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Judicial system of Iran

Index Judicial system of Iran

A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era. [1]

144 relations: Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili, Adversarial system, Akbar Ganji, Ali Khamenei, Ali Shariati, Ameneh Bahrami, Amnesty International, Anesthesia, Apostasy, Appeal, Asadollah Lajevardi, Attorney-General of Iran, Bahá'í Faith, Barter, Blasphemy law in Iran, Capital punishment, Censorship in Iran, Chabahar, Chief Justice of Iran, Child custody, Christianity, Circumstantial evidence, Civil law (legal system), Clergy, Code of law, Codification (law), Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Contravention, Corporal punishment, Corruption in Iran, Courthouse of Tehran, Crime in Iran, Debtors' prison, Defense (legal), Discrimination, Divorce, Diya (Islam), Drug rehabilitation, Evin Prison, Eye for an eye, Felony, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Gender dysphoria, Ghezel Hesar prison, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, Gohardasht Prison, Guardian Council, Hadith, Harm reduction, ..., Hashem Aghajari, High Court, Hirabah, History of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hudud, Human rights in Iran, Ijtihad, Imprisonment, Inquisitorial system, Intellectual property in Iran, Iran, Iran Tribunal, Iran's Family Protection Law, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Iranian Cyber Police, Iranian labor law, Iranian nationality law, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian Revolution, Iranian Traffic Police, Islam, Islamic banking and finance, Islamic calendar, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Revolutionary Court, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Judaism, Khamr, Kish Island, Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Life imprisonment, List of economic laws in Iran, List of national legal systems, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, Mahr, Majlis, Mashhad, Methadone, Ministry of Justice (Iran), Misdemeanor, Mofsed-e-filarz, Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Yazdi, Mostafa Pourmohammadi, Muhammad, Museum of the Qasr Prison, Needle exchange programme, Nowruz, Pahlavi dynasty, Parading on donkey, PBS, Poverty, President of Iran, Prosecutor, Qisas, Quran, Reformism, Religion in Iran, Reza Shah, Riba, Ruhollah Khomeini, Rule of law, Sadegh Khalkhali, Sadeq Larijani, SAVAK, Sex reassignment surgery, Sexual orientation, Sharia, Shia Islam, Shirin Ebadi, Special Clerical Court, Subsidy, Supreme Audit Court of Iran, Supreme Court of Iran, Supreme leader, Supreme Leader of Iran, Taxation in Iran, Tazir, Tehran, Tort, Towhid Prison, Transgender, Usury, Vetting, Western culture, Woman, Zina, Zoroastrianism, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners. Expand index (94 more) »

Abdolhossein Teymourtash

Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh (عبدالحسین تیمورتاش; 1883–1933) was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.

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Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili

Seyyed Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili (عبدالکریم موسوی اردبیلی, 28 January 1926 – 23 November 2016) was an Iranian reformist politician and Twelver shi'a marja.

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Adversarial system

The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.

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Akbar Ganji

Akbar Ganji (اکبر گنجی., born 31 January 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian journalist and writer.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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Ali Shariati

Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.

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Ameneh Bahrami

Ameneh Bahrami (آمنه بهرامی.; born 1978 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian woman blinded in an acid attack.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anesthesia

In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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Apostasy

Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.

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Appeal

In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.

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Asadollah Lajevardi

Sayyed Assadollah Ladjevardi (اسدالله لاجوردی; 1935 – 23 August 1998) was an Iranian conservative politician, prosecutor and warden.

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Attorney-General of Iran

The Attorney-General of Iran (or Prosecutor-General), in the Judicial system of Iran, is a "just mujtahid" appointed by the Head of the Judiciary in consultation with the judges of the Supreme Court to serve for a period of five years.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Barter

In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

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Blasphemy law in Iran

Iran is a constitutional, Islamic theocracy.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Censorship in Iran

Censorship in Iran is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing, dissemination, and viewing of certain information in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Chabahar

Chābahār (چابهار, چھبار-Čahbàr; meaning four springs or spring well; formerly Bandar Beheshtī) is a city and capital of Chah Bahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.

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Chief Justice of Iran

The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.

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Child custody

Child custody and legal guardianship are legal terms which are used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent or guardian and a child in that person's care, such as the right to make decisions on behalf of a child and the duty to care for and support the child.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Circumstantial evidence

Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Clergy

Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Codification (law)

In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.

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Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.

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Contravention

In many civil law countries (e.g.: France, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal, Italy, Brazil) a contravention is a non-criminal offense, similar to an infraction or civil penalty in common law countries.

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Corporal punishment

Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.

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Corruption in Iran

Corruption is a serious problem in Iran, being widespread, mostly in the government.

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Courthouse of Tehran

Courthouse of Tehran (کاخِ دادگستریِ تهران Kākh-e Dādgostari-ye Tehrān), is the historical courthouse of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

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Crime in Iran

Crime in Iran is present in various forms, and may include the following offences: murder, kidnapping, theft, fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, drug selling, alcohol smuggling, oil smuggling, tax evasion and many other ordinary crimes that criminals commit.

