217 relations: Admiralty court, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Alderney, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Appellate court, Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, Arches Court, Associated state, Attorney General for England and Wales, Attorney General of Ireland, Australia, Australia Act 1986, Balfour Declaration of 1926, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bisset v Wilkinson, Board of Trade, Boyce v R, British Antarctic Territory, British Empire, British Indian Ocean Territory, British North America Acts, British Overseas Territories, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Canada, Caribbean Community, Caribbean Court of Justice, Cayman Islands, Chancery Court of York, Channel Islands, Charles Barry, China, Church Commissioners, Church of England, Cinque Ports, City of Westminster, Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865, Common law, Commonwealth Caribbean, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth realm, Conor Maguire, Constitution (Amendment No. 22) Act 1933, Constitution of Australia, Constitution of Canada, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, ..., Constitution of the Gambia, Constitution of the Irish Free State, Constitutional Reform Act 2005, Cook Islands, Court of Appeal (England and Wales), Court of Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of Appeal of Singapore, Court of Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved, Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of Session, Courts of Northern Ireland, Criminal Code (Canada), Crown dependencies, Curia regis, Cushing v Dupuy, Cyprus, Dawda Jawara, Denison Faber, 1st Baron Wittenham, Devolution, Dissenting opinion, Distinguished Service Order, Dominica, Dominion, Dominion of Ceylon, Dominion of India, Dominion of Pakistan, Downing Street, Ecclesiastical court, Edwards v Canada (AG), Falkland Islands, Federal Court of India, Federal Court of Malaysia, Federalism, Financial Times, First Nations, Forbes Burnham, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Fox v R, Gambia Independence Act 1964, Gibraltar, Grenada, Grenadian constitutional referendum, 2016, Guernsey, Guyana, Guyana (1966–1970), Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, High Court of Australia, High Court of Chivalry, High Court of Justiciary, Hindu law, History of Grenada, Hong Kong Basic Law, House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975, India, Inner House, Inter se, Irish Free State, Isle of Man, J. B. Jeyaretnam, Jamaica, Jamaican general election, 2016, Jane Clifton, Joan Sawyer, John Key, John Soane, Josef Jakobs, Judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, King-in-Council, King–Byng affair, Kiribati, Law of Jersey, Lesotho, Lex scripta, List of judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, List of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council cases, List of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council cases originating in Canada, List of Sultans of Brunei, Living tree doctrine, Lord Chancellor, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, Malaysia, Matthew v S, Maurice Bishop, Mauritius, Middlesex Guildhall, Mitchell v DPP, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Montserrat, Nadan v R, New Zealand, New Zealand Listener, Nick Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers, Niue, Oireachtas, Order in Council, Order of the Bath, Order of the British Empire, Pakistan, Parliament of Australia, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of England, Parliament of Jamaica, Peter Millett, Baron Millett, Pitcairn Islands, Ponoka-Calmar Oils v Wakefield, Pratt v A-G for Jamaica, Precedent, President of the Court of Appeal of the Bahamas, President of the Gambia, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Prize (law), Prize court, R v Hughes, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, Reyes v R, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, Royal Victorian Order, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sark, Senate of Canada, Senior status, Singapore, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Special administrative regions of China, Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Constitution of 1972, Staff of Government Division, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Statute of Westminster 1931, Supreme court, Supreme Court Act 2003, Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court of Nauru, Supreme Court of New Zealand, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Supreme Court of South Africa, Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Supreme Court of the Gambia, Supreme Court of the Irish Free State, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Teina Pora, The Bahamas, The Crown, The Gambia, The New York Times, Thomas Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote, Tower of London, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Ultra vires, Union of South Africa, University of Dundee, Yahya Jammeh, Zimbabwe, 1926 Imperial Conference. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries, and offenses.
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.
Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 (39 & 40 Vict. c.59) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the judicial functions of the House of Lords.
The Arches Court, presided over by the Dean of Arches, is an ecclesiastical court of the Church of England covering the Province of Canterbury.
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.
Her Majesty's Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known simply as the Attorney General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown.
The Attorney General (An tArd-Aighne) is a constitutional officer who is the official adviser to the Government of Ireland in matters of law.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australia Act 1986 is the short title of each of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Bisset v Wilkinson AC 177 is a leading contract law case from New Zealand on the issue of misrepresentation.
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.
Boyce v R is a 2004 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case which upheld the law that sets out a mandatory sentence of death for murder in Barbados.
The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.
The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ; Caribisch Hof van Justitie; Cour Caribéenne de Justice) is the judicial institution of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
The Chancery Court of York is an ecclesiastical court for the Province of York of the Church of England.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Church Commissioners is a body managing the historic property assets of the Church of England.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Confederation of Cinque Ports is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex.
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which also holds city status.
The Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 (28 & 29 Vict. c. 63) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
Conor Alexander Maguire (22 July 1889 – 26 September 1971) was an Irish politician, lawyer and judge who served as Chief Justice of Ireland from 1946 to 1961, President of the High Court and a Judge of the High Court from 1936 to 1946 and Attorney General of Ireland from March 1932 to November 1932.
The Constitution (Amendment No. 22) Act, 1933 was an Act amending the Constitution of the Irish Free State, abolishing the right of appeal from the Supreme Court of the Irish Free State to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.
The Constitution of the Gambia is the supreme law of the Gambia.
The Constitution of the Irish Free State (Bunreacht Shaorstáit Eireann) was adopted by Act of Dáil Éireann sitting as a constituent assembly on 25 October 1922.
The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
The Court of Appeal (COA, formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, and second only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Court of Appeal of the High Court of Hong Kong is the second most senior court in the Hong Kong legal system.
The Court of Appeal of the Republic of Singapore is the nation's highest court and its court of final appeal.
The Court of Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved is an appellate court within the hierarchy of ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England.
The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal is the final appellate court of Hong Kong.
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in Northern Ireland: they are constituted and governed by Northern Ireland law.
The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court." It was the name given to councils of advisors and administrators who served early French kings as well as to those serving Norman and later kings of England.
Cushing v Dupuy is a decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that dealt with: It was also notable for holding that, though the Privy Council would only exceptionally depart from its own previous decisions, it was not bound by them.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, GCMG (born 16 May 1924) is a Gambian politician who was a significant national leader of The Gambia, serving as its Prime Minister from 1962 to 1970, and then as its first President from 1970 to 1994.
George Denison Faber, 1st Baron Wittenham, CB, DL (14 December 1852 – 1 February 1931), known as Denison Faber, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between 1948 and 1972, CeylonThe Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act use the term "Dominion of Ceylon", which although sometimes used was not the official name.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
Downing Street is a street in London, United Kingdom, known for housing the official residences and offices of the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters.
Edwards v Canada (AG)also known as the Persons Caseis a famous Canadian constitutional case that decided that women were eligible to sit in the Senate of Canada.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Federal Court of India was a judicial body, established in India in 1937 under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1935, with original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction.
The Federal Court of Malaysia (Mahkamah Persekutuan Malaysia) is the highest court and the final appellate court in Malaysia.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham (20 February 1923 – 6 August 1985) was a Guyanese political leader and leader of Guyana from 1964 until his death, as the first Prime Minister from 1964 to 1980 and as second President from 1980 to 1985.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Fox v R is a 2002 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case in which it was held that it was unconstitutional in Saint Kitts and Nevis for capital punishment to be the mandatory sentence for murder.
The Gambia Independence Act 1964 (1964 c. 93) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave independence to the Gambia with effect from 18 February 1965.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
A constitutional referendum was held in Grenada on 24 November 2016.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Guyana was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Guyana and an independent state that existed between 1966 and 1970.
Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
Her Majesty's High Court of Chivalry is a civil court in English and Welsh law with jurisdiction over matters of heraldry.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
Hindu law, as a historical term, refers to the code of laws applied to Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs in British India.
The recorded history of the Caribbean island of Grenada begins in the early 17th century.
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
The House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prohibits certain categories of people from becoming members of the House of Commons.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Inner House is the senior part of the Court of Session, the supreme civil court in Scotland; the Outer House forms the junior part of the Court of Session.
Inter se (also styled as inter sese) is a Legal Latin phrase that means "mong or between themselves".
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Joshua Benjamin Jeyaretnam (5 January 1926 – 30 September 2008), more commonly known as J. B. Jeyaretnam or J.B.J., was a Singaporean politician and lawyer.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
General elections were held in Jamaica on 25 February 2016.
Jane Clifton (born 10 April 1949) is an Australian actress, singer, writer and voice artist.
Dame Joan Augusta Sawyer, DBE, PC (born 26 November 1940) is a Bahamian judge.
Sir John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand and Leader of the New Zealand National Party.
Sir John Soane (né Soan; 10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
Josef Jakobs (30 June 1898 – 15 August 1941) was a German spy and the last person to be executed at the Tower of London.
The Judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom include the President, the Deputy President, and Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
The King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender of the reigning monarch, is a constitutional term in a number of states.
The King–Byng affair was a Canadian constitutional crisis that occurred in 1926, when the Governor General of Canada, the Lord Byng of Vimy, refused a request by his prime minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, to dissolve parliament and call a general election.
Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese: Ribaberiki Kiribati),.
The Law of Jersey has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law, English common law and modern French civil law.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Lex scripta pl.
The ordinary judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales are the Lord Justices of Appeal and Lady Justices of Appeal.
