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Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
Achinsk (А́чинск) is a city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Chulym River near its intersection with the Trans-Siberian Railway, west of Krasnoyarsk.
The Adjarians (აჭარლები, Ačarlebi) are an ethnographic group of Georgians that mostly live in Adjara in south-western Georgia.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The age of consent is the age below which a minor is considered to be legally incompetent to consent to sexual acts.
An agent provocateur (French for "inciting agent") is a person who commits, or who acts to entice another person to commit an illegal or rash act or falsely implicate them in partaking in an illegal act.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels.
Alexander Kazbegi (ალექსანდრე ყაზბეგი, Aleksandre Q’azbegi) (1848–1893) was a Georgian writer, famous for his 1883 novel The Patricide.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
Anatoly Naumovich Rybakov (Анато́лий Нау́мович Рыбако́в; – 23 December 1998) was a Soviet and Russian writer, the author of the anti-Stalinist Children of the Arbat tetralogy, the novel Heavy Sand, and many popular children books including Adventures of Krosh, Dirk and Bronze Bird.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
The 1917 Russian Revolution overthrew a centuries-old regime of official antisemitism in the Russian Empire, including its Pale of Settlement.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Artyom Fyodorovich Sergeyev (Russian: Артём Фёдорович Сергеев; 5 March 1921, Moscow – 15 January 2008, Moscow) was the adopted son of Joseph Stalin.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
An Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) of the Soviet Union (автономная советская социалистическая республика, АССР) was a type of administrative unit in the Soviet Union created for certain nations.
Avel Safronovich Enukidze (აბელ ენუქიძე, Abel Enukiʒe,; А́вель Сафронович Енуки́дзе; —30 October 1937) was a prominent "Old Bolshevik" and, at one point, a member of the Soviet Central Committee in Moscow.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Balagansk (Балага́нск) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Balagansky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.
The Balkars (Малкъарлыла, таулула Malqarlıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
Besarion Ivanes dze Jughashvili (1849 or 1850 – 25 August 1909) was the father of Joseph Stalin.
Birobidzhan (p; ביראָבידזשאַן, Birobidzshan) is a town and the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia, located on the Trans-Siberian Railway, close to the border with China.
The Black Hundred (Чёрная сотня in Russian; Chornaya sotnya), also known as the black-hundredists (Черносотенцы in Russian; chernosotentsy), was an ultra-nationalist movement in Russia in the early 20th century.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
In Marxism, bourgeois nationalism is the practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from initiating class warfare.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bureaucratic collectivism is a theory of class society.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Caesarism has been used in a variety of ways over the centuries.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Cannon fodder is an informal, derogatory term for combatants who are regarded or treated by government or military command as expendable in the face of enemy fire.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.
Case Blue (Fall Blau), later named Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942, during World War II.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.
The Caucasus Viceroyalty was the Imperial Russian administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy (главноуправляющий) (1801–1844, 1882–1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844–1882, 1904–1917).
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected at the 17th Congress, and sat from 10 February 1934 until 22 March 1939.
The 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Congress, and was in session from 1952 until 1956.
This Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, and sat from 19 May 1907 until 17 January 1912.
Central Committee elected by the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks)
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 6th Congress, and sat from 3 August 1917 until 8 March 1918.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Chiatura is a city in the Imereti region of Western Georgia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
A chokha (ჩოხა or ტალავარი; akʷymzhʷy; tsiya; czugha; choukha; çuxa; ҫoqib; tsei; chukha; cuqqa; cherkeska; cherkeska) is a woolen coat with a high neck that is part of the traditional male dress of the peoples of the Caucasus.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.
Collective responsibility refers to responsibilities of organizations, groups and societies.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.
The Commune of the Working People of Estonia (Eesti Töörahva Kommuun, initially Eesti Töörahwa Kommuuna; Эстляндская трудовая коммуна, ЭТК or ETK) was an unrecognised government claiming the Bolshevik-occupied parts of Republic of Estonia as its territories during the Estonian War of Independence and the Russian Civil War.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Georgian Communist Party (საქართველოს კომუნისტური პარტია; Коммунистическая партия Грузии) was a political party in Georgia.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia (Деклара́ция прав наро́дов Росси́и) was a document promulgated by the Bolshevik government of Russia on November 15 (November 2 by Old Style), 1917 (signed by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin).