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Debtors' prison

A debtors' prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt.

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Defense (legal)

In civil proceedings and criminal prosecutions under the common law, a defendant may raise a defense (or defence) in an attempt to avoid criminal or civil liability.

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Discrimination

In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.

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Divorce

Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Diya (Islam)

Diya (دية; plural diyāt, ديات) in Islamic law, is the financial compensation paid to the victim or heirs of a victim in the cases of murder, bodily harm or property damage.

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Drug rehabilitation

Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.

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Evin Prison

Evin Prison (Zendān-e-Evin) is a prison located in the Evin neighborhood of Tehran, Iran.

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Eye for an eye

"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.

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Felony

The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.

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Frontline (U.S. TV series)

Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.

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Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.

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Ghezel Hesar prison

Ghezel Hesar prison is the largest state prison in Iran.

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Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i

Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i (غلامحسین محسنی اژه‌ای,; born 1956) is an Iranian conservative politician, judge and prosecutor who currently serves as the second-highest official in the Judicial system of Iran.

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Gohardasht Prison

Gohardasht Prison (زندان گوهردشت) is a prison in Gohardasht, a town in the northern outskirt of Karaj, approximately 20 km west of Tehran.

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Guardian Council

The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Harm reduction

Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.

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Hashem Aghajari

Hashem Aghajari (هاشم آقاجری) also Seyyed Hashem Aghajari (born 1957) is an Iranian historian, university professor and a critic of the Islamic Republic's government who was sentenced to death in 2002 for apostasy for a speech he gave on Islam urging Iranians to "not blindly follow" Islamic clerics.

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High Court

High court usually refers to the superior court (or supreme court) of a country or state.

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Hirabah

Ḥirābah (حرابة) is an Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”.

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History of the Islamic Republic of Iran

One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

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Hudud

Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".

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Human rights in Iran

The state of human rights in Iran has been criticized both by Iranians and international human rights activists, writers, and NGOs since long before the formation of the current state of Iran.

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Ijtihad

Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.

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Imprisonment

Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.

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Inquisitorial system

An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.

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Intellectual property in Iran

Iran is a member of the WIPO since 2001 and has acceded to several WIPO intellectual property treaties.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran Tribunal

Iran Tribunal is an international people's court and a non-binding legal tribunal residing in The Hague, the Netherlands, aiming to investigate serious allegations of Human Rights violations and Crimes against humanity in the Islamic Republic of Iran during the 1980s.

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Iran's Family Protection Law

In 1967, Iran adopted a set of progressive family laws, the Family Protection Act, which granted women family rights; these were expanded in the Family Protection Law of 1975.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iranian Constitutional Revolution

The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.

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Iranian Cyber Police

The Iranian Cyber Police (پلیس فضای تولید و تبادل اطلاعات ایران lit. The Police for the Sphere of the Production and Exchange of Information also known as FATA (فتا.) is a unit of the Islamic Republic of Iran Police, founded in January 2011. In December 2012, the head of Tehran's cyber police unit was dismissed in relation to the death of Iranian blogger Sattar Beheshti, who was being held in the cyber police's custody.

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Iranian labor law

Iranian labor law describes the rules of employment in Iran.

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Iranian nationality law

Iranian nationality law contains principles of both jus sanguinis and jus soli.

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Iranian presidential election, 2009

Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iranian Traffic Police

Traffic Police of NAJA (پلیس راهنمایی و رانندگی ناجا), abbreviated as RAHVAR (راهور), is a Law enforcement agency in Iran responsible for traffic guard and highway patrol.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic banking and finance

Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.

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Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

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Islamic Consultative Assembly

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.

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Islamic Revolutionary Court

Islamic Revolutionary Court (also Revolutionary Tribunal, Dadgah-ha-e EnqelabBakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.59-61) is a special system of courts in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of crimes such as smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Islamic government.

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Ja'fari jurisprudence

Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Khamr

Khamr (خمر) is an Arabic word for wine.

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Kish Island

Kish (کیش (Kīsh)) is a resort island in the Persian Gulf off the southern coast of Iran.

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Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Nīrū-ye entezāmī-ye jomhūrī-ye eslāmī-ye Īrān), abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا) is the uniformed police force in Iran.

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Life imprisonment

Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.

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List of economic laws in Iran

The list of major laws and legal acts affecting trade in goods and services in Iran as of 2009.

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List of national legal systems

The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.

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Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni

Mahmoud Asgari (محمود عسگری), aged 16, and Ayaz Marhoni (عیاض مرهونی), aged 18, were Iranian teenagers from the province of Khorasan who were publicly hanged in Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, northeast Iran, on July 19, 2005.

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Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi

Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی, born 15 August 1948) is an Iranian cleric and conservative politician who is currently Chairman of Expediency Discernment Council since 14 August 2017.

