122 relations: Aelia Capitolina, Annius Rufus, Antipater the Idumaean, Antonius Felix, Augustus, Autonomous administrative division, Babylonia, Babylonian captivity, Bar Kokhba revolt, Beit She'an, Caesarea Maritima, Caligula, Census of Quirinius, Claudius, Common Era, Consul, Coponius, Cuspius Fadus, Decapolis, Diocletian, Edom, Egypt (Roman province), Equites, Ethnarch, First Jewish–Roman War, Fiscus Judaicus, Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus, Galilee, Gessius Florus, Gnaeus Pompeius Longinus, Golan Heights, Hasmonean dynasty, Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Herbert Danby, Herod Agrippa, Herod Agrippa II, Herod Antipas, Herod Archelaus, Herod the Great, Herodian dynasty, Herodian kingdom, Herodian Tetrarchy, Herodians, High Priest of Israel, Hyrcanus II, Imperial province, Jerusalem, Jerusalem Talmud, Jewish–Roman wars, Jews, ..., Josephus, Judah ha-Nasi, Judea, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Kingdom of Judah, Kitos War, Legatus, List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers, Lucceius Albinus, Lucilius Bassus, Lucius Flavius Silva, Lusius Quietus, Magistrate, Marcellus (prefect of Judea), Marcus Ambivulus, Marcus Antonius Julianus, Mark Antony, Marullus (prefect of Judea), Mishnah, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Negev, Origins of Christianity, Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Salutaris, Palaestina Secunda, Parthian Empire, Perea, Petra, Philip the Tetrarch, Pompey, Pontius Pilate, Porcius Festus, Praetor, Prefect, Principate, Procurator (Ancient Rome), Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, Quintus Pompeius Falco, Quintus Tineius Rufus (consul 127), Quirinius, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman province, Roman Senate, Roman Syria, Roman–Parthian Wars, Salvidenus, Samaria, Sebastia, Nablus, Second Temple, Second Temple Judaism, Sejanus, Senatorial province, Sepphoris, Sextus Hermentidius Campanus, Sextus Julius Severus, Sextus Vettulenus Cerialis, Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC), Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Siege of Masada, Syria Palaestina, Talmud, Tannaim, Third Mithridatic War, Tiberian vocalization, Tiberianus, Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes (suffect consul 133), Tiberius Julius Alexander, Valerius Gratus, Ventidius Cumanus, Zealots. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
Aelia Capitolina (Latin in full) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins following the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD.
Annius Rufus succeeded Marcus Ambivulus as Prefect of Judea in 12 AD.
Antipater I the Idumaean (died 43 BC) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. A native of Idumaea, southeast of Judea between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which during the time of the Hebrew Bible had been known as the land of Edom, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judea in the name of Roman Republic. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, with the right to collect taxes. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the Governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenized Jews. He died by poison. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence.
Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix, in Greek: ὁ Φῆλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the Roman procurator of Iudaea Province 52–58, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Beit She'an (בֵּית שְׁאָן; بيسان,, Beisan or Bisan), is a city in the Northern District of Israel which has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley.
Caesarea Maritima (Greek: Παράλιος Καισάρεια Parálios Kaisáreia), also known as Caesarea Palestinae, is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
The Census of Quirinius was a census of Judaea taken by Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, Roman governor of Syria, upon the imposition of direct Roman rule in 6 CE.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
Coponius was the first governor (Prefect) of Iudaea province, from 6–9 AD.
Cuspius Fadus was an Ancient Roman eques and procurator of Iudaea Province in 44–46 AD.
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Ethnarch, pronounced, the anglicized form of ethnarches (ἐθνάρχης), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The fiscus Iudaicus (Latin for "Jewish tax") or fiscus Judaicus was a tax-collecting agency instituted to collect the tax imposed on Jews in the Roman Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple in AD 70.
Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus (70–117), was a Roman senator and general.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gessius Florus was the Roman procurator of Judea from 64 until 66.
Gnaeus Pompeius Longinus (died AD 105) was a Roman senator and general.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (חיים הלל בן-ששון; 1914–1977) was professor of Jewish medieval history at Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the editor of History of the Jewish People.
Herbert Danby (20 January 1889 – 29 March 1953) was an Anglican priest and writer who played a central role in the change of attitudes toward Judaism in the first half of the twentieth century.
Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod or Agrippa I (11 BC – 44 AD), was a King of Judea from 41 to 44 AD.
Herod Agrippa II (AD 27/28 – or 100) officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the eighth and last ruler of Judea from the Herodian dynasty.
Herod Antipater (Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament although he never held the title of king.
Herod Archelaus (Hērōdēs Archelaos; 23 BC – c. 18 AD) was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea (biblical Edom), including the cities Caesarea and Jaffa, for a period of nine years (circa 4 BC to 6 AD).
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian Dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire.
The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.
The Herodian Tetrarchy was formed following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, when his kingdom was divided between his sons Herod Archelaus as ethnarch, Herod Antipas and Philip as tetrarchs in inheritance, while Herod's sister Salome I shortly ruled a toparchy of Jamnia.