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The division of Korea between North and South Korea occurred after World War II, ending the Empire of Japan's 35-year rule over Korea in 1945.
"Dizzy with Success: Concerning Questions of the Collective-Farm Movement" (Golovokruzhéniye ot uspékhov.) is an article by Joseph Stalin that was published in Pravda on March 2, 1930.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дми́трий Анто́нович Волкого́нов) (22 March 1928 – 6 December 1995) was a Soviet/Russian historian and colonel general who was head of the Soviet military's psychological warfare department.
Dmitriy Manuilsky, or Dmytro Zakharovych Manuilsky (3 October 1883 in Sviatets near Kremenets – 22 February 1959 in Kiev) was an important Bolshevik, who was a Secretary of Comintern, the Communist International from December 1926 to its dissolution in May 1943.
The Doctors' plot (дело врачей, "doctors' case", also known as the case of doctors-saboteurs or doctors-killers) was an antisemitic campaign organized by Joseph Stalin.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Falsifiers of History was a book published by the Soviet Information Bureau, edited and partially re-written by Joseph Stalin, in response to documents made public in January 1948 regarding German–Soviet relations before and after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
Filipp Makharadze (ფილიპე მახარაძე, Филипп Махарадзе; 9 March 1868 – 10 December 1941) was a Georgian Bolshevik revolutionary and government official.
The office of First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union, also called First Vice Premier of the Soviet Union, was synonymous with vice-head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); a First Deputy Premier did not always serve in his post alone.
The first five-year plan (I пятилетний план, первая пятилетка) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style.
The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was a bilateral treaty between the two countries with the aim of enveloping Nazi Germany in 1935 in order to reduce the threat from central Europe.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Freedom Square (Georgian: თავისუფლების მოედანი Tavisuplebis moedani, pronounced), formerly known as Erivan (or Erivanskaya) or Pashkevich-Erivanskaya Square (Georgian: ერევანსკი მოედანი, Erevansk'i moedani, Russian: Эриванская площадь, Erivanskaya ploshchad) under Imperial Russia and Lenin Square under the Soviet Union, is located in the center of Tbilisi at the eastern end of Rustaveli Avenue.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (Генералиссимус Советского Союза; Generalissimus Sovyétskogo Soyuza) was a proposed military rank created on 27 June 1945, following the tradition of the Imperial Russian Army (the rank in question only ever having been held by Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Suvorov who served during the reign of Catherine II the Great.). It was granted to Joseph Stalin following World War II; however, Stalin refused to officially approve the rank and died with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian Affair of 1922 (Грузинское дело) was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was to be achieved in the Georgian SSR.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The beginning of Georgian nationalism can be traced to the middle of the 19th century, when Georgia was part of the Russian Empire.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician who succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union, holding this position from 1953 to 1955.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.
The German-Soviet Frontier Treaty was a second supplementary protocol, of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.
Gori (გორი) is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and the centre of the homonymous administrative district.
Gorki Leninskiye (Го́рки Ле́нинские) is an urban locality (a work settlement) in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow city limits and the Moscow Ring Road.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov (born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant; 1888–1939) was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary, economist, and Soviet politician.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
Herbert George Wells.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
The Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP) was the ruling communist party of Hungary from 1948 to 1956.
Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე; 8 November 1837 — 12 September 1907) was a Georgian writer, political figure, poet, and publisher who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Finland declared its independence on 6 December 1917.
Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.
The Industrial Party Trial (November 25 – December 7, 1930) (Процесс Промпартии, Trial of the Prompartiya) was a show trial in which several Soviet scientists and economists were accused and convicted of plotting a coup against the government of the Soviet Union.
The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation.
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
The International Socialist Congress, Stuttgart 1907 was the Seventh Congress of the Second International.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Israel–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the State of Israel and the United States of America.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Еврейский антифашистский комитет Yevreysky antifashistsky komitet, ЕАК) was organized by the Jewish Bund (labor union) leaders Henryk Erlich and Victor Alter, upon an initiative of Soviet authorities, in fall 1941; both were released from prison in connection with their participation.
