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Julius Caesar

Index Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. [1]

302 relations: Absence seizure, Adrian Goldsworthy, Aegean Sea, Aeneas, Aeneid, Affricate consonant, Alba Longa, Alea iacta est, Alexander the Great, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Greek, Ancient Mediterranean piracy, Anticato, Apotheosis, Appian, Arsinoe IV of Egypt, Ascanius, Asia (Roman province), Assassination of Julius Caesar, Athens, Augustan History, Augustus, Aulus Gabinius, Aulus Hirtius, Aurelia (gens), Aurelia Cotta, Auxilia, Battle of Actium, Battle of Alesia, Battle of Carrhae, Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC), Battle of Magetobriga, Battle of Munda, Battle of Pharsalus, Battle of Philippi, Battle of the Nile (47 BC), Benito Mussolini, Bible, Bogud, British Museum, Brittany, Caesar's Civil War, Caesar's Comet, Caesar's invasions of Britain, Caesar's Rhine bridges, Caesarean section, Caesarion, Caesarism, Calpurnia (wife of Caesar), Cambridge University Press, ..., Campus Martius, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Catiline, Cato the Younger, Catullus, Caucasus, Charisma, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VIII of France, Cicero, Circus Maximus, Cisalpine Gaul, Classical Latin, Cleopatra, Cognomen, Commentarii de Bello Civili, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Constitution of the Roman Republic, Cornelia (wife of Caesar), Crossing the Rubicon, Cult of personality, Dacia, De Bello Africo, De Bello Alexandrino, De Bello Hispaniensi, Death of Cleopatra, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, Defamation, Dictator perpetuo, Diphthong, Edinburgh University Press, Edmond Malone, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., English Channel, Epigraphy, Epilepsy, Erasmus, Et tu, Brute?, Eunoë (wife of Bogudes), Eutropius (historian), Fasces, Final War of the Roman Republic, First Triumvirate, Flamen, Flamen Dialis, Flamen Divi Julii, Forum of Caesar, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gaius Caninius Rebilus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior, Gaius Julius Caesar (name), Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul), Gaius Marius, Gaius Memmius (poet), Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic Wars, Gaul, Gens, German language, Germania, Germanic peoples, Gladiator, Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus, Greek language, Gregorian calendar, Harvard University Press, Henry IV of France, Hispania, Hispania Ulterior, Histories (Tacitus), History of the Roman Empire, Hypoglycemia, Iberian Peninsula, Ides of March, Illyricum (Roman province), Imperative mood, Imperator, Imperial cult of ancient Rome, Imperialism, Intercalation (timekeeping), Isthmus of Corinth, Italian language, Italy, IUniverse, John Carew Rolfe, Juba I of Numidia, Julia (daughter of Caesar), Julia (gens), Julia (mother of Mark Antony), Julia (wife of Marius), Julia Major (sister of Caesar), Julia Minor (sister of Caesar), Julian calendar, Julius Caesar (play), Julius Sabinus, Junia Tertia, Kaiser, Kjárr, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin regional pronunciation, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Laudatio Iuliae amitae, Legio XIII Gemina, Liberators' civil war, Library of Alexandria, Lictor, Lingones, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman dictators, List of Roman wars and battles, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Lucca Conference, Lucius Afranius (consul), Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (consul 58 BC), Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC), Ludi, Macaronic language, Magister equitum, Mamurra, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir), Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Mark Antony, Master of the Horse, Mauretania, Ménière's disease, Menander, Military, Napoleon, Napoleon III, National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Naumachia, Neurocysticercosis, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, Nile, Norse mythology, Optimates, Ostia Antica, Palatalization (sound change), Parthia, Parthian Empire, Pater Patriae, Patrician (ancient Rome), Pharnaces II of Pontus, Plebs, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Poems by Julius Caesar, Political institutions of ancient Rome, Pompeia (wife of Caesar), Pompey, Pontifex maximus, Pontus (region), Populares, Populism, Praetor, Primary source, Proconsul, Proleptic Julian calendar, Promagistrate, Proscription, Publius Cornelius Dolabella, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (consul 48 BC), Publius Vatinius, Quaestor, Quintilis, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, Quintus Fabius Maximus, Quintus Fufius Calenus, Religion in ancient Rome, Render unto Caesar, Revolt of the Batavi, Rhine, Richard Edes, Rimini, Roman Britain, Roman calendar, Roman censor, Roman consul, Roman dictator, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Roman historiography, Roman Italy, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman triumph, Romance languages, Rome, Ronald Syme, Rubicon, Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic, Sallust, Satire, Scythia, Second Catilinarian conspiracy, Second Triumvirate, Servilia (mother of Brutus), Servilius Casca, Sexuality in ancient Rome, Siege of Alexandria (47 BC), Slavic languages, Social order, Social War (91–88 BC), Stop consonant, Strongman (politics), Suburra, Suda, Suetonius, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sulla, Sulla's first civil war, Tacitus, Talent (measurement), Tarsus, Mersin, Temple of Caesar, Temple of Venus Genetrix, Temporal lobe epilepsy, The Twelve Caesars, Theatre of Pompey, Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, Tiber, Tillius Cimber, Tom Holland (author), Trebonius, Tribune, Troy, Tsar, Tunic, Turin, Tusculum portrait, Typographic ligature, Venatio, Veneti (Gaul), Veni, vidi, vici, Venus (mythology), Vercingetorix, Virgil, Vulgar Latin, Yale University Press. 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Absence seizure

Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.

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Adrian Goldsworthy

Adrian Keith Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and author who specialises in ancient Roman history.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).

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The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alba Longa

Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy, southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills.

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Alea iacta est

Alea iacta est ("The die is cast") is a Latin phrase attributed by Suetonius (as iacta alea est) to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 B.C. as he led his army across the Rubicon river in Northern Italy.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ancient Corinth

Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Mediterranean piracy

Piracy in the ancient Mediterranean has a long documented history, from the Late Bronze Age.

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The Anticato (sometimes Anti-Cato; Latin: Anticatones) was a polemic written by Julius Caesar in hostile reply to Cicero's pamphlet praising Cato the Younger.

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Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.

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Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.

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Arsinoe IV of Egypt

Arsinoë IV (Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 59 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, and queen and co-ruler of Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII from 48 BC – 47 BC, making her one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt.

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Ascanius (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus.

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Asia (Roman province)

The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.

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Assassination of Julius Caesar

The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Augustan History

The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Aulus Gabinius

Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.

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Aulus Hirtius

Aulus Hirtius (c. 90 – 43 BC) was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.

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Aurelia (gens)

The gens Aurelia was a plebeian family at Rome, which flourished from the third century BC to the latest period of the Empire.

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Aurelia Cotta

Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).

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The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.

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Battle of Actium

The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.

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Battle of Alesia

The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe.

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Battle of Carrhae

The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.

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Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC)

The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).

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Battle of Magetobriga

The Battle of Magetobriga (Amagetobria, Magetobria, Mageto'Bria, Admageto'Bria) was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul.

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Battle of Munda

The Battle of Munda (17 March 45 B.C.), in southern Hispania Ulterior, was the final battle of Caesar's civil war against the leaders of the Optimates.

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Battle of Pharsalus

The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.

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Battle of Philippi

The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.

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Battle of the Nile (47 BC)

The Battle of the Nile in 47 BC saw the combined Roman–Egyptian armies of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII defeat those of the rival Queen Arsinoe IV and King Ptolemy XIII and secure the throne of Egypt.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bogud (died 31 BC), son of King Bocchus I of Mauretania, was joint king of Mauretania with his elder brother Bocchus II, with Bocchus ruling east of the Moulouya River and his brother west.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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Caesar's Civil War

The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Caesar's Comet

Caesar's Comet (numerical designation C/-43 K1) – also known as Comet Caesar and the Great Comet of 44 BC – was perhaps the most famous comet of antiquity.

