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Index Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish. [1]

259 relations: Abraham, Abraham Palacci, Adriatic Sea, Affricate consonant, Aki Yerushalayim, Aliyah, Aljamiado, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Alphabet, Alveolar consonant, American Jews, Anna Lindh, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Aramaic language, Argentina, Aryeh Kaplan, Ashkenazi Jews, Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Astur-Leonese languages, Asturian language, Auschwitz concentration camp, Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino, Şalom, Back vowel, Balkans, Belgium, Belgrade, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Bilabial consonant, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian language, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, Canada, Canton of Grisons, Catalan language, Cicurel family, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Complutense University of Madrid, Coney Island, Consonant, Converso, Cursive Hebrew, Cyrillic script, David M. Bunis, ..., Dönmeh, Dental consonant, Dialect levelling, Diccionario de la lengua española, Ein Keloheinu, Elysian Fields (band), Enderûnlu Fâzıl, England, Ethnologue, Every Time We Say Goodbye (film), Exonym and endonym, Expatriate, Expulsion of Jews from Spain, Ferrara Bible, First language, Flamenco, Flap consonant, Flory Jagoda, Folk etymology, Fortuna (Brazilian singer), France, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fulbright Program, Fusional language, Galician language, Galician-Portuguese, Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, Greece, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Haaretz, Habsburg Netherlands, Haim Palachi, Haketia, He (letter), Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Highland Park, New Jersey, History of the Jews in the Middle Ages, History of the Jews in Thessaloniki, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Iliad, Imperfect, In Extremo, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interwar period, Israel, Istanbul, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, Jennifer Charles, Jewish languages, Jewish Publication Society, Jewish quarter (diaspora), Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Judaeo-Portuguese, Judaeo-Romance languages, Judaeo-Spanish Wikipedia, Judaism, Judeo-Arabic languages, Judeo-Aramaic languages, Judeo-Malayalam, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Knaanic language, Kol Yisrael, Kuando el rey Nimrod, Labiodental consonant, Ladin language, Language death, Latin alphabet, Latin America, Latin script, Latin translations of the 12th century, Laura Papo Bohoreta, Law, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Law & Order: Criminal Intent (season 3), Leonese dialect, Lingua franca, Linguist List, Los Serenos Sefarad, Margalit Matitiahu, Maronite Church, Mater lectionis, Me'am Lo'ez, Mediterranean Basin, Mestizo, Mexico, Middle Ages, Middle East, Midwife, Minority group, Minority language, Mishkan T'filah, Morocco, Morphosyntactic alignment, Moses, Mozarabic language, Nasal consonant, Nation state, Navarro-Aragonese, Nebuchadnezzar II, Nimrod, North Africa, North America, Northeast Italy, Odyssey, Old Catalan, Old Spanish language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Oran (department), Oren Bloedow, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Palatal consonant, Pallache family, Persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal, Pharaoh, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Preterite, Pronoun, Questione Ladina, Radio Exterior, Radio Nacional de España, Rahamim Nissim Palacci, Rashi script, Reform Judaism, Religion, Renaissance, Republic of Macedonia, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Rhodes, Romance languages, Romansh language, Royal Spanish Academy, Sabbatai Zevi, Sabbateans, Samekh, Sarajevo, Seattle, Semitic languages, Sephardi Jews, Sephardic Jews in India, Sephardic music, Serbia, Serbo-Croatian, Shabbat, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, Shin (letter), Siddur, Slavic languages, Solitreo, South Africa, South America, Spain, Spain in the Middle Ages, Spanish National Research Council, Spirituality, Stop consonant, Syntax, Tangier, Targum (Aramaic dialects), Tétouan, Tenerife, Terah, Tetuani Ladino, The Holocaust, The House on Chelouche Street, Thessaloniki, Torah, Trill consonant, Trinity, Tufts University, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, United Kingdom, United States, University of La Laguna, University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, Uruguay, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Voice of the Turtle, Vowel, Vulgar Latin vocabulary, Waw (letter), West Iberian languages, Western Europe, Western Romance languages, Word order, World War II, Yasmin Levy, Yeísmo, Yiddish. Expand index (209 more) »


Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.