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
The Joint State Political Directorate (also translated as the All-Union State Political Administration and Unified State Political Directorate) was the secret police of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1934.
The Stalin Museum (in background), with the birthhouse of Stalin in foreground The Joseph Stalin Museum is a museum in Gori, Georgia dedicated to the life of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, who was born in Gori.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Julius Martov or L. Martov (born: Yuliy Osipovich Tsederbaum/Zederbaum) (24 November 1873 – 4 April 1923) was a Russian politician and revolutionary who became the leader of the Mensheviks in early 20th-century Russia.
The July Days refers to events that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between 3 – 7 July 1917 (Julian calendar) (16 July – 20 July, Gregorian calendar), when soldiers, sailors, and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous armed demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, таулула Qaraçaylıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the North Caucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay–Cherkess Republic.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Ketevan "Kato" Svanidze (ეკატერინა სვიმონის ასული სვანიძე,; Екатери́на Семёновна Свани́дзе,; 2 April 1885 – 5 December 1907) was the first wife of Joseph Stalin and the mother of his eldest son, Yakov.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Ekaterine Giorgis asuli Jughashvili (née Geladze) (5 February 1858 - 4 June 1937) was the mother of Joseph Stalin.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
Kiev International Institute of Sociology, KIIS (Київський міжнародний інститут соціології, КМІС) is a Ukrainian organization conducting sociological research in the following fields.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.
A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Konstantin Stepanovich Kuzakov (1911–1996) (Константин Степанович Кузаков) was the illegitimate second child of Joseph Stalin.
Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.
The Korean People's Army (KPA) is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, and constitutes the de facto military force of North Korea.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kotlas (Ко́тлас) is a town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Krasnoyarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.
Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
The Kuntsevo Dacha was Joseph Stalin's personal residence near the former town of Kuntsevo (then Moscow Oblast, now part of Moscow's Fili district), where he lived for the last two decades of his life and died on 5 March 1953, although he also spent much time inside the Kremlin, where he possessed living quarters next to his offices.
Kuntsevo (Ку́нцево) is a district in Western Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Kureika is a Russian village just north of the Arctic Circle near Turukhansk in Krasnoyarsk Krai, by the confuence of Kureika River and Yenisey.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
The Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic (Latvijas Sociālistiskā Padomju Republika, LSPR) was a short-lived socialist republic formed during the Latvian War of Independence.
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (p; tr,; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич; – 25 July 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.
The League of Militant AtheistsBurleigh, Michael.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Left Opposition was a faction within the Bolshevik Party from 1923 to 1927, headed de facto by Leon Trotsky.
The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.
Lenin's Mausoleum (formerly Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum (1953-1961)) (p), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that currently serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.
Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document (supposedly; perhaps generated by his secretary who was also his wife: Nadezhda Krupskaya) "written" (he was partially paralyzed and severely ill due to successive strokes) or dictated by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923.
The Leningrad affair, or Leningrad case ("Ленинградское дело" in Russian, or "Leningradskoye delo"), was a series of criminal cases fabricated in the late 1940s–early 1950s by Joseph Stalin in order to accuse a number of prominent politicians and members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of treason and intention to create an anti-Soviet organisation based in Leningrad.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lipki (Липки) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
During Joseph Stalin's rule (1922–1953), many places, mostly cities, in the Soviet Union and other communist countries were named or renamed in honour of him as part of the cult of personality surrounding him.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (LSSR) was a short-lived Soviet republic declared on December 16, 1918, by a provisional revolutionary government led by Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas.
The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) is one of five permanent symphony orchestras based in London.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Magnitogorsk (p, lit. city near the magnetic mountain) is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova (Мари́я Ильи́нична Улья́нова;, Simbirsk – 12 June 1937, Moscow) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and politician and a younger sister of Vladimir Lenin and Anna Ulyanova.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
"Marxism and Problems of Linguistics" (Russian:Марксизм и вопросы языкознания) is an article written by Joseph Stalin, most of which was first published on June 20, 1950 in the newspaper "Pravda" (attached at the end of "answers" came later, in July - August) and in the same year published as a pamphlet in large numbers.
