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Index Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. [1]

133 relations: Abraham, Aeneas, Against Apion, Alexandria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Anti-Judaism, Antiquities of the Jews, Apion, Aqueduct (bridge), Aramaic language, Archaeology, Arnoldus Arlenius, Arraba, Israel, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, Benedict Arnold, Benedikt Niese, Bersabe, Brill Publishers, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Classical antiquity, Collins English Dictionary, Continuum International Publishing Group, Crete, Cyrene, Libya, Dead Sea Scrolls, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades, Domitian, Dumuzid, Early Christianity, Ehud Netzer, Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, Essenes, First Jewish–Roman War, Flavian dynasty, Flavius Hyrcanus, Flavius Justus, Flavius Simonides Agrippa, Galilee, Greco-Roman world, Greek language, Greeks, Hagiography, Hasmonean dynasty, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hellenistic Judaism, Henry St. John Thackeray, Herod the Great, ..., Herodium, High Priest of Israel, Hippolytus of Rome, Historian, History of the Jews in the Roman Empire, Humanism, Jehoiarib, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Jewish history, Jewish–Roman wars, Jish, John of Giscala, John the Baptist, Josephus (grandfather of Josephus), Josephus on Jesus, Josephus problem, Josippon, Judaism, Judea (Roman province), Karl Wilhelm Dindorf, Kohen, Latin, Lion Feuchtwanger, Loeb Classical Library, Louis Feldman, Maccabees, Manetho, Matthias (brother of Josephus), Matthias (father of Josephus), Mesopotamia, Messiah in Judaism, Monarchy, Moses, Nero, Origen, Oxford University Press, Pauline epistles, Perseus Project, Peter Lang (publisher), Pharisees, Philosophy, Pontius Pilate, Praenomen, Prophecy, Pseudo-Philo, Quirinius, Religion, Roman army, Roman citizenship, Roman emperor, Roman governor, Roman naming conventions, Romanticism, Romulus, Sadducees, Sanhedrin, Science, Second Temple, Seron, Sheffield Academic Press, Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Siege of Masada, Siege of Yodfat, Simon Claude Mimouni, Simon Psellus, Steve Mason (biblical scholar), Tanakh, Tarichaea, Temple in Jerusalem, The Jewish War, The Life of Flavius Josephus, The New York Times, Thomas Lodge, Titus, Torah Judaism, University of California Press, University of Münster, Vespasian, William Whiston, Yodfat, Zealots. Expand index (83 more) »


Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.

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In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).

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Against Apion

Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.

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Antiquities of the Jews

Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.

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Apion (Ἀπίων; 30-20 BC – c. AD 45-48) was a Hellenized Egyptian grammarian, sophist, and commentator on Homer.

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Aqueduct (bridge)

Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Arnoldus Arlenius

Arnoldus Arlenius Peraxylus, (c. 1510 – 1582), born Arndt or Arnout van Eyndhouts or van Eynthouts, also known as Arnoud de Lens, was a Dutch humanist philosopher and poet.

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Arraba, Israel

Arraba (عرّابة; עַרָבָּה), also known as 'Arrabat al-Battuf, is an Arab city in Israel.

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Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt

Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, commonly referred to by its German acronym, ANRW, or in English as Rise and Decline of the Roman World, is an extensive collection of books dealing with the history and culture of ancient Rome.

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Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.

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Benedikt Niese

Jürgen Anton Benedikt Niese (24 November 1849 – 1 February 1910), also known as Benedict, Benediktus or Benedictus Niese, was a German classical scholar.

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Bersabe;(), or Beer Sheba of the Galilee, was a Second Temple period Jewish village located near the town of Kefar Hananya which marked the boundary between the Upper Galilee and the Lower Galilee, as described by Josephus, with Upper Galilee stretching from Bersabe in the Beit HaKerem Valley to Baca (Peki'in) in the north.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Christian Classics Ethereal Library

The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Collins English Dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.

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Continuum International Publishing Group

Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cyrene, Libya

Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.