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Abraham Palacci

Abraham Palacci (1809 or 1810–January 2, 1898) was a grand rabbi and author (in Ladino and Hebrew) of Izmir, was the son of grand rabbi Haim Palachi and brother of grand rabbi Rahamim Nissim Palacci and rabbi Joseph Palacci.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Aki Yerushalayim

Aki Yerushalayim (meaning "Here Jerusalem") is an Israeli magazine in Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) published two to three times a year between 1979 and 2016.

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Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).

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Aljamiado (عَجَمِيَة trans. ''ʿajamiyah'') or Aljamía texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially Romance languages such as Mozarabic, Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino, and Bosnian with its Arebica script.

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Alliance Israélite Universelle

The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.

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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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American Jews

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.

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Anna Lindh

Ylva Anna Maria Lindh (19 June 1957 – 11 September 2003) was a Swedish Social Democratic politician who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1998 to 2003 and Minister for the Environment from 1994 to 1996.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Aryeh Kaplan

Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (אריה משה אליהו קפלן.; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi and author known for his knowledge of physics and kabbalah.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Association of Academies of the Spanish Language

The Association of Academies of the Spanish Language (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, ASALE) is an entity whose end is to work for the unity, integrity, and growth of the Spanish language.

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Astur-Leonese languages

Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.

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Asturian language

Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.

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Auschwitz concentration camp

Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.

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Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino

Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino ("National Authority of Ladino") is a national Israeli organization created in 1997 with the goal of preserving and safeguarding Judaeo-Spanish, commonly known as Ladino.

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Şalom is a Jewish weekly newspaper published in Turkey.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.

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Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב, Universitat Ben-Guriyon baNegev) is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canton of Grisons

The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Cicurel family

The Cicurels were a prominent Sephardic Jewish family in Egypt throughout the first half of the 20th century, best known for the elite department store chain bearing their family name.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Complutense University of Madrid

The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid or Universidad de Madrid, Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world.

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Coney Island

Coney Island is a peninsular residential neighborhood, beach, and leisure/entertainment destination of Long Island on the Coney Island Channel, which is part of the Lower Bay in the southwestern part of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.

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Cursive Hebrew

Cursive Hebrew (כתב עברי רהוט, "Flowing Hebrew Writing", or כתב יד עברי, "Hebrew Handwriting", often called simply כתב, "Writing") is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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David M. Bunis

David Monson Bunis (Hebrew:, born June 3, 1952 to Jacob and Marsha Monsohn Bunis) is a professor in the Department of Hebrew and Jewish Languages, Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies, at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and heads its program in Judezmo (or Ladino) studies.

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The Dönmeh (Dönme) were a group of crypto-Sabbateans (commonly referred to as crypto-Jews) in the Ottoman Empire who converted publicly to Islam, but were said to have retained their beliefs.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dialect levelling

Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.

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Diccionario de la lengua española

The Diccionario de la lengua española (English: Dictionary of the Spanish language), also known as the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) (English: Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy), is a dictionary of the Spanish language.

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Ein Keloheinu

Ein Keloheinu (in Hebrew: אֱין כֱּאלֹהֱינוּ, "there is none like our God") is a well known Jewish hymn.

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Elysian Fields (band)

Elysian Fields is an American band based in Brooklyn, New York, founded in 1995 by the co-composers Jennifer Charles (vocals, instruments) and Oren Bloedow (guitar).

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Enderûnlu Fâzıl

Enderûnlu Fâzıl (1757–1810) was an Ottoman poet who depicted the beauty of men from various lands of the Ottoman Empire.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Every Time We Say Goodbye (film)

Every Time We Say Goodbye is a 1986 American drama film starring Tom Hanks and Cristina Marsillach.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.