Marxism and the National Question (Russian: Марксизм и национальный вопрос) is a short work of Marxist theory written by Joseph Stalin in January 1913 while living in Vienna.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Mesame Dasi (Georgian: მესამე დასი) was the first social-democratic party in the Caucasus, based in Tbilsi, Georgia.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
The Metro-Vickers Affair was an international crisis precipitated by the arrest of six British subjects who were employees of Metropolitan-Vickers, and their public trial in 1933 by the authorities in the Soviet Union on charges of economic "wrecking" and espionage.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Politician.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (p; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Mikhail Pavlovich Tomsky (Russian: Михаи́л Па́влович То́мский, born Mikhail Pavlovich Yefremovsometimes transliterated as Efremov; Михаи́л Па́влович Ефре́мов; 31 October 1880 – 22 August 1936) was a factory worker, trade unionist and Bolshevik leader.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
Milovan Djilas (Milovan Đilas/Милован Ђилас; 12 June 1911 – 20 April 1995) was a Yugoslav communist politician, theorist and author.
The Mingrelian affair, or Mingrelian case (Мингрельское дело, mingrel’skoe delo; მეგრელთა საქმე, megrelt’a sak’me), was a series of criminal cases fabricated in 1951 and 1952 in order to accuse several members of the Georgian SSR Communist Party of Mingrelian extraction of secession and collaboration with the Western powers.
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
Miron Ivanovich Merzhanov, born Meran Merzhanyantz (Мирон Иванович Мержанов, Меран Оганесович Мержанянц, September 23, 1895 – December 1975), was a Soviet architect of Armenian descent, notable for being the de facto personal architect of Joseph Stalin in 1933–1941.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Moscow Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognisable by the characteristic notches and its Kremlin towers.
The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
The Moscow Trials were a series of trials held in the Soviet Union at the instigation of Joseph Stalin between 1936 and 1938 against so-called Trotskyists and members of Right Opposition of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
Nadezhda Sergeevna Alliluyeva (Наде́жда Серге́евна Аллилу́ева; 22 September 1901 – 9 November 1932) was the second wife of Joseph Stalin.
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, politician, and the wife of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 until his death in 1924.
Name of Russia (Имя Россия, "The Name Russia") was a project of the Russia TV channel aimed to elect the most notable personality in Russian history through Internet, radio and television voting.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Narym (Нарым, Selkup for marsh) is a village (selo) in Parabelsky District of Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Ob River near its confluence with the Ket River, from the village of Parabel.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
After the Nazis rose to power in Germany in 1933, relations between Germany and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly, and trade between the two countries decreased.
The NEPmen (Нэпманы, Nepmani) were businesspeople in the young Soviet Union who took advantage of the opportunities for private trade and small-scale manufacturing provided under the New Economic Policy (NEP, 1921-1928).
Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba (Не́стор Аполло́нович Лако́ба; Нестор Аполлонович Лакоба; 1 May 1893 – 28 December 1936) was an Abkhaz Communist leader.
New Athos or Akhali Atoni (ახალი ათონი, Akhali Atoni; Афон Ҿыц, Afon Ch'yts; Новый Афон; Novy Afon, Νέος Άθως, Neos Athos) is a town in the Gudauta ''raion'' of Abkhazia, situated some from Sukhumi by the shores of the Black Sea.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
The New Soviet man or New Soviet person (новый советский человек novy sovetsky chelovek), as postulated by the ideologists of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was an archetype of a person with specific qualities that were said to be emerging as dominant among all citizens of the Soviet Union, irrespective of the country's cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity, creating a single Soviet people, Soviet nation.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (– 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–1958) under Nikita Khrushchev, following service in the Red Army and as defense minister under Joseph Stalin.
Nikolai Alekseevich Voznesensky (Никола́й Алексе́евич Вознесе́нский, – 1 October 1950) was the Soviet economic planner who oversaw the running of Gosplan during the German-Soviet War.
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.
Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (12 July 1828 – 17 October 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist (seen by some as a utopian socialist).
Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
NKVD Order № 00447 of July 30, 1937 (О репрессировании бывших кулаков, уголовников и других антисоветских элементов) O repressirovanii byvshikh kulakov, ugolovnikov i drugikh antisovyetskikh elementov ("About repression of former kulaks, criminals, and other anti-Soviet elements") was signed by Nikolai Yezhov and approved by Politburo during the Great Purge.