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Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.

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Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades

Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades is a short treatise believed to be the work of Hippolytus of Rome.

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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.

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Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Ehud Netzer

Ehud Netzer (אהוד נצר 13 May 1934 – 28 October 2010 5 November 2010 |accessdate.

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Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism

Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism is a peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of the American Humanist Association.

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The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.

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First Jewish–Roman War

The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Flavian dynasty

The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).

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Flavius Hyrcanus

Titus Flavius Hyrcanus (Τίτος Φλάβιος Ὑρκανός., flourished second half of the 1st century & first half of the 2nd century, born 73) was an aristocratic, wealthy Roman Jew.

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Flavius Justus

Titus Flavius Justus (Τίτος Θλάβιος Ίούστος., born 76) was an aristocratic, wealthy Roman Jew.

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Flavius Simonides Agrippa

Titus Flavius Simonides Agrippa, also known as Titus Flavius Agrippa (Τίτος Φλάβιος Σιμονίδης ό Άγρίππας, flourished in the second half of 1st century & first half of 2nd century, born CE 79), and was an aristocratic, wealthy Roman Jew.

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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Hasmonean dynasty

The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Hellenistic Judaism

Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.

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Henry St. John Thackeray

Henry St.

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Herod the Great

Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.

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Herodium (Latin), Herodeion (Ἡρώδειον), best known in Israel as Herodion (הרודיון) and in Arabic as Jabal al-Fureidis (هيروديون, lit. "Mountain of the Little Paradise"); also Har Hordos is a truncated-cone-shaped hill, south of Jerusalem and southeast of Bethlehem, in the Judaean Desert, West Bank.

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High Priest of Israel

High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.

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Hippolytus of Rome

Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.

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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

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History of the Jews in the Roman Empire

The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Jehoiarib (Yehōyārîḇ, "Yahweh contends") was the head of a family of priests, which was made the first of the twenty-four priestly divisions organized by King David.().

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium

Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium is a 1999 book by leading New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman.

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Jewish history

Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.

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Jewish–Roman wars

The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE.

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Jish (الجش; גִ'שׁ, גּוּשׁ חָלָב, Gush Halav) is a local council in Upper Galilee, located on the northeastern slopes of Mount Meron, north of Safed, in Israel's Northern District.

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John of Giscala

John of Giscala (יוחנן מגוש חלב Yohanan mi-Gush Halav or Yohanan ben Levi), the son of Levi, (birth date unknown; death date after 70), was a leader of the Jewish revolt against the Romans in the First Jewish-Roman War, and played a part in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE.

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John the Baptist

John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.

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Josephus (grandfather of Josephus)

Josephus (Ἰώσηπος; flourished 1st century BC and 1st century, born about 30 BC) was an ethnic Jew living in Jerusalem.

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Josephus on Jesus

The extant manuscripts of the writings of the first-century Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus include references to Jesus and the origins of Christianity.

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Josephus problem

In computer science and mathematics, the Josephus problem (or Josephus permutation) is a theoretical problem related to a certain counting-out game.

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Josippon is a chronicle of Jewish history from Adam to the age of Titus believed to have been written by Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judea (Roman province)

The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

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Karl Wilhelm Dindorf

Karl Wilhelm Dindorf (Guilielmus Dindorfius; 2 January 1802 – 1 August 1883) was a German classical scholar.

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Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lion Feuchtwanger

Lion Feuchtwanger (7 July 1884 – 21 December 1958) was a German-Jewish novelist and playwright.

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Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.

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Louis Feldman

Louis Harry Feldman (October 29, 1926 – March 25, 2017) was an American professor of classics and literature.

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The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.

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Manetho (Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC.

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Matthias (brother of Josephus)

Matthias (Ματθίας, flourished 1st century) was an ethnic Jew living in Jerusalem.

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Matthias (father of Josephus)

Matthias (Ματθίας; 6–70) was a first-century AD Jewish priest at the Temple in Jerusalem and the father of historian Josephus.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Messiah in Judaism

The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.