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Expulsion of Jews from Spain

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain was ordered in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs ruling Castile and Aragon through the Edict of Granada with the purpose, according to the decree, of preventing them from influencing "New Christians", Jews and their descendants who had under duress converted to Christianity.

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Ferrara Bible

The Ferrara Bible was a 1553 publication of the Ladino version of the Tanakh used by Sephardi Jews.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Flory Jagoda

Flory Jagoda (born Flora Kabilio on 21 December 1926) is a Bosnian Jewish born American guitarist, composer and singer-songwriter.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Fortuna (Brazilian singer)

Fortuna is a Brazilian female singer-songwriter of Sephardic Jewish background, and a researcher of the Sephardic tradition since 1992.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917

The fire as seen from the quay in 1917. The fire as seen from the Thermaic Gulf. The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 (Μεγάλη Πυρκαγιά της Θεσσαλονίκης, 1917) destroyed two thirds of the city of Thessaloniki, the second-largest city in Greece, leaving more than 70,000 homeless.

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No description.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.

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Habsburg Netherlands

Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.

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Haim Palachi

Haim Palachi (חיים פלאג'י חיים פאלאדזשי; Acronym: MaHaRHaF or HaVIF) (January 28, 1788– February 10, 1868) was a Jewish-Turkish chief rabbi of Smyrna (İzmir) and author in Ladino and Hebrew.

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Haketia (חַכִּיתִּיָה, حاكيتيا, Haquetía) (also written as Hakitia or Haquitía) is an endangered Jewish Romance language also known as Djudeo Spañol, Ladino Occidental, or Western Judaeo-Spanish.

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He (letter)

He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Highland Park, New Jersey

Highland Park is a borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States.

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History of the Jews in the Middle Ages

Jewish history in the Middle Ages covers the period from the 5th to the 15th century.

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History of the Jews in Thessaloniki

The history of the Jews of Thessaloniki, (Greece) reaches back two thousand years.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Iberian Romance languages

The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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In Extremo

In Extremo (At the Edge) is a German medieval metal band originating from Berlin.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jennifer Charles

Jennifer Charles (born November 15, 1968) is an American singer, musician, composer, and poet.

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Jewish languages

Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities in the diaspora.

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Jewish Publication Society

The Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English.

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Jewish quarter (diaspora)

In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter (also known as jewry, juiverie, Judengasse, Jewynstreet, or proto-ghetto) is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews.

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Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Jews of Bosnia and Herzegovina or Bosnian Jews have a rich and varied history, surviving World War II and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been established as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust.

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Judaeo-Portuguese, or Lusitanic, is the extinct Jewish language that was used by the Jews of Portugal.

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Judaeo-Romance languages

Judaeo-Romance languages are Jewish languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by various Jewish communities (and their descendants) originating in regions where Romance languages predominate, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right.

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Judaeo-Spanish Wikipedia

Judaeo-Spanish Wikipedia or Ladino Wikipedia is the Judaeo-Spanish-language version of Wikipedia.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judeo-Arabic languages

The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.

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Judeo-Aramaic languages

Judaeo-Aramaic is a group of Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages.

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Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language of the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by a few dozens of people in Israel and by probably fewer than 25 in India.

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

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Knaanic language

Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan, Judaeo-Czech, Judeo-Slavic) is an extinct West Slavic Jewish language, formerly spoken in the lands of the Western Slavs, notably the Czech lands, but also the lands of modern Poland, Lusatia, and other Sorbian regions.

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Kol Yisrael

Kol Yisrael (lit. "Voice of Israel", also "Israel Radio") is Israel's public domestic and international radio service.

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Kuando el rey Nimrod

"Kuando el rey Nimrod" (or modern Spanish spelling: Cuando el Rey Nimrod; "When Nimrod was king") is a Sephardic folk song.