The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.
NKVD troika or Special troika (особая тройка), in Soviet history, were The People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD which would later be the beginning of the KGB) of three persons who issued sentences to people after simplified, speedy investigations and without a public and fair trial.
Norman M. Naimark (born 1944 in New York City) is an American historian.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Novaya Uda (Новая Уда) is a rural locality (a selo) in Ust-Udinsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (tr) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as Okhrana (t) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
Oleg Vitalyevich Khlevniuk (Олег Витальевич Хлевнюк, born July 7, 1959 Vinnytsia, Ukrainian SSR) is a historian and a senior researcher at the State Archive of the Russian Federation in Moscow.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Bagration (Операция Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) a military campaign fought between 22 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Order of the Red Banner (transl) was the first Soviet military decoration.
Osip Aaronovitch Piatnitsky (Осип Аронович Пятницкий; 1882 – 1938), born Iosif Aronovich Tarshis, was a Russian revolutionary.
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
Ostyak (Остя́к) is a name formerly used to refer to several indigenous peoples and languages in Siberia, Russia.
The Palace of the Soviets (Дворец Советов, Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (present-day Russian Federation) near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
Patriarch Sergius (Патриарх Сергий, born Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky, Иван Николаевич Страгородский; – May 15, 1944) was the 12th Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus', from September 8, 1943 until his death.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
The People's Commissariat of Nationalities (abbreviation transliterated as Narkomnats), an organisation functioning from 1917 to 1924 in the early Soviet period of Russian and Soviet history, dealt with non-Russian nationalities.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
Permanent revolution is a term within Marxist theory, coined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels by at least 1850 but which has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
A Phaeton (also Phaéton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Polish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Poles are a Polish nation, and promotes the cultural unity of Poles.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, usually made up of leftists and centrists.
A posthumous trial or post-mortem trial is a trial held after the defendant's death.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Prague Conference, officially the 6th All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, was held in Prague, Austria-Hungary on 5–17 January 1912.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.
A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
Proletariatis Brdzola (Georgian პროლეტარიატის ბრძოლა, 'Struggle of the Proletariat') was an illegal Bolshevik newspaper.
A protection racket is a scheme whereby a group provides protection to businesses or other groups through violence outside the sanction of the law—in other words, a racket that sells security, traditionally physical security but now also computer security.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Robert William "Bob" Davies, best known as R. W. Davies, (born 23 April 1925) is professor emeritus of Soviet Economic Studies, University of Birmingham.
From 1920 to 1934, Rabkrin (Russian: Рабо́че-крестья́нская инспе́кция, Рабкри́н, РКИ, RKI; Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, WPI) was a governmental establishment in the Soviet Union responsible for scrutinizing the state, local, and enterprise administrations.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Razliv railway station (Ста́нция Разли́в) is a railway station located near to Lake Razliv which is in the territory of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Relational aggression or alternative aggressionSimmons, Rachel (2002).
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953.
George Robert Acworth Conquest, CMG, OBE, FBA, FAAAS, FRSL, FBIS (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was an English-American historian, propagandist and poet.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The first constitution of Russia, also called the Basic Law (Основной закон, Osnovnoy zakon) which governed the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the October Revolution of 1917.
Aurora (p) is a 1900 Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in Saint Petersburg.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Legislative elections were held in the Russian Empire from 26 March 1906 till 20 April.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Russian Empire in September 1912 to elect the fourth State Duma.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
Semey (Semeı, Семей), until 2007 known as Semipalatinsk (Semıpalatinsk, Семипалатинск) and in 1917–1920 as Alash-kala (Алаш-қала, Alash-qala), is a city in Kazakhstan, in East Kazakhstan Region, and in the Kazakhstani part of Siberia, near the border with Russia, around north of Almaty, and southeast of the Russian city of Omsk, along the Irtysh River.
Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (a; – October 26, 1973) was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (– 31 March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Senaki (სენაკი; სანაკი) is a town in Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region, western Georgia.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Sergei Mironovich Kirov (born Kostrikov; – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.
Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ კონსტანტინეს ძე ორჯონიკიძე Grigol Konstantines dze Orjonikidze; Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе Grigori Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე; Серго́ Орджоники́дзе);, Kutais Governorate – 18 February 1937, Moscow) was a Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo and close associate of Joseph Stalin. Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Anastas Mikoyan comprised what was jokingly referred to as the "Caucasian Clique.".
