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Julius Axelrod

Index Julius Axelrod

Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist. [1]

68 relations: Acetanilide, Adrenaline, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ammonia, Analgesic, Antisemitism, Ashkenazi Jews, Aspirin, Atheism, Bernard Brodie (biochemist), Bernard Katz, Bethesda, Maryland, Biochemistry, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Caffeine, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Catecholamine, Christian B. Anfinsen, Circadian rhythm, City College of New York, Codeine, Coler Specialty Hospital, Congress Poland, Dopamine, Ephedrine, Eyepatch, Federation of American Scientists, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fluoxetine, Gairdner Foundation International Award, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Hypothalamus, Irwin Kopin, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1979, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Medical school, Melatonin, Methamphetamine, Methemoglobinemia, Monoamine oxidase, Morphine, Multivitamin, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Neurotransmitter, New York City, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York University, Nobel Committee, ..., Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Paracetamol, Pineal gland, Richard Nixon, Richard Wurtman, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Solomon H. Snyder, Soviet Union, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, The Washington Post, Tryptophan, Ulf von Euler, United States, United States National Library of Medicine. Expand index (18 more) »

Acetanilide

Acetanilide is an odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance.

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Adrenaline

Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Analgesic

An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Bernard Brodie (biochemist)

Bernard Beryl Brodie (7 August 1907 – 28 February 1989), a leading researcher on drug therapy, is considered by many to be the founder of modern pharmacology and brought the field to prominence in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Bernard Katz

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.

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Bethesda, Maryland

Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House (1820, rebuilt 1849), which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Catechol-O-methyltransferase

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.

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Catecholamine

A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Christian B. Anfinsen

Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Jr. (March 26, 1916 – May 14, 1995) was an American biochemist.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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City College of New York

The City College of the City University of New York (more commonly referred to as the City College of New York, or simply City College, CCNY, or City) is a public senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York City.

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Codeine

Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Coler Specialty Hospital

Coler Specialty Hospital, is a 815-bed chronic care facility on New York City's Roosevelt Island that provides services such as rehabilitation and specialty nursing.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Ephedrine

Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.

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Eyepatch

An eyepatch is a small patch that is worn in front of one eye.

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Federation of American Scientists

The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Gairdner Foundation International Award

The Canada Gairdner International Award is given annually at a special dinner to five individuals for outstanding discoveries or contributions to medical science.

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George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences

The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (abbreviated as GW Medicine or GW SMHS) is the professional medical school of the George Washington University, in Washington, D.C..

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Irwin Kopin

Irwin J. "Irv" Kopin (born 1929) is an American biochemist, best known for his research on the function and metabolism of catecholamines.

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1979

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1979.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.

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Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Marshall Warren Nirenberg (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was a Jewish American biochemist and geneticist.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Melatonin

Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.

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Monoamine oxidase

L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.

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Morphine

Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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Multivitamin

A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement.

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New York University

New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.

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Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Paracetamol

--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Richard Wurtman

Richard ("Dick") Wurtman is a medical doctor who who spent his career doing basic and translational neuroscience research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Solomon H. Snyder

Solomon Halbert Snyder (born December 26, 1938) is an American neuroscientist who is known for wide-ranging contributions to neuropharmacology and neurochemistry.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Tryptophan

Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Ulf von Euler

Ulf Svante von Euler (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Axelrod

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