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Labiodental consonant

In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

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Ladin language

Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Latin translations of the 12th century

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

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Laura Papo Bohoreta

Laura Papo Bohoreta (born: Luna Levi) (March 15, 1891 – 1942), was a Bosnian Jewish feminist, writer, and translator who devoted her research to the condition of the Sephardic women in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Law & Order: Criminal Intent

Law & Order: Criminal Intent is an American police procedural television drama series set in New York City, where it was also primarily produced. Created and produced by Dick Wolf and René Balcer, the series premiered on September 30, 2001, as the third series in Wolf's successful ''Law & Order'' franchise. Criminal Intent focuses on the investigations of the Major Case Squad in a fictionalized version of the New York City Police Department set in New York City's One Police Plaza. In the style of the original Law & Order, episodes are often "ripped from the headlines" or loosely based on a real crime that received media attention. The series aired on NBC for the first six seasons but was moved to the NBCUniversal-owned USA Network starting with the seventh season to share costs and due to declining ratings. During its NBC run, each episode aired on USA the week after its original NBC airing. The 10th and final season premiered on Sunday, May 1, 2011, at 9 p.m. EDT with original cast members Vincent D'Onofrio and Kathryn Erbe starring as Detectives Robert Goren and Alexandra Eames, respectively, and featuring Jay O. Sanders as Captain Joseph Hannah. The series ended on June 26, 2011, after 10 seasons comprising 195 episodes.

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Law & Order: Criminal Intent (season 3)

The third season of Law & Order: Criminal Intent premiered in the United States on NBC on September 28, 2003 and ended May 23, 2004.

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Leonese dialect

Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguist List

The LINGUIST List is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics.

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Los Serenos Sefarad

Los Serenos Sefarad ("The Sefarad Watchmen") is an American Judaeo-Spanish-language Jewish hip hop group from Seattle, Washington.

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Margalit Matitiahu

Margalit Matitiahu (Hebrew: מרגלית מתתיהו, born 1935 in Tel Aviv) is a poet in Ladino and Hebrew from Israel.

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Maronite Church

The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

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Mater lectionis

In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.

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Me'am Lo'ez

Me'am Lo'ez (מעם לועז), initiated by Rabbi Yaakov Culi in 1730, is a widely studied commentary on the Tanakh written in Ladino.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Minority language

A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.

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Mishkan T'filah

Mishkan T'filah—A Reform Siddur is a prayer book prepared for Reform Jewish congregations around the world by the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR).

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Morphosyntactic alignment

In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Mozarabic language

Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language once spoken in a large part of the Ebro River basin, south of the middle Pyrenees, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory.

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Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.

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Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northeast Italy

Northeast Italy (Italia nord-orientale or just Nord-est) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Old Catalan

Old Catalan was the Romance variety spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the island of Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon.

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Old Spanish language

Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Oran (department)

Oran is a former French département in Algeria existing from 1848 until 1962.

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Oren Bloedow

Oren Bloedow (born July 3, 1965 in New York City) is an American singer, guitarist, and composer.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Pallache family

"Pallache" – also (de) Palacio(s), Palache, Palachi, Palacci, Palaggi, and many other variations (documented below) – is the surname of a prominent, Ladino-speaking, Sephardic Jewish family from the Iberian Peninsula, who spread mostly through the Mediterranean after the Alhambra Decree of March 31, 1492, and related events.

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Persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal

On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.

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Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetic transcription

Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).

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Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives

In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Questione Ladina

The Questione Ladina is a scientific debate about how to categorise several Romance languages or dialects that are spoken in the Alps.

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Radio Exterior

Radio Exterior (REE) is a Spanish international radio station operated by Radio Nacional de España and founded in 1942.

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Radio Nacional de España

Radio Nacional de España (RNE) (National Radio of Spain) is Spain's national public radio service.

