145 relations: Adjudicator, Administrative law judge, Adversarial system, Appellate court, Arbitral tribunal, Argument, Attorney at law, Australia, Bailiff, Bar Council of India, Barrister, Belfast, Biblical judges, Biy, Book of Judges, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cantonese, Chancellor, Chief Justice of Ireland, Chief Justice of Sri Lanka, Circuit Court (Ireland), Circuit judge (England and Wales), Citizenship judge, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Construct state, Contempt of court, Coroner, County court, Court, Court dress, Court of Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of Appeal (Ireland), Court of Appeal judge (England and Wales), Court of Appeal of New Zealand, Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of First Instance (Hong Kong), Court of Session, Courts of England and Wales, Courts of Scotland, Delaware, Derry, District Court (Ireland), District Court of New Zealand, Election official, Evidence (law), Examining magistrate, Forms of address in the United Kingdom, Gavel, ..., Good moral character, Head of state, Hebrew language, High Court, High Court (Hong Kong), High Court (Ireland), High Court judge (England and Wales), High Court of Australia, High Court of Justice, High Court of Justiciary, High Court of New Zealand, Hong Kong, In open court, Inquisitorial system, International Court of Justice, Israel, John Jay, Judge, Judges of the International Criminal Court, Judicial deference, Judicial panel, Judiciary, Judiciary of England and Wales, Juiz de fora (office), Juris Doctor, Jurisdiction, Jury, Justice, Justice of the peace, Justice of the peace court, Juvenile court, Law, Law clerk, Lawspeaker, Lawyer, Lay judge, Legal education, Legal practice laws in India, List of jurists, Los Angeles County Superior Court, Magistrate, Magistrate (England and Wales), Maryland Court of Appeals, Master (judiciary), Misdemeanor, Netherlands, New York (state), New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Oman, Ontario, Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Part-time contract, Police officer, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Probate court, Profession, Prosecutor, Public defender, Public procurator, Recorder (judge), Recorder of Belfast, Referee, Referendary, Robe, Rule of law, Senior status, Sheriff court, Small claims court, Solicitor, Sri Lanka, State supreme court, Summary judgment, Superior Court of Justice (Brazil), Superior Electoral Court, Superior Labour Court, Supreme Court of Ireland, Supreme Court of New Zealand, Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Federal Court, Tribunal, U.S. state, United States, United States bankruptcy court, United States magistrate judge, Urdu, Vietnam, Western United States, Wig, Witness, Workers' compensation, Worship (style). Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
An adjudicator is someone who presides, judges, and arbitrates during a formal dispute or competition.
An administrative law judge (ALJ) in the United States is a judge and trier of fact who both presides over trials and adjudicates the claims or disputes (in other words, ALJ-controlled proceedings are bench trials) involving administrative law.
The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
An arbitral tribunal (or arbitration tribunal) is a panel of one or more adjudicators which is convened and sits to resolve a dispute by way of arbitration.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Attorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorney, is the preferred term for a practising lawyer in certain jurisdictions, including South Africa (for certain lawyers), Sri Lanka, and the United States.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
The Bar Council of India is a statutory body established under the section 4 of advocates Act 1961 that regulates the legal practice and legal education in India.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
The Biblical judges (sing. שופט šōp̄êṭ/shofet, pl. šōp̄əṭîm/shoftim) are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.
Biy (Би) were elected judges and administrators in Kazakhstan.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
The Chief Justice of Ireland (Príomh-Bhreitheamh na hÉireann) is the president of the Supreme Court of Ireland.
The Chief Justice of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the head of the judiciary of Sri Lanka and the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka.
The Circuit Court (An Chúirt Chuarda) of Ireland is an intermediate level court of local and limited jurisdiction in the which hears both civil and criminal matters.
Circuit judges are judges in England and Wales who sit in the Crown Court, county courts and certain specialized sub-divisions of the High Court of Justice, such as the Technology and Construction Court.
A citizenship judge is an official in Canada who assesses referred applications to ensure they meet the residence requirements for Canadian citizenship and presides over citizenship ceremonies to administer the Oath of Citizenship for successful applicants.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin status constructus).
Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Court dress comprises the style of clothes prescribed for courts of law, and for royal courts.
The Court of Appeal of the High Court of Hong Kong is the second most senior court in the Hong Kong legal system.
The Court of Appeal (An Chúirt Achomhairc) is a court in Ireland that sits between the High Court and Supreme Court.
A Lord Justice of Appeal or Lady Justice of Appeal is an ordinary judge of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, the court that hears appeals from the High Court of Justice and the Crown Court, and represents the second highest level of judge in the courts of England and Wales.
The Court of Appeal of New Zealand is principal intermediate appellate court of New Zealand.
The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal is the final appellate court of Hong Kong.
The Court of First Instance is the lower court of the High Court of Hong Kong, the upper court being the Court of Appeal.
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
The courts of Scotland are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
The District Court (An Chúirt Dúiche) is the main court of summary jurisdiction in Ireland.
The District Court of New Zealand (Māori: Te Kōti ā Rohe) is the primary court of first instance of New Zealand.
An election official, election officer, election judge, election clerk, or poll worker is an official responsible for the proper and orderly voting at polling stations.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
In an inquisitorial system of law, the examining magistrate (also called investigating magistrate, inquisitorial magistrate, or investigating judge), is a judge who carries out pre-trial investigations into allegations of crime and in some cases makes a recommendation for prosecution.
Forms of address used in the United Kingdom are given below.
A gavel is a small ceremonial mallet commonly made of hardwood, typically fashioned with a handle.
Black’s Law Dictionary defines good moral character as “a pattern of behavior that is consistent with the community's current ethical standards and that shows an absence of deceit or morally reprehensible conduct.” In United States law, good moral character is an ambiguous criteria that determines whether a person has a moral character that is good.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
High court usually refers to the superior court (or supreme court) of a country or state.