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Mahr

In Islam, a mahr (in مهر; مهريه; Mehir also transliterated mehr, meher, mehrieh or mahriyeh) is a mandatory payment, in the form of money or possessions paid by the groom, or by groom's father, to the bride at the time of marriage, that legally becomes her property.

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Majlis

(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.

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Mashhad

Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.

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Methadone

Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

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Ministry of Justice (Iran)

Established in 1906, the Minister of Justice is responsible for prosecuting government cases.

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Misdemeanor

A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.

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Mofsed-e-filarz

Mofsed-e-filarz (مفسد فی الارض, also Mofsed fel-Arz, Afsad-i fil Arz, or fasad-fel-arz, المفسد في الأرض Al-Mofsid fi al-Arḏ, also fasad fi 'l-ard) is the title of capital crimes (or the person guilty of them) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, that has been translated in English language sources variously as "spreading corruption on Earth", "spreading corruption that threatens social and political well-being", "corrupt of the earth; one who is charged with spreading corruption," "gross offenders of the moral order",, Paul Sprauchman, and "enemies of God on Earth.".

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Mohammad Beheshti

Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.

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Mohammad Khatami

Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.

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Mohammad Yazdi

Mohammad Yazdi (محمد یزدی, born 2 July 1931) is an Iranian cleric who served as the head of Judiciary System of Iran between 1989 and 1999.

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Mostafa Pourmohammadi

Mostafa Pourmohammadi (مصطفی پورمحمدی; born 9 March 1960, Qom) is an Iranian prosecutor and politician, who has served at different positions and cabinet posts.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Museum of the Qasr Prison

The Museum of the Qasr Prison (موزه‌ زندان قصر muze-ye zendān-e qasr) is a historical complex in Tehran, Iran.

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Needle exchange programme

A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.

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Nowruz

Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Parading on donkey

Parading on a donkey is a traditional psychological punishment, consisting in a public humiliation.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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President of Iran

The President of Iran (Persian: رییس‌جمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Prosecutor

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Qisas

Qiṣāṣ (قصاص) is an Islamic term meaning "retaliation in kind" or "revenge",Mohamed S. El-Awa (1993), Punishment In Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, "eye for an eye", "nemesis" or retributive justice.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Reformism

Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.

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Religion in Iran

According to the CIA World Factbook, around 90–95%.

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Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

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Riba

Riba (ربا,الربا، الربٰوة) can be roughly translated as "usury", or unjust, exploitative gains made in trade or business under Islamic law.

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Ruhollah Khomeini

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Sadegh Khalkhali

Mohammed Sadeq Givi Khalkhali (27 July 1926 – 26 November 2003) (Sādeq Xalxāli) was a Shia cleric of the Islamic Republic of Iran who is said to have "brought to his job as Chief Justice of the revolutionary courts a relish for summary execution" that earned him a reputation as Iran's "hanging judge".

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Sadeq Larijani

Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani (صادق اردشیر لاریجانی; born 12 March 1961), more known as Amoli Larijani (آملی لاریجانی), is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution.

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SAVAK

SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.

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Sex reassignment surgery

Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery, genital reconstruction surgery, gender-affirming surgery, or sex realignment surgery) is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.

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Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shirin Ebadi

Shirin Ebadi (Širin Ebādi; born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran.

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Special Clerical Court

Special Clerical Court, or Special Court for Clerics (دادگاه ویژه روحانیت) is an Iranian court system for examining transgressions within the clerical establishment.

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Subsidy

A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Supreme Audit Court of Iran

The Supreme Audit Court of Iran (SAC) (Persian: دیوان محاسبات کشور) is a government agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Supreme Court of Iran

The Supreme Court of Iran, consisting of the most prominent judges of the country, is the highest juridical authority in Iran, established to supervise the correct implementation of laws by courts of justice, to ensure uniformity of judicial procedure and to carry out the legal responsibilities being assigned to it based on the criteria determined by the head of the judiciary.

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Supreme leader

A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.

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Supreme Leader of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Taxation in Iran

The fiscal year begins on March 21 and ends on March 20 of the next year according to Iranian calendar.

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Tazir

In Islamic Law, tazir (or ta'zir, Arabic تعزير) refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge (Qadi) or ruler of the state.

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tort

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Towhid Prison

Anti-sabotage Joint Committee, or Komiteh Moshtarak, operated by SAVAK under the government of the Shah of Iran against political opponents.

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Transgender

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.

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Usury

Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.

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Vetting

Vetting is the process of performing a background check on someone before offering them employment, conferring an award, etc.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Woman

A woman is an adult female human being.

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Zina

Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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1953 Iranian coup d'état

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").

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1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners

The 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners was a series of state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting for approximately five months.

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Court system of Iran, Courts of Iran, Criminal Code of Iran, Gender inequality in the Iranian judicial system, Iranian Criminal Code, Iranian Judiciary, Iranian courts, Iranian judicial system, Iranian law, Judicial System of Iran, Judiciary System of Iran, Judiciary of Iran, Judiciary of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Law of Iran, Laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judicial_system_of_Iran

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