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Rahamim Nissim Palacci

Rahamim Nissim Isaac Palacci (also "Palaggi," "Palagi," "Falaji," and many variations) (1813–1907) was a rabbi and author in Izmir, Turkey, and descendent of the Pallache family.

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Rashi script

Rashi script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet.

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Reform Judaism

Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Rhaeto-Romance languages

Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.

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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romansh language

Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.

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Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.

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Sabbatai Zevi

Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.

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Sabbateans (Sabbatians) is a complex general term that refers to a variety of followers of disciples and believers in Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676), a Jewish rabbi who was proclaimed to be the Jewish Messiah in 1665 by Nathan of Gaza.

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Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.

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Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.

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Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Sephardic Jews in India

Sephardic Jews in India are European Jews who settled in southwest India, in Goa, Madras (now Chennai) and, primarily and for the longest period, on the Malabar coast, after having left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search of religious freedom due to the Spanish Inquisition in both Spain and Portugal.

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Sephardic music

Sephardic music is an umbrella term used to refer to the music of the Sephardic Jewish community.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego

Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego are figures from chapter 3 of the Book of Daniel, three Hebrew men thrown into a fiery furnace by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, when they refuse to bow down to the king's image; the three are preserved from harm and the king sees four men walking in the flames, "the fourth...

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Shin (letter)

Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).

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A siddur (סדור; plural siddurim סדורים) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Solitreo is a cursive form of the Hebrew alphabet.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spain in the Middle Ages

In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula.

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Spanish National Research Council

The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.

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Targum (Aramaic dialects)

Targum is used by the Jews of northern Iraq and Kurdistan to refer to a variety of Aramaic dialects spoken by them till recent times.

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Tétouan (تطوان, ⵜⵉⵟⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ, Tétouan, Tetuán) is a city in northern Morocco.

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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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Terah or Térach (תֶּרַח, Téraḥ, "Ibex, wild goat", or "Wanderer; loiterer") is a biblical figure in the Book of Genesis, son of Nahor, son of Serug and father of the Patriarch Abraham, all descendants of Shem's son Arpachshad.

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Tetuani Ladino

Tetuani (or Tétouani; تطوانى; or Haketia) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Jewish Romance language historically spoken by the North African Sephardim in the Algerian city of Oran.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The House on Chelouche Street

The House on Chelouche Street is a 1973 film by Israeli director Moshé Mizrahi, filmed in Hebrew, Egyptian Arabic, and Judeo-Spanish (a.k.a. Ladino, a Jewish language mostly derived from Old Castilian).

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Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Tufts University

Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of La Laguna

The University of La Laguna (in Spanish: Universidad de La Laguna), also known as the ULL, is situated in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of Washington

The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

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Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Voice of the Turtle

Voice of the Turtle is a musical group specializing in Sephardic music.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vulgar Latin vocabulary

This article lists some vocabulary of Vulgar Latin.

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Waw (letter)

Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).

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West Iberian languages

West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages that includes Castilian (Spanish and Judaeo-Spanish/Ladino), Astur-Leonese (Asturian, Extremaduran, Leonese, Mirandese and Cantabrian, where cantabrian language is listed in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western Romance languages

Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yasmin Levy

Yasmin Levy (יסמין לוי; born December 23, 1975 in Jerusalem) is an Israeli-Spanish singer-songwriter of Judeo-Spanish music.

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Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal lateral approximant phoneme (written) and its merger into the phoneme (written), usually realized as a palatal approximant or affricate.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Redirects here:

Balkan Judaeo-Spanish, Djudeo-Espanyol, Djudezmo, Dzhudezma, Dzhudezmo, ISO 639:lad, Judaeo-Ladino, Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language, Judaeo-Spanish language, Judeo Spanish, Judeo-Espagnol, Judeo-Spanish, Judeo-Spanish language, Judezmo, Judezmo language, Judæo-Spanish, Judæo-Spanish language, Ladino (language), Ladino language, Phonemes of Judeo-Spanish, Spanyolit.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaeo-Spanish

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