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Judiciary

Index Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. [1]

80 relations: Appellate court, Argentina, Bench (law), Budget, Case law, Cato Institute, Civil law (legal system), Common law, Conseil d'État (France), Constitution, Constitution of India, Constitutional economics, Court, Court of Cassation (France), Developing country, Dispute resolution, Equal justice under law, Federal judiciary of the United States, France, French Revolution, International law, Japan, Judge, Judicial independence, Judicial police, Judicial review, Judicial system of Japan, Jurisprudence, Jurisprudence constante, Law, Lawsuit, Lawyer, Legal aid, Legal opinion, List of courts of the United States, Louisiana Supreme Court, Magistrate, Mexico, Mexico City, Napoleonic Code, National People's Congress, Negligence, Notary, Ombudsman, Political corruption, President of Mexico, President of the United States, Primary and secondary legislation, Prosecutor, Public interest law, ..., Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, SAGE Publications, Senate of the Republic (Mexico), Separation of powers, State (polity), State court (United States), State's attorney, Statutory law, Supreme court, Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court of Japan, Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, Supreme Court of the United States, Syracuse University College of Law, The Nature of the Judicial Process, Tort, Trial court, United States, United States bankruptcy court, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, United States Court of International Trade, United States courts of appeals, United States district court, United States federal judicial district, United States Senate, University of Chicago Press, Wakō, Saitama, Washington, D.C., Yale University Press. Expand index (30 more) »

Appellate court

An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Bench (law)

Bench in legal contexts means simply the location in a courtroom where a judge sits.

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Budget

A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.

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Case law

Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Conseil d'État (France)

In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".

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Court

A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dispute resolution

Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.

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Equal justice under law

Equal justice under law is a phrase engraved on the front of the United States Supreme Court building in Washington D.C. It is also a societal ideal that has influenced the American legal system.

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Federal judiciary of the United States

The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Judge

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.

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Judicial independence

Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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Judicial police

The judicial police, judiciary police, or justice police are (depending on both country and legal system) either a branch, separate police agency or type of duty performed by law enforcement structures in a country.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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Judicial system of Japan

In the judicial system of Japan, the Constitution of Japan guarantees that "all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws" (Article 76).

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Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.

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Jurisprudence constante

Jurisprudence constante (French for "stable jurisprudence", or literally, "constant jurisprudence") is a legal doctrine according to which a long series of previous decisions applying a particular legal principle or rule is highly persuasive but not controlling in subsequent cases dealing with similar or identical issues of law.

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Law

Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Lawyer

A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.

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Legal aid

Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people otherwise unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system.

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Legal opinion

In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling.

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List of courts of the United States

The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels.

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Louisiana Supreme Court

The Supreme Court of Louisiana is the highest court and court of last resort in the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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Magistrate

The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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National People's Congress

The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.

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Negligence

Negligence (Lat. negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances.

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Notary

A notary is a person licensed by the government to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents.

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Ombudsman

An ombudsman, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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President of Mexico

The President of Mexico (Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Primary and secondary legislation

In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.

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Prosecutor

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Public interest law

Public interest law loosely, refers to legal practices undertaken to help poor or marginalized people, or to effect change in social policies in the public interest, on 'not for profit' terms (''pro bono publico'').

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Rule according to higher law

The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Senate of the Republic (Mexico)

The Senate of the Republic, (Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State court (United States)

In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state, as opposed to the federal government.

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State's attorney

A state's attorney or state attorney is a lawyer representing the interests of the state in a legal proceeding, typically as a prosecutor.

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Statutory law

Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).

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Supreme court

A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.

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Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.

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Supreme Court of Japan

The, located in Hayabusachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, is the highest court in Japan.

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Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation

The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) is the supreme court of Mexico and the head of the judicial branch of the Mexican federal government. It consists of eleven judges, known as ministers, one of whom is designated the court's president. Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years. They are confirmed by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. From among their number, the ministers elect the President of the Court to serve a four-year period; a given minister may serve more than one term as president, but not in consecutive periods.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Syracuse University College of Law

Syracuse University College of Law (SUCOL), founded in 1895, is a Juris Doctor degree-granting law school of Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. It is one of only four law schools in upstate New York. Syracuse was accredited by the American Bar Association in 1923 and is a charter member of the Association of American Law Schools. As of the 2017-2018 academic year, 565 students were enrolled in the College of Law. Syracuse is a leader in the emerging field of National Security Law through the Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism. The College of Law is home to the New York State Science & Technology Law Center. It maintains a chapter of the Order of the Coif law honor society, of which only 86 of the more than 204 ABA accredited law schools are a member. The College of Law offers joint degree programs with, among others, Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, the Martin J. Whitman School of Management, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. It offers a first year writing program in international law, and a summer study abroad internship program in London. Students may also qualify for specialized certifications in areas of study such as Corporate Law, Estate Planning, Family Law, and Property Law. Syracuse offers a one-year LL.M. (Master of Laws) advanced degree program for foreign-educated attorneys. The College of Law is located in Dineen Hall on the West Campus expansion area of Syracuse University. Its library is a congressionally designated depository for Federal materials and houses a collection of Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson's artifacts and documents. According to Syracuse University College of Law's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 100 of the 166 members of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. In February of 2018, the College of Law announced its formation of the first "real-time, ABA-approved online juris doctor program in the United States." The online J.D. program is expected to launch spring semester of 2019.

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The Nature of the Judicial Process

The Nature of the Judicial Process is a legal classic written by Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, and New York Court of Appeals Chief Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo in 1921.

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Tort

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Trial court

A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States bankruptcy court

United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Federal Circuit; in case citations, Fed. Cir. or C.A.F.C.) is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges.

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United States Court of International Trade

The United States Court of International Trade (in case citations, Int'l Trade or Intl. Trade), formerly the United States Customs Court, and before that the Board of General Appraisers, is an Article III court, with full powers in law and equity.

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United States courts of appeals

The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States federal judicial district

For purposes of the federal judicial system, Congress has divided the United States into judicial districts.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Wakō, Saitama

is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judiciary

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