The 7th World Congress of the Communist International (Comintern) was a multinational conference held in Moscow from July 25 through August 20, 1935 by delegated representatives of ruling and non-ruling communist parties from around the world and invited guests representing other political and organized labor organizations.
The Shakhty Trial (Ша́хтинское де́ло) was the first important Soviet show trial since the case of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1922.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
Simon Jonathan Sebag Montefiore (born 27 June 1965) is a British historian, television presenter and award-winning author of popular history books and novels.
The Slánský trial (officially Proces s protistátním spikleneckým centrem Rudolfa Slánského meaning "Trial of anti-state conspiracy centered around Rudolf Slánský") was a show trial against elements of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) who were thought to have adopted the line of the maverick Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Smolny Institute (Смольный институт, Smol'niy institut) is a Palladian edifice in St Petersburg that has played a major part in the history of Russia.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because—in addition to a shared corporatist economic model—it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
Solvychegodsk (Сольвычего́дск, lit. "salt on the Vychegda River") is a town in Kotlassky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right-hand bank of the Vychegda River northeast of Kotlas, the administrative center of the district.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet atomic bomb project (Russian: Советский проект атомной бомбы, Sovetskiy proyekt atomnoy bomby) was the classified research and development program that was authorized by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union to develop nuclear weapons during World War II.
The Soviet Census held on January 6, 1937 was the most controversial of the censuses taken within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The last major famine to hit the USSR began in July 1946, reached its peak in February–August 1947 and then quickly diminished in intensity, although there were still some famine deaths in 1948.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
Soviet people (r) or citizens of the USSR (Grázhdane SSSR) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the proto-Soviet Union into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia.
The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (also known as the Soviet-Japanese Border War) was a series of battles and skirmishes between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan, as well as their respective client states of Mongolia and Manchukuo.
The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.
A State farm or Soviet farm (a, abbreviated from советское хозяйство, "sovetskoye khozyaistvo (sovkhoz)"), is a state-owned farm.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The term Stakhanovite originated in the Soviet Union and referred to workers who modelled themselves after Alexey Stakhanov.
The question of how antisemitic Joseph Stalin was is widely discussed by historians.
Stalin and the Scientists: A History of Triumph and Tragedy 1905–1953 is a 2016 popular science non-fiction book on the history of science in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin by English novelist and science writer, Simon Ings.
Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday.
Before he became a Bolshevik revolutionary and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin was a promising poet.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stanisław Vikentyevich Kosior, sometimes spelled Kossior (18 November 1889 – 26 February 1939) was one of three Kosior brothers, ethnically Polish Soviet politicians.
The "State Anthem of the Soviet Union" (italic), also unofficially known as "Slav’sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye" was the official national anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the state anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, replacing "The Internationale".
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporatized government agencies (agencies organized along business-management practices) or of publicly listed corporations in which the state has controlling shares.
The State Defense Committee (translit) was an extraordinary organ of state power in the USSR during the German-Soviet War (Great Patriotic War) which held complete state power in the country.
The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stephen G. Wheatcroft (born 1 June 1947) is professor of the School of Historical Studies, University of Melbourne.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
The Sverdlov Communist University was a school for Soviet activists in Moscow, founded in 1918 as the Central School for Soviet and Party Work.
Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva (Светла́на Ио́сифовна Аллилу́ева;;; 28 February 1926 – 22 November 2011), later known as Lana Peters, was the youngest child and only daughter of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva, Stalin's second wife.
Szklarska Poręba (Schreiberhau) is a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary (თბილისის სასულიერო სემინარია, Тбили́сская духо́вная семина́рия) is a spiritual training institution, which operated from 1817 to 1919 in the Georgian Exarchate of the Russian Orthodox church.
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
Territorial changes of Russia happened by means of military conquest and by ideological and political unions in the course of over five centuries (1533-today).
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties is a book by British historian Robert Conquest, published in 1968.
History of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): Short Course (История Всесоюзной Коммунистической Партии (Большевиков): Краткий курс), translated to English under the title History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course, is a textbook on the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, first published in 1938.