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Caesar's invasions of Britain

In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.

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Caesar's Rhine bridges

Caesar's Bridge across the Rhine, the first two bridges to cross the Rhine River on record, were built by Julius Caesar and his legionaries during the Gallic War in 55 BC and 53 BC.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.

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Caesarism has been used in a variety of ways over the centuries.

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Calpurnia (wife of Caesar)

Calpurnia was the third and last wife of Julius Caesar.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Campus Martius

The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.

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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate.

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Cato the Younger

Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.

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Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Charles VIII of France

Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.

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Cisalpine Gaul

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.

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A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.

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Commentarii de Bello Civili

Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Constitution of the Roman Republic

The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of unwritten norms and customs, which together with various written laws, guided the manner by which the Roman Republic was governed.

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Cornelia (wife of Caesar)

Cornelia (c. 97 – c. 69 BC) was the first wife of Caesar, and the mother of his only daughter, Julia.

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Crossing the Rubicon

Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river was an event in 49 BC that precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator for life and the rise of the imperial era of Rome.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.

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De Bello Africo

De Bello Africo (also Bellum Africum; On the African War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili, and its sequel by an unknown author De Bello Alexandrino.

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De Bello Alexandrino

De Bello Alexandrino (also Bellum Alexandrinum; On the Alexandrine War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili.

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De Bello Hispaniensi

De Bello Hispaniensi (also Bellum Hispaniense; On the Hispanic War; On the Spanish War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili, and its sequels by two different unknown authors De Bello Alexandrino and De Bello Africo.

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Death of Cleopatra

The death of Cleopatra VII, the last reigning ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, occurred on either 10 or 12 August 30 BC in Alexandria, when she was 39 years old.

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Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born April 27, ca. 85–81 BC, died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination.

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Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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Dictator perpetuo

Dictator perpetuo (English: "dictator in perpetuity"), also called dictator in perpetuum, was the office held by Julius Caesar from 26 January or 15 February of the year 44 BCE until his death on 15 March.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Edmond Malone

Edmond Malone (4 October 1741 – 25 May 1812) was an Irish Shakespearean scholar and editor of the works of William Shakespeare.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.

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Et tu, Brute?

Et tu, Brute? is a Latin phrase meaning "even you, Brutus?" It is notable for its occurrence in William Shakespeare's play ''Julius Caesar'', where it is spoken by the Roman dictator Julius Caesar to his friend Marcus Junius Brutus at the moment of Caesar's assassination.

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Eunoë (wife of Bogudes)

Eunoë, who was descended from Moors, was the wife of Bogudes, King of Mauretania, and a mistress of Julius Caesar, according to Suetonius.

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Eutropius (historian)

Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.

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Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.

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Final War of the Roman Republic

The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian.

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First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

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In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic.

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Flamen Dialis

In ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Dialis was the high priest of Jupiter.

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Flamen Divi Julii

In Roman Imperial cult, the flamen Divi Julii or flamen Divi Iulii, was the priest of the divinised Julius Caesar, and the fourth of the so-called flamines maiores (the archpriests of the Roman flaminates) to be created.

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Forum of Caesar

The Forum of Caesar (Foro di Cesare), also known as Forum Iulium or Forum Julium, Forum Caesaris,Hornblower, Simon and Antony Spawforth.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Gaius Caninius Rebilus

Gaius Caninius Rebilus, a member of the plebeian gens Caninia, was a Roman general and politician.

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Gaius Cassius Longinus

Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.

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Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior

Gaius Claudius Marcellus (Maior) (before 91 BCE – c. 48 BCE) was a Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BCE.

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Gaius Julius Caesar (name)

Gaius Julius Caesar (ΓΑΙΟΣ ΙΟΥΛΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΓάιος Ιούλιος Καίσαρ (Gáios Ioúlios