The Herodians (Herodiani) were a sect or party of Hellenistic Jews mentioned in the New Testament as having on two occasions — first in Galilee, and later in Jerusalem — manifested an unfriendly disposition towards Jesus (cf. also). In each of these cases their name is coupled with that of the Pharisees.
High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.
John Hyrcanus II (Yohanan Hurqanos), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE.
An imperial province was a Roman province during the Principate where the Roman Emperor had the sole right to appoint the governor (legatus Augusti).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judah ha-Nasi (יהודה הנשיא, Yehudah HaNasi or Judah the Prince) or Judah I, also known as Rabbi or Rabbenu HaQadosh ("our Master, the holy one"), was a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
The Kitos War (115–117; מרד הגלויות: mered ha'galuyot or mered ha'tfutzot; translation: rebellion of the diaspora. Tumultus Iudaicus) occurred during the period of the Jewish–Roman wars, 66–136.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
This page lists rulers of the Hasmonean Kingdom of Judea and its successor states from the Maccabean Rebellion to the final Roman annexations.
Lucceius Albinus was the Roman Procurator of Judea from 62 until 64 AD and the governor of Mauretania from 64 until 69 AD.
Lucilius Bassus was a Roman legatus appointed by Emperor Vespasian to the Iudaea Province in 71 AD.
Lucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus was a late-1st-century Roman general, governor of the province of Iudaea and consul.
Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judaea in 117 AD.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Marcellus was Roman Prefect of the province of Judea.
Marcus Ambivulus was Roman Prefect of the province of Judea and Samaria.
Marcus Antonius Julianus was a procurator of Judea from 66-70 AD, during the time of the Great Jewish Revolt.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marullus was Roman Prefect of Judea AD 38-41 under Caligula, AD 37 – 41.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Early Christianity has its roots in Hellenistic Judaism and Jewish messianism of the first century.
Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century.
Palaestina Salutaris or Palaestina Tertia was a Byzantine (Eastern Roman) province, which covered the area of the Negev (or Edom), Sinai (except the north western coast) and south-west of Transjordan, south of the Dead Sea.
Palæstina Secunda or Palaestina II was a Byzantine province from 390, until its conquest by the Muslim armies in 634–636.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Perea or Peraea (Greek: Περαία, "the country beyond"), was the portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the eastern side of the Jordan River valley, from about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee to about one third the way down the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; it did not extend very far to the east.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
Philip the Tetrarch, sometimes called Herod Philip II (Hērōdēs Philippos) by modern writers (ruled from 4 BC until his death in AD 34) was the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
Porcius Festus was procurator of Judea from about AD 59 to 62, succeeding Antonius Felix.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
Procurator (plural: Procuratores) was a title of certain officials (not magistrates) in ancient Rome who were in charge of the financial affairs of a province, or imperial governor of a minor province.
Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (also known as Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus) was a Roman senator of the 2nd century AD.
Quintus Pompeius Falco (c. 70 - after 140) was a Roman senator and general of the early 2nd century AD.
Quintus Tineius Rufus, also known as Turnus Rufus the Evil in Jewish sources (c. AD 90 – after 131) was a senator and provincial governor under the Roman Empire.
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Sebastia (سبسطية, Sabastiyah;, Sevastee;, Sebasti; Sebaste) is a Palestinian village of over 4,500 inhabitants,.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.
Lucius Aelius Sejanus (June 3, 20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.
A senatorial province (provincia populi Romani, province of the Roman people) was a Roman province during the Principate where the Roman Senate had the right to appoint the governor (proconsul).
Sepphoris or Zippori (צִפּוֹרִי Tzipori; Σέπφωρις Sépphōris; صفورية Saffuriya), also called Diocaesaraea (Διοκαισάρεια) and, during the Crusades, Sephory (La Sephorie), is a village and an archeological site located in the central Galilee region of Israel, north-northwest of Nazareth.
Sextus Hermentidius Campanus was a Roman senator, who was active during the Flavian dynasty.
Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman general of the 2nd century AD.
Sextus Vettulenus Cerialis was a Roman senator and military commander.
The Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC) occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
The siege of Masada was one of the final events in the First Jewish–Roman War, occurring from 73 to 74 CE on and around a large hilltop in current-day Israel.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Tiberianus was a 2nd-century Roman politician.
Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes (65 - before 160) was a distinguished Greek aristocrat of the Roman Empire.
Tiberius Julius Alexander (fl. 1st century) was an equestrian governor and general in the Roman Empire.
Valerius Gratus was the Roman Prefect of Iudaea province under Tiberius from 15 to 26 AD.
Ventidius Cumanus (fl. 1st century AD) was the Roman procurator of Iudaea Province from AD 48 to c. AD 52.
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
Iudaea, Iudaea (Roman province), Iudaea Province, Iudaea province, Judaea, Judaea (Roman Province), Judaea (Roman province), Judaea Province, Judea (Roman Province), Judea Province, Judæa, Procurator of Iudaea, Province of Judea, Roman Governors of Judea, Roman Judaea, Roman Judea, Roman province of Judea, Sacred Land, Yehûḏāh.