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Julian (emperor)

Index Julian (emperor)

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. [1]

267 relations: Adonis, Aedesius, Against the Galilaeans, Agape feast, Ahura Mazda, Alemanni, Alexander the Great, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Alternate history, Alypius of Antioch, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anbar (town), Andrew Selkirk, Antioch, Apollo, Apostasy, Aquileia, Arbitio, Ardashir II, Arianism, Arshak II, Athens, Augustus, Augustus (title), Avner Falk, Babylas of Antioch, Barbatio, Basil of Caesarea, Basilina, Battle of Ctesiphon (363), Battle of Samarra, Battle of Strasbourg, Bithynia, Buddhism, Caesar (title), Caesarius of Nazianzus, Cappadocia, Censorius Datianus, Chalcedon tribunal, Charitable organization, Charles II of England, Chnodomarius, Christian, Christianity, Christopher Clark, Church of the Holy Apostles, Circesium, Classical Latin, Claudius Mamertinus, Claudius Silvanus, ..., Cologne, Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, Confucianism, Constans, Constantina, Constantine II (emperor), Constantine the Great, Constantine VII, Constantinian dynasty, Constantinople, Constantius Chlorus, Constantius Gallus, Constantius II, Corduene, Corvée, Crusader Kings II, Ctesiphon, Culture of the Song dynasty, Cybele, Cyril of Alexandria, David Strauss, Diocletian, Diodorus of Tarsus, Diyarbakır, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Dominic Montserrat, Dura-Europos, Dystopia, Eleusinian Mysteries, Emperor and Galilean, Eunuch, Euphrates, Eusebia (empress), Eusebius (consul 359), Eusebius of Nicomedia, Ezekiel, Freiherr von Spanheim, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Felix Weingartner, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, Flavius Sallustius, Florentius (consul 361), Franks, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Galilee earthquake of 363, Gallia Belgica, Gastrointestinal tract, Gaul, Gaza City, George Hickes (divine), George of Cappadocia, Gerald Henry Rendall, Germanic peoples, Gibbon, Giovanni Boccaccio, Glen Bowersock, Gore Vidal, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Mark, Goths, Greek language, Greeks, Gregory of Nazianzus, Hadrian, Hamaland, Harran, Helena (wife of Julian), Helios, Hellenistic religion, Henrik Ibsen, Heraclius the Cynic, Hormizd (Constantinople), Hymn to Proserpine, Hypatius (consul 359), Iamblichus, Icon, Iliad, Internet Archive, Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361, James II of England, Jesus, Joannes Zonaras, John Chrysostom, John M. Ford, John Malalas, Jovian (emperor), Judaism, Julian (novel), Julian Comstock: A Story of 22nd-Century America, Julian's Persian War, Julius Caesar, Julius Constantius, Julius Julianus, Juventinus and Maximinus, Kaiseraugst, Khabur (Euphrates), Laeti, Lakhmids, Lector, Libanius, Licinius, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman emperors, Loeb Classical Library, Lollianus Mavortius, London, Lost work, Lower Rhine, Lugdunum, Lutetia, Lyon, Magister equitum, Magister militum, Magnentius, Mainz, Maiuma, Manbij, Mannheim, Marcus Aurelius, Marsh, Mausoleum, Maximus of Ephesus, Media (region), Mediolanum, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamia (Roman province), Meuse, Michael Curtis Ford, Michel Butor, Milan, Misopogon, Mithra, Mithraism, Monotheism, Neoplatonism, Neratius Cerealis, Nevitta, Nicomedia, Nikos Kazantzakis, Nusaybin, Oribasius, Paganism, Panegyric, Panegyrici Latini, Paradox Interactive, Paris, Patrologia Graeca, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Petulantes, Philosopher, Philosophy, Philostorgius, Plato, Plotinus, Polis, Praetorian prefect, Praetorian prefecture, Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, Price gouging, Primus inter pares, Procopius (usurper), Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Pythagoras, Raetia, Reims, Reincarnation, Religion in ancient Rome, Renaissance, Rhetoric, Rhine, Roman consul, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman governor, Roman usurper, Russian symbolism, Saint Mercurius, Salian Franks, Salutius, Samosata, Santa Costanza, Sasanian Empire, Scorched earth, Second Thoughts (Butor novel), Senon, Sens, Shapur II, Siege, Socrates of Constantinople, Soul, Sozomen, Speculative fiction, Strasbourg, Tarsus, Mersin, Taurus (consul 361), Tetrarchy, The Death of the Gods, The Dragon Waiting, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Jerusalem Post, Themistius, Theodoret, Theosophy (Boehmian), Theurgy, Third Temple, Tigris, Tongeren, Toxandri, Trajan, Valerian (emperor), Varronianus (son of Jovian), Wars of the Roses, William Russell, Lord Russell, Wine, Zosimus, Zygmunt Krasiński, 1996. Expand index (217 more) »


Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.

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Aedesius (Αἰδέσιος, died 355 AD) was a Neoplatonist philosopher and mystic born of a noble Cappadocian family.

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Against the Galilaeans

Against the Galilaeans (Κατὰ Γαλιλαίων; Contra Galilaeos), meaning Christians, was a Greek polemical essay written by the Roman Emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus, commonly known as Julian the Apostate, during his short reign (361–363).

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Agape feast

The Agape feast or Lovefeast is a communal meal shared among Christians.

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Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.

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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Algernon Charles Swinburne

Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909) was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic.

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Alternate history

Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.

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Alypius of Antioch

Alypius of Antioch was a geographer and a vicarius of Roman Britain, probably in the late 350s AD.

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Ammianus Marcellinus

Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).

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Anbar (town)

Anbar (الأنبار) was a town in Iraq, at lat.

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Andrew Selkirk

Andrew Selkirk is Editor-in-chief of Current Publishing, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and former Vice-President of the Royal Archaeological Institute.

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Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.

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Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.

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Arbitio (fl. 354–366) was a Roman general (magister militum) and Consul who lived in the middle of the 4th century.

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Ardashir II

Ardashir II (Middle Persian:, اردشیر دوم), was the eleventh Sassanid King of Persia from 379 to 383.

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

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Arshak II

Arshak II (Արշակ Բ, flourished 4th century, died 369 or 370), also known as Arsaces II and Arsak II was a prince who was a Roman client king of Arsacid Armenia from 350 until 368.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Augustus (title)

Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.

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Avner Falk

Avner Falk (אבנר פלק; born 1943) is an Israeli clinical psychologist and author.

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Babylas of Antioch

Saint Babylas (died 253) was a patriarch of Antioch (237–253), who died in prison during the Decian persecution.

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Barbatio (died AD 359) was a Roman general of the infantry (Magister Peditum.

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Basil of Caesarea

Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).

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Basilina (died 332) was the wife of Julius Constantius and the mother of Roman Emperor Julian, who in her honour gave the name Basilinopolis to a city in Bithynia (modern Pazarköy near Gemlik, in Turkey).

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Battle of Ctesiphon (363)

The Battle of Ctesiphon took place on May 29, 363 between the armies of Roman Emperor Julian and an army of the Sasanian Empire (during Shapur II's reign) outside the walls of the Persian capital Ctesiphon.

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Battle of Samarra

The Battle of Samarra took place in June 363, after the invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Roman Emperor Julian.

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Battle of Strasbourg

The Battle of Strasbourg, also known as the Battle of Argentoratum, was fought in AD 357 between the Western Roman army under the Caesar (deputy emperor) Julian and the Alamanni tribal confederation led by the joint paramount king Chnodomar.

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Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Caesarius of Nazianzus

Caesarius of Nazianzus (also spelled Cæsarius and Caesarios) (c. 331 – 368) was a prominent physician and politician.

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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.

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Censorius Datianus

Censorius Datianus (fl. 337-365) was a politician of the Roman Empire, very influential under the rule of Emperor Constantius II (337-361).

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Chalcedon tribunal

Shortly after the death of Roman emperor Constantius II, his successor Julian held a tribunal at the city of Chalcedon, which was then a suburb of Constantinople.