The High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance; it deals with criminal and civil cases which have risen beyond the lower courts.
The High Court is established by Article 34 of the Constitution of Ireland, which grants it "full original jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions whether of law or fact, civil or criminal", as well as the ability to determine "the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution".
A Justice of the High Court, commonly known as a ‘High Court judge’, is a judge of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, and represents the third highest level of judge in the courts of England and Wales.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
The High Court of New Zealand is a superior court established in 1841.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
In open court is a legal term in the United States defined by the appearance by a party or their attorney in a public court session such as during a trial.
An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
The eighteen judges of the International Criminal Court (ICC) are elected for nine-year terms by the member-countries of the court.
Judicial deference is the condition of a court yielding or submitting its judgment to that of another legitimate party, such as the executive branch in the case of national defense.
A judicial panel is a set of judges who sit together to hear a cause of action, most frequently an appeal from a ruling of a trial court judge.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
There are various levels of judiciary in England and Wales — different types of courts have different styles of judges.
A juiz de fora (literally meaning "judge from the outside" in Portuguese) was a magistrate appointed by the King of Portugal to serve in the municipalities where the intervention of an impartial and unbiased judge - usually from outside of the town - was necessary.
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
A justice of the peace court is the least authoritative type of criminal court in Scotland.
A juvenile court (or young offender's court) is a tribunal having special authority to pass judgements for crimes that are committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an attorney—who provides direct assistance and counsel to a judge in making legal determinations and in writing opinions by researching issues before the court.
A lawspeaker or lawman (Swedish: lagman, Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Danish: lovsigemand, Norwegian: lagmann, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maður, Faroese: løgmaður, Finnish: laamanni) is a unique Scandinavian legal office.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A lay judge is a person assisting a judge in a trial and as such are sometimes called lay assessors.
Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
Legal practice laws in India are governed by the Advocates Act 1961; an act passed by the Indian Parliament which provides for laws relating to legal practitioners in India and to provide for the constitution of the Bar Council of India (BCI) and state bar councils.
The following lists are of prominent jurists, including judges, listed in alphabetical order by jurisdiction.
The Superior Court of Los Angeles County is the California Superior Court located in Los Angeles County.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
In the legal system of England and Wales, there is a history of involving lay people, namely people from the local community who are not required to hold any legal qualifications, in the judicial decision-making process of the courts.
The Court of Appeals of Maryland is the supreme court of the U.S. state of Maryland.
A master is a judge in the courts of England and in numerous other jurisdictions based on the common law tradition.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Superior Court of Justice (French: Cour supérieure de justice) is a superior court in Ontario.
A part-time contract is a form of employment that carries fewer hours per week than a full-time job.
A police officer, also known as an officer, policeman, policewoman, cop, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
A probate court (sometimes called a surrogate court) is a court that has competence in a jurisdiction to deal with matters of probate and the administration of estates.
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
A public defender is an attorney appointed to represent people who cannot afford to hire one.
A public procurator is an officer of a state charged with both the investigation and prosecution of crime.
A Recorder is a judicial officer in England and Wales and some other common law jurisdictions.
The Recorder of Belfast is one of the two senior County Court judges of Northern Ireland known as Recorders, the other being the Recorder of Derry.
A referee or simply ref is the person of authority in a variety of sports who is responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on-the-fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such as ejection.
Referendary is a number of administrative positions, of various rank, in chanceries and other official organisations in Europe.
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Senior status is a form of semi-retirement for United States federal judges and judges in some state court systems.
A sheriff court (cùirt an t-siorraim) is the principal local civil and criminal court in Scotland, with exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary up to, and with the jurisdiction to hear any criminal case except treason, murder, and rape which are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary.
Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil cases between private litigants.
A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state (i.e., that state's court of last resort).
In law, a summary judgment (also judgment as a matter of law) is a judgment entered by a court for one party and against another party summarily, i.e., without a full trial.
The Superior Court of Justice (Superior Tribunal de Justiça, also known as STJ) is the highest appellate court in Brazil for non-constitutional questions of federal law.
The Superior Electoral Court (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, TSE) is the highest body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice, which also comprises one Regional Electoral Court (Tribunal Regional Eleitoral, TRE) in each of the 26 states and the Federal District of the country, as determined by Article 118 of the Constitution of Brazil.
The Superior Labor Court or Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (TST), in Portuguese, is the highest Brazilian appellate court for Labor law issues.
The Supreme Court of Ireland (Cúirt Uachtarach na hÉireann) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The Supreme Court of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Kōti Mana Nui) is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand, having formally come into existence on 1 January 2004.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා ශ්රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය Sri Lanka Sreshthadikaranaya)(Tamil: இலங்கை உயர் நீதிமன்றம் Ilankai ucca nitimanram) is the highest court of Sri Lanka.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal,, abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution.
In United States federal courts, magistrate judges are judges appointed to assist district court judges in the performance of their duties.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
A wig is a head covering made from human hair, animal hair, or synthetic fiber.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.
His or Her Worship is an honorific prefix for mayors, Justices of the Peace and magistrates in present or former Commonwealth realms.
Iudex, Judge (United States), Judge authority, Judge's robes, Justice (official), Justices, Presiding Judge, Presiding judge, Professional judges, United States judge, Your Honor, Your Honour, Your honor, Your honour, 👨⚖️, 👨🏻⚖️, 👨🏼⚖️, 👨🏽⚖️, 👨🏾⚖️, 👨🏿⚖️, 👩⚖️, 👩🏻⚖️, 👩🏼⚖️, 👩🏽⚖️, 👩🏾⚖️, 👩🏿⚖️.