This is a list of major cases decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
This is an exhaustive list of cases originating in Canada decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
In Canadian law, the living tree doctrine is a doctrine of constitutional interpretation that says that a constitution is organic and must be read in a broad and progressive manner so as to adapt it to the changing times.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the British House of Lords in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Matthew v S is a 2004 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case which upheld the law that sets out a mandatory sentence of death for murder in Trinidad and Tobago.
Maurice Rupert Bishop (29 May 1944 – 19 October 1983) was a Grenadian revolutionary and the leader of New Jewel Movement – popular efforts in the areas of socio-economic development, education, and Black liberation – that came to power during the 13 March 1979 revolution that removed Eric Gairy from office.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Middlesex Guildhall is the home of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
Mitchell v DPP is a 1985 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case in which it was reaffirmed that a Commonwealth state has the power to unilaterally abolish appeals to the JCPC.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
Nadan v R is a key ruling of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in determining the competence of the Parliament of Canada with respect to the restrictions laid out in the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865, and whether it possessed extraterritorial jurisdiction.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Listener is a New Zealand magazine which covers a variety of general topics, including current affairs, politics and entertainment.
Nicholas Addison Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers (called Nick; born 21 January 1938) is a British lawyer and former senior English judge.
Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica.
Peter Julian Millett, Baron Millett, GBS, PC, (born 23 June 1932) is a non-permanent judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal and a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and barrister of the United Kingdom.
The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.
Ponoka-Calmar Oils v Wakefield is notable for being the last ruling rendered by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council with respect to an appeal from the courts of Canada.
Pratt v A-G for Jamaica is a 1993 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case in which it was held that it was unconstitutional in Jamaica to execute a prisoner who had been on death row for 14 years.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
The President of the Court of Appeal of the Bahamas heads the Court of Appeal of the Bahamas.
The President of the Republic of the Gambia is the head of state and head of government of the Gambia.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, vessels, and cargo captured during armed conflict.
A prize court is a court (or even a single individual, such as an ambassador or consul) authorized to consider whether prizes have been lawfully captured, typically whether a ship has been lawfully captured or seized in time of war or under the terms of the seizing ship's letters of marque and reprisal.
R v Hughes is a 2002 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case in which it was held that it was unconstitutional in Saint Lucia for capital punishment to be the mandatory sentence for murder.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government.
Reyes v R is a 2002 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) case in which it was held that it was unconstitutional in Belize for capital punishment to be the mandatory sentence for murder.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) is the regulatory body for veterinary surgeons in the United Kingdom, established in 1844 by Royal Charter.
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.
Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean.
Sark (Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
Senior status is a form of semi-retirement for United States federal judges and judges in some state court systems.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lankan Constitution of 1972 was a constitution of Sri Lanka, replaced by the 1978 constitution currently in force.
The Staff of Government Division of the High Court of Justice (usually shorted to Staff of Government Division) is the Court of Appeal in the Isle of Man.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Court Act 2003 (Public Act No 53 2003) was an Act of the Parliament of New Zealand which created the Supreme Court of New Zealand as the country's court of final appeal, and which consequentially abolished appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom.
The Supreme Court of Appeal or SCA (formerly known as the Appellate Division) is an appellate court in South Africa.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
The Supreme Court of Nauru is the highest court in the judicial system of the Republic of Nauru.
The Supreme Court of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Kōti Mana Nui) is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand, having formally come into existence on 1 January 2004.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
The Supreme Court of South Africa was a superior court of law in South Africa from 1910 to 1997.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා ශ්රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය Sri Lanka Sreshthadikaranaya)(Tamil: இலங்கை உயர் நீதிமன்றம் Ilankai ucca nitimanram) is the highest court of Sri Lanka.
The Supreme Court of the Gambia is a superior court of record and the highest court in The Gambia.
The Supreme Court of the Irish Free State was the state's court of final appeal.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Teina Pora is a New Zealander who was wrongfully convicted of murdering Susan Burdett when he was aged 17; he served time in Paremoremo prison from 1994 for the crime, until he received parole in 2014.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote, (5 March 1876 – 11 October 1947) was a British politician who served in many legal posts, culminating in serving as Lord Chancellor from 1939 until 1940.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Turks and Caicos Islands (and), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning "beyond the powers".
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The University of Dundee (abbreviated as Dund. for post-nominals) is a public research university based in the city and royal burgh of Dundee on the east coast of the central Lowlands of Scotland.
Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh (born 25 May 1965) is a Gambian politician and former military officer who was the leader of the Gambia from 1994 to 2017, firstly as chair of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) (1994–96) and then as President of the Gambia (1996-2017).
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 1926 Imperial Conference was the seventh Imperial Conference bringing together the prime ministers of the dominions of the British Empire.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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