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Charitable organization

A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Chnodomarius, also Chnodomar, cognate to the Germanic Gundmar, was the king of an Alamannic canton in what is now south-west Germany, near the Rhine from sometime before 352 till 357.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Clark

Sir Christopher Munro Clark, FBA (born 14 March 1960) is an Australian historian working in England.

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Church of the Holy Apostles

The Church of the Holy Apostles (Ἅγιοι Ἀπόστολοι, Agioi Apostoloi; Havariyyun Kilisesi), also known as the Imperial Polyándreion (imperial cemetery), was a Greek Eastern Orthodox church in Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Circesium (ܩܪܩܣܝܢ) was an ancient city in Osrhoene, corresponding to the modern city of Buseira, in the region of Deir ez-Zor in Syria, at the confluence of the Khabur River with the Euphrates.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Claudius Mamertinus

Claudius Mamertinus (fl. mid-late 4th century AD) was an official in the Roman Empire.

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Claudius Silvanus

Claudius Silvanus (died 7 September 355) was a Roman general of Frankish descent, usurper in Gaul against Emperor Constantius II for 28 days in AD 355.

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Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium

Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium was the Roman colony in the Rhineland from which the German city of Cologne developed.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.

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Constantina (also named Constantia and Constantiana; b. after 307/before 317 – d. 354), and later known as Saint Constance, was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta, daughter of Emperor Maximian.

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Constantine II (emperor)

Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus;Jones, pg. 223 January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Constantine VII

Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.

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Constantinian dynasty

The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus (died 305) to the death of Julian in 363.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constantius Chlorus

Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.

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Constantius Gallus

Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (ca. 325/326–354), commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire (351–354).

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Constantius II

Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.

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Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.

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Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.

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Crusader Kings II

Crusader Kings II is a grand strategy game set in the Middle Ages, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive as a sequel to Crusader Kings.

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Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.

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Culture of the Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279 AD) was a culturally rich and sophisticated age for China.

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Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.

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Cyril of Alexandria

Cyril of Alexandria (Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ; c. 376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.

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David Strauss

David Friedrich Strauss (Strauß; January 27, 1808 in Ludwigsburg – February 8, 1874 in Ludwigsburg) was a German liberal Protestant theologian and writer, who influenced Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied.

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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Diodorus of Tarsus

Diodore of Tarsus (Greek Διόδωρος ὁ Ταρσεύς; died c. 390) was a Christian bishop, a monastic reformer, and a theologian.

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Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.

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Dmitry Merezhkovsky

Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (p; – December 9, 1941) was a Russian novelist, poet, religious thinker, and literary critic.

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Dominic Montserrat

Dominic Alexander Sebastian Montserrat (2 January 1964 – 23 September 2004) was a British egyptologist and papyrologist.

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Dura-Europos (Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός), also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment above the right bank of the Euphrates river.

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A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.

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Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.

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Emperor and Galilean

Emperor and Galilean (in Kejser og Galilæer) is a play written by Henrik Ibsen.

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The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Eusebia (empress)

Eusebia (†360, full name Flavia Aurelia Eusebia, sometimes known as Aurelia Eusebia) was the second wife of Emperor Constantius II.

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Eusebius (consul 359)

Flavius Eusebius (died after AD 371) was a Roman Senator, who was the brother-in-law of the Roman emperor Constantius II.

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Eusebius of Nicomedia

Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine the Great.

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Ezekiel, Freiherr von Spanheim

Ezekiel, Freiherr von Spanheim (also Ézéchiel, and known as Baron Spanheim) (7 December 1629 – 7 November 1710) was a Genevan diplomat and scholar.

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Fairleigh Dickinson University Press

Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (FDU Press) is a publishing house under the operation and oversight of Fairleigh Dickinson University, the largest private university in New Jersey with international campuses in Vancouver, British Columbia and Wroxton, Oxfordshire.

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Felix Weingartner

Paul Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (2 June 1863 – 7 May 1942) was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.