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A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.

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Perseus Project

The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Peter Lang (publisher)

Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.

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The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pontius Pilate

Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.

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The praenomen (plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child.

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A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.

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Pseudo-Philo is the name commonly used for a Jewish work in Latin, so called (false Philo) because it was transmitted along with Latin translations of the works of Philo of Alexandria, but is very obviously not written by Philo.

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Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Roman army

The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Roman citizenship

Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman governor

A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.

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Roman naming conventions

Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.

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The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.

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The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Second Temple

The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.

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In Flavius Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews Seron was a town built shortly after Noah's Ark rested on the mountains.

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Sheffield Academic Press

Sheffield Academic Press was an academic imprint based at the University of Sheffield known for publications in the fields of Biblical and religious studies.

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Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE)

The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.

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Siege of Masada

The siege of Masada was one of the final events in the First Jewish–Roman War, occurring from 73 to 74 CE on and around a large hilltop in current-day Israel.

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Siege of Yodfat

The Siege of Yodfat (יוֹדְפַת, also Jotapata, Iotapata, Yodefat) was a 47-day siege by Roman forces of the Jewish town of Yodfat which took place in 67 CE, during the Great Revolt.

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Simon Claude Mimouni

Simon Claude Mimouni (born 26 April 1949, Bône, French Algeria) is a French biblical scholar.

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Simon Psellus

Simon PsellusJosephus, Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary pp.7–8 (Σίμων ὁ Ψελλός, his epithet Ψελλός was his nickname meaning in Greek: the stutter,Fergus, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. – A.D. 135) pp.45–46 flourished 2nd century BC) was an ethnic Jew living in Jerusalem.

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Steve Mason (biblical scholar)

Steve N. Mason (born 1957) is a Canadian historian of Judea in the Graeco-Roman period, best known for his studies of Josephus and early Christian writings.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tarichaea (Ταριχαία or Ταριχέα), alternative spellings, Tarichese; Tarichess; Tarichee, (Heb: מלחה), is the Greek place name for a historic site, formerly situated along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, and mentioned in the writings of Josephus (Ant. 14.20; 20. 159; J.W. 1. 180; 2. 252; Vita 32, et al.). Tarichaea was one of the first villages in Galilee to have sustained an attack by Rome, during the First Jewish-Roman War.

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Temple in Jerusalem

The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.

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The Jewish War

The Jewish War or Judean War (in full Flavius Josephus's Books of the History of the Jewish War against the Romans, Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία, Phlauiou Iōsēpou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Rōmaious biblia), also referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century.

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The Life of Flavius Josephus

The Life of (Flavius) Josephus (Ἰωσήπου βίος Iosepou bios), also called the "Life of Flavius Josephus", or simply Vita, is an autobiographical text written by Josephus in approximately 94-99 CE – possibly as an appendix to his Antiquities of the Jews (cf. Life 430) – where the author for the most part re-visits the events of the War, apparently in response to allegations made against him by Justus of Tiberias (cf. Life 336).

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomas Lodge

Thomas Lodge (c.1558 – September 1625) was an English physician and author during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.

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Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.

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Torah Judaism

Torah Judaism is an English term used by Orthodox Jewish groups to describe their Judaism as being based on an adherence to the laws of the Torah's mitzvot, as expounded in Orthodox Halakha.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Münster

The University of Münster (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

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Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.

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William Whiston

William Whiston (9 December 1667 – 22 August 1752) was an English theologian, historian, and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton.

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Yodfat (יוֹדְפַת), is a moshav shitufi in northern Israel.

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The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).

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Redirects here:

Flavious Josephus, Flavius Iosephus, Flavius Josephus, Joseph Ben Matthias, Joseph Ben Mattias, Joseph ben Matityahu, Josephis, Josephus Flavius, Mattatyahu ben Yosef, Titus Flavius Josephus, Yosef Ben Matityahu, Yosef ben Matityahu, יוסף בן מתתיהו.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephus

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