconformist man of letters.
John Vaughan (15 January 1756 – 30 December 1841) was a wine merchant, philanthropist, and long-time treasurer and librarian of the American Philosophical Society.
Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential 18th-century London bookseller and publisher.
Joseph Priestley College was a further education college founded in 1955 serving the communities of South Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Lectures on History and General Policy (1788) is the published version of a set of lectures on history and government given by the 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley to the students of Warrington Academy.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Leeds City College is the largest Further education establishment in the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, with around 26,000 students, 2,300 staff and an annual turnover of £78 million.
Leeds City Square is a paved area north of Leeds railway station at the junction of Park Row to the East and Wellington Street to the South.
Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever (1780) is a multi-volume series of books on metaphysics by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liming is the application (to soil) of calcium- and magnesium-rich materials in various forms, including marl, chalk, limestone, or hydrated lime.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.
#fefefe | 5390 Huichiming || || December 19, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.
Lower Clapton is a district of East London in the London Borough of Hackney, lying immediately north of Hackney Central, the borough's administrative and retail centre.
Loyalsock Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data., accessed August 8, 2011 tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River located chiefly in Sullivan and Lycoming counties in Pennsylvania in the United States. As the crow flies, Lycoming County is about northwest of Philadelphia and east-northeast of Pittsburgh.
The Moonstones are a set of nine carved sandstone memorials to various members of the Lunar Society.
The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England.
This article concerns the Yorkshire family, not the American family of John Thomas Lupton. The Lupton family in Yorkshire achieved prominence in ecclesiastical and academic circles in England in the 16th century through the fame of Roger Lupton, provost of Eton College and chaplain to Henry VII and Henry VIII.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.
Milk sickness, also known as tremetol vomiting or, in animals, as trembles, is a kind of poisoning, characterized by trembling, vomiting, and severe intestinal pain, that affects individuals who ingest milk, other dairy products, or meat from a cow that has fed on white snakeroot plant, which contains the poison tremetol.
Mill Hill Chapel is a Unitarian church in Leeds, in the north of England.
Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years"), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some Christian denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth in which Christ will reign for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come") of the New Heavens and New Earth.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Nantwich is a market town and civil parish in Cheshire, England.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The National Historic Chemical Landmarks program was launched by the American Chemical Society in 1992 to recognize seminal achievements in the history of chemistry and related professions.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Necessitarianism is a metaphysical principle that denies all mere possibility; there is exactly one way for the world to be.
Needham Market is a town in Suffolk, England.
The New College at Hackney (more ambiguously known as Hackney College) was a dissenting academy set up in Hackney, at that time a village on the outskirts of London, by Unitarians.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Northumberland County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
Northumberland is a borough in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations is 18th-century British philosopher David Hartley's major work.
Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A pneumatic trough is a piece of laboratory apparatus used for collecting gases, such as hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Priestley Sixth Form and Community College is a sixth form college in the Wilderspool district of Warrington, Cheshire.
The Priestley Riots (also known as the Birmingham Riots of 1791) took place from 14 July to 17 July 1791 in Birmingham, England; the rioters' main targets were religious Dissenters, most notably the politically and theologically controversial Joseph Priestley.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
In historiography, progress (from Latin progressus, "advance", "(a) step onwards") is the study of how specific societies improved over time in terms of science, technology, modernization, liberty, democracy, longevity, quality of life, freedom from pollution and so on.
In Christianity, providentialism is the belief that all events on Earth are controlled by God.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations.
Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined (redacted) and altered slightly to make a single document.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Rhône-et-Loire was a department of France whose prefecture (capital) was Lyon.
Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
Sedition and seditious libel were criminal offences under English common law, and are still criminal offences in Canada.
Simon J. Schaffer (born 1 January 1955) is a professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge and was editor of The British Journal for the History of Science from 2004 to 2009.
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Sparkbrook is an inner-city area in south-east Birmingham, England.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author and media theorist.
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sunbury is a city in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States.
The Susquehanna River (Lenape: Siskëwahane) is a major river located in the northeastern United States.
Sweetbriar Hall (also Sweet Briar Hall and other variants) is a timber-framed, "black and white" mansion house in the town of Nantwich, Cheshire, England, at 65 and 67 Hospital Street.
The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity (1777) is one of the major metaphysical works of 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
The History and Present State of Electricity (1767), by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley, is a survey of the study of electricity up until 1766 as well as a description of experiments by Priestley himself.
The Rudiments of English Grammar (1761) was a popular English grammar textbook written by the 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.
The System of Nature or, the Laws of the Moral and Physical World (Système de la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral) is a work of philosophy by Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723–1789).
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
The Theological Repository was a periodical founded and edited from 1769 to 1771 by the eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theophilus Lindsey (20 June 1723 O.S. – 3 November 1808) was an English theologian and clergyman who founded the first avowedly Unitarian congregation in the country, at Essex Street Chapel.
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.
Thomas Cooper (October 22, 1759 – May 11, 1839) was an Anglo-American economist, college president and political philosopher.
The Honourable Thomas Fitzmaurice (July 1742 - 28 October 1793) was a Member of Parliament for Calne from 1762 to 1774, and then for Chipping Wycome until 1780.
Thomas Graham (20 December 1805 – 16 September 1869) was a British chemist who is best-remembered today for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
This is a timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry) is a textbook written by Antoine Lavoisier published in 1789 and translated into English by Robert Kerr in 1790 under the title Elements of Chemistry in a New Systematic Order containing All the Modern Discoveries.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Unconditional election (also known as unconditional grace) is a Reformed doctrine relating to Predestination that describes the actions and motives of God in eternity past, before He created the world, where he predestinated some people to receive salvation, the elect, and the rest he left to continue in their sins and receive the just punishment, eternal damnation, for their transgressions of God's law as outlined in the old and new Testaments of the Bible.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, Christian universalism, or in context simply universalism) is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Huddersfield (informally Huddersfield University) is a public university located in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The virgin birth of Jesus is the belief that Jesus was conceived in the womb of his mother Mary through the Holy Spirit without the agency of a human father and born while Mary was still a virgin.
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, east of Liverpool, and west of Manchester.
Warrington Academy, active as a teaching establishment from 1756 to 1782, was a prominent dissenting academy, that is, a school or college set up by those who dissented from the established Church of England.
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England.
The Westminster Shorter Catechism is a catechism written in 1646 and 1647 by the Westminster Assembly, a synod of English and Scottish theologians and laymen intended to bring the Church of England into greater conformity with the Church of Scotland.
Willem Jacob 's Gravesande (26 September 1688 – 28 February 1742) was a Dutch mathematician and natural philosopher, chiefly remembered for developing experimental demonstrations of the laws of classical mechanics.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Cobbett (9 March 1763 – 18 June 1835) was an English pamphleteer, farmer, journalist and member of parliament, who was born in Farnham, Surrey.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805), known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Priestley (7 May 1771 – 1838) was the third child and second son of Dr Joseph Priestley and his wife Mary Wilkinson.
Sir William Watson, FRS (3 April 1715 – 10 May 1787) was a British physician and scientist who was born and died in London.
William Withering FRS (17 March 1741 – 6 October 1799) was an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation is a private non-profit operating foundation based in Princeton, New Jersey.
Wrexham (Wrecsam) is the largest town in the north of Wales and an administrative, commercial, retail and educational centre.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The 1794 Treason Trials, arranged by the administration of William Pitt, were intended to cripple the British radical movement of the 1790s.