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Flavia Maximiana Theodora

Flavia Maximiana Theodora, also known as Theodora, was a Roman Empress, wife of Constantius Chlorus.

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Flavius Sallustius

Flavius Sallustius was a career Roman official whom the emperor Julian appointed Praetorian prefect of Gaul shortly after he proclaimed himself emperor.

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Florentius (consul 361)

Florentius was a Roman praetorian prefect under the Caesar Julian and later a consul, before falling from grace when Julian became emperor.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Frederick William IV of Prussia

Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.

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Galilee earthquake of 363

The Galilee earthquake of 363 was a pair of severe earthquakes that shook the Galilee and nearby regions on May 18 and 19.

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Gallia Belgica

Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gaza City

Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.

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George Hickes (divine)

George Hickes (20 June 1642 O.S. – 15 December 1715 O.S.) was an English divine and scholar.

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George of Cappadocia

Georgius (d. 24 December, 361), commonly called of Cappadocia (Athan. Ep. ad Episc. 7); Arian intruding Bishop of Alexandria (356–361).

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Gerald Henry Rendall

Gerald Henry Rendall (1851–1945) was an English educator and college administrator, born at Harrow, where his father was assistant master.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Glen Bowersock

Glen Warren Bowersock (born January 12, 1936 in Providence, Rhode Island) is a historian of ancient Greece, Rome and the Near East.

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Gore Vidal

Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.

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Gospel of Luke

The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.

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Gospel of Mark

The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.

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The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gregory of Nazianzus

Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.

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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.

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Hamaland (also Hameland) was a medieval Carolingian vassal county in the east of the modern-day Netherlands.

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Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

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Helena (wife of Julian)

Helena (died 360) was a Roman Empress by marriage to Julian, Roman Emperor in 360–363.

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Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Hellenistic religion

Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).

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Henrik Ibsen

Henrik Johan Ibsen (20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet.

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Heraclius the Cynic

Heraclius (Ἡράκλειος Herakleios; fl. 4th century) was a Cynic philosopher, against whom the emperor Julian wrote in his seventh oration.

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Hormizd (Constantinople)

Hormizd (Middle Persian; in Ὁρμίσδας Hormisdas, Ormisdas;هرمز.) was a Sassanid Persian prince, the third son of King Hormizd II and brother-in-law of King Shapur II.

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Hymn to Proserpine

“Hymn to Proserpine” is a poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne, published in Poems and Ballads in 1866.

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Hypatius (consul 359)

Flavius Hypatius (c. 340 - died after AD 383) was a Roman Senator, who was the brother-in-law of the Roman emperor Constantius II.

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Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.

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An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361

This article chronicles the attested movements of the fourth-century Roman emperors Constantine II (referred to here as Constantinus), Constantius II (referred to here as Constantius), Constans, Gallus, and Julian the Apostate from 337 to 361 AD.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Joannes Zonaras

Joannes or John Zonaras (Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς, Iōánnēs Zōnarâs; fl. 12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived in Constantinople.

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John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.

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John M. Ford

John Milo "Mike" Ford (April 10, 1957 – September 25, 2006) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer, game designer, and poet.

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John Malalas

John Malalas (Ἰωάννης Μαλάλας, Iōánnēs Malálas; – 578), was a Greek chronicler from Antioch.

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Jovian (emperor)

Jovian (Flavius Jovianus Augustus; Ἰοβιανός; 331 – 17 February 364) was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julian (novel)

Julian is a 1964 novel by Gore Vidal, a work of historical fiction written primarily in the first person dealing with the life of the Roman emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus, (known to Christians as Julian the Apostate), who reigned 360–363 C.E.

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Julian Comstock: A Story of 22nd-Century America

Julian Comstock: A Story of 22nd-Century America is a dystopian speculative fiction novel written by Robert Charles Wilson, and an expansion of Wilson's 2006 novella Julian: A Christmas Story.

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Julian's Persian War

Julian's Persian War, or the Perso-Roman War of 363, was the last undertaking of the Roman emperor Julian, begun in March 363.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Julius Constantius

Julius Constantius (died September 337) was a politician of the Roman Empire and a member of the Constantinian dynasty, being a son of Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora, a younger half-brother of Emperor Constantine I and the father of Emperor Julian.