"The Internationale" (L'Internationale) is a left-wing anthem.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The Patricide (მამის მკვლელი) is a novel by Alexander Kazbegi, first published in 1882.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Tiflis Governorate (Old Russian: Тифлисская губернія; ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia).
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (Трофи́м Дени́сович Лысе́нко, Трохи́м Дени́сович Лисе́нко; 20 November 1976) was a Soviet agronomist and biologist.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Turukhansk (Туруха́нск) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Turukhansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located north of Krasnoyarsk, at the confluence of the Yenisey and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Opposition (sometimes also called the Joint Opposition) was a group formed in the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in early 1926, when the Left Opposition led by Leon Trotsky, merged with the New Opposition led by Grigory Zinoviev and his close ally Lev Kamenev, in order to strengthen opposition against the Joseph Stalin led Centre.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Valdai Hills (Валда́йская возвы́шенность or Валда́й) are an upland region in the north-west of central Russia running north-south, about midway between Saint Petersburg and Moscow, spanning Leningrad, Novgorod, Tver, Pskov, and Smolensk Oblasts.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (Васи́лий Семёнович Гро́ссман, Василь Семенович Гроссман; 12 December (29 November, Julian calendar) 1905 – 14 September 1964) was a Jewish Russian writer and journalist, who lived the bulk of his life under the Soviet regime.
Vasily Iosifovich Stalin (Васи́лий Ио́сифович Ста́лин; né Dzhugashvili; Джугашви́ли; 21 March 1921 – 19 March 1962) was the son of Joseph Stalin by his second wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Volga-Volga (Волга-Волга) is a Soviet film comedy directed by Grigori Aleksandrov, released on April 24, 1938.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
Vologda (p) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River within the watershed of the Northern Dvina.
Vologda Oblast (r) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.
The Wall of Grief (Стена скорби, Stena skorbi, sometimes translated as Wall of Sorrow) is a monument in Moscow to the victims of political persecution by Joseph Stalin during the country's Soviet era.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
What Is To Be Done? (Chto délat'?; also translated as "What Shall We Do?" and literally translated as "What To Do?") is an 1863 novel written by the Russian philosopher, journalist and literary critic Nikolai Chernyshevsky.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II fatalities of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered more than 20,000,000, both civilian and military, although the exact figures are disputed.
Yakov Iosifovich Jugashvili (იაკობ იოსების ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Iakob Iosebis dze Jugashvili, Я́ков Ио́сифович Джугашви́ли; 18 March 1907 – 14 April 1943) was the eldest of Joseph Stalin's four children, the son of Stalin's first wife, Kato Svanidze.
Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
− Zaporizhia (Запорі́жжя) or Zaporozhye (Запоро́жье), formerly Alexandrovsk (Алекса́ндровск), (Олександрівськ), is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River.
The Zhenotdel (p), the women's department of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), was the section of the Russian Communist party devoted to women's affairs in the 1920s.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 11th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 27 March - 2 April 1922 in Moscow.
The 11th Politburo and the 11th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 11th Congress.
The 13th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 23–31 May 1924 in Moscow.
The 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 18–31 December 1925 in Moscow.
The 18th Orgburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 18th Congress.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1907 Tiflis bank robbery, also known as the Yerevan Square expropriation, was an armed robbery on 26 June 1907 in the city of Tiflis in the Tiflis Governorate in the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire (now Georgia's capital, Tbilisi).
The Menshevik Trial was one of the early purges carried out by Stalin in which 14 economists, who were former members of the Menshevik party, were put on trial and convicted for trying to re-establish their party.
The 19th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 19th Congress.
The 19th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 19th Congress.
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.
The 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (XXII съезд КПСС) was held from 17 to 31 October 1961.
The Fourth (Unity) Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party that took place in Stockholm, Sweden, from 10-25 April (23 April to 8 May), 1906.
The 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held in London between May 13 and June 1, 1907.
The 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolsheviks) was held during 26 July - 3 August (N.S. 8–16 August 1917) in Petrograd, Russia.
The 9th Congress of the Russian Communist Party took place from 29 March 1920 till 5 April 1920.
The 9th Politburo, the 9th Secretariat and the 9th Orgburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 9th Congress.
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