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Julius Julianus

Julius Julianus (fl. 315–325) was a politician of the Roman Empire, related to the Constantinian dynasty.

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Juventinus and Maximinus

Saint Juventinus or Juventius (died 363) was a member of the imperial guard of Emperor Julian.

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Kaiseraugst (Swiss German: Chäiseraugscht) is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.

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Khabur (Euphrates)

The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.

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Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of barbari ("barbarians") i.e. foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military.

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The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.

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Lector is Latin for one who reads, whether aloud or not.

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Libanius (Λιβάνιος, Libanios; c. 314 – 392 or 393) was a Greek teacher of rhetoric of the Sophist school.

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Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of Roman consuls

This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.

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List of Roman emperors

The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.

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Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.

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Lollianus Mavortius

Quintus Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus signo Mavortius (fl. 330 – 356) was a politician of the Roman Empire.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lost work

A lost work is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist.

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Lower Rhine

The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein; kilometres 660 to 1,033 of the river Rhine) flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (including the Nederrijn or "Nether Rhine" within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta); alternatively, Lower Rhine may be refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn.

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Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.

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The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia (also Lutetia Parisiorum in Latin, in French Lutèce) was the predecessor of present-day Paris.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Magister equitum

The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator.

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Magister militum

Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.

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Magnentius (Latin: Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus; r. 303 – August 11, 353) was an usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.

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Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Maiuma or Maiumas was an ancient town near Gaza, Palestine.

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Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.

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Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.

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A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.

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Maximus of Ephesus

Maximus of Ephesus (Μάξιμος ὁ Ἐφέσιος; c. 310 – 372 AD) was a Neoplatonist philosopher.

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Media (region)

Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.

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Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Mesopotamia (Roman province)

Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.

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The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Michael Curtis Ford

Michael Curtis Ford is an American historical novelist, writing novels about Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece.

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Michel Butor

Michel Butor (14 September 1926 – 24 August 2016) was a French writer.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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The Misopogon, or Beard-Hater, is a satirical essay on philosophers by the Roman Emperor Julian.

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Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.

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Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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Neratius Cerealis

Neratius or Naeratius Cerealis (floruit 328–358) was a Roman senator and politician, Praefectus urbi and Consul.

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Nevitta (fl. 357-363) was a Roman military leader and official in the Roman Empire.

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Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.

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Nikos Kazantzakis

Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Καζαντζάκης; 18 February 188326 October 1957) was a Greek writer.

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Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.

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Oribasius or Oreibasius (Ὀρειβάσιος; c. 320 – 403) was a Greek medical writer and the personal physician of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.

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Panegyrici Latini

XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman and late antique prose panegyric orations written in Latin.

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Paradox Interactive

Paradox Interactive is a Swedish video game publisher based in Stockholm.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Patrologia Graeca

The Patrologia Graeca (or Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca) is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers and various secular writers, in the Greek language.

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Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire

Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.

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Petulantes was an auxilia palatina of the Late Roman army.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philostorgius (Φιλοστόργιος; 368 – c. 439 AD) was an Anomoean Church historian of the 4th and 5th centuries.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.

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Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Praetorian prefect

The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.

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Praetorian prefecture

The praetorian prefecture (praefectura praetorio; in Greek variously named ἐπαρχότης τῶν πραιτωρίων or ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the largest administrative division of the late Roman Empire, above the mid-level dioceses and the low-level provinces.

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Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (praefectura praetorio per Illyricum; ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ, also termed simply the Prefecture of Illyricum) was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.

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Price gouging

Price gouging is a pejorative term referring to when a seller spikes the prices of goods, services or commodities to a level much higher than is considered reasonable or fair, and is considered exploitative, potentially to an unethical extent.

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Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.

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Procopius (usurper)

Procopius (c. 325/326 – 27 May 366) was a Roman usurper against Valens, and a member of the Constantinian dynasty.

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Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire

Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (usually abbreviated as PLRE) is a set of three volumes collectively describing many of the people attested or claimed to have lived in the Roman Empire from AD 260, the date of the beginning of Gallienus' sole rule, to 641, the date of the death of Heraclius, which is commonly held to mark the end of Late Antiquity.

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.

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Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.

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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Roman consul

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman governor

A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.

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Roman usurper

Usurpers are individuals or groups of individuals who obtain and maintain the power or rights of another by force and without legal authority.

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Russian symbolism

Russian symbolism was an intellectual and artistic movement predominant at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.

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Saint Mercurius

Mercurius (Ⲫⲓⲗⲟⲡⲁ ⲧⲏⲣ Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲩⲣⲓⲟⲥ; 224250 AD) was a Christian saint and a martyr.

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Salian Franks

The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.

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Saturninius Secundus Salutius was a career Roman official who was a native of Gaul.

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Samosata (Armenian: Շամուշատ, Shamushat, Σαμόσατα Samósata, ܫܡܝܫܛ šmīšaṭ) was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates, whose ruins exist at the previous location of the modern city of Samsat, Adıyaman Province, Turkey but are no longer accessible as the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam.

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Santa Costanza

Santa Costanza is a 4th-century church in Rome, Italy, on the Via Nomentana, which runs north-east out of the city.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Scorched earth

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.

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Second Thoughts (Butor novel)

Second Thoughts (1957) is a novel by Michel Butor.

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Senon is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

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Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France, 120 km from Paris.

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Shapur II

Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.

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A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Socrates of Constantinople

Socrates of Constantinople (Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός, b. c. 380; d. after 439), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret.

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In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.

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Salminius Hermias Sozomenus (Σωζομενός; c. 400 – c. 450 AD), also known as Sozomen was a historian of the Christian Church.

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Speculative fiction

Speculative fiction is an umbrella genre encompassing narrative fiction with supernatural and/or futuristic elements.

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Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Tarsus, Mersin

Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.

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Taurus (consul 361)

Flavius Taurus (fl. 355–361) was a politician and a military officer of the Roman Empire.

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The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.

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The Death of the Gods

The Death of the Gods.

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The Dragon Waiting

The Dragon Waiting: A Masque of History is a 1983 fantasy novel by John M. Ford. It won the 1984 World Fantasy Award for Best Novel.

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The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.

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Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457).

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Theosophy (Boehmian)

Theosophy, also known as Christian theosophy and Boehmian theosophy, refers to a range of positions within Christianity which focus on the attainment of direct, unmediated knowledge of the nature of divinity and the origin and purpose of the universe.

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Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.

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Third Temple

If built, the Third Temple (בית המקדש השלישי, Beit haMikdash haShlishi, literally: The House, the Holy, the Third) would be the third Jewish temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's Temple and the rebuilt Second Temple.

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Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.

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The Toxandri (or Texuandri, Taxandri, Toxandrians etc.) were a people living at the time of the Roman empire.

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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.

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Valerian (emperor)

Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.

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Varronianus (son of Jovian)

Varronianus (363 – 380) was the son of the emperor Jovian.

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Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.

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William Russell, Lord Russell

William Russell, Lord Russell (29 September 1639 – 21 July 1683), was an English politician.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).

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Zygmunt Krasiński

Count Zygmunt Krasiński (19 February 1812 – 23 February 1859), a Polish nobleman traditionally ranked with Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki as one of Poland's Three National Bards — the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage.

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1996 was designated as.

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Redirects here:

Anthropomantia, Emperor Iulianus, Emperor Julian, Emperor Julian the Apostate, Flavius Claudius Iulianus, Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Flavius Claudius Julianus, Iulianus Augustus, Julian (Roman Emperor), Julian (Roman emperor), Julian Apostata, Julian I, Julian The Apostate, Julian augustus, Julian of Rome, Julian the Apostate, Julian the Blessed, Julian the Great, Julian the Hellene, Julian the Philosopher, Julian the apostate, Julianus Imperator, Julianus apostata, Julien the Apostate, Splanchomancy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_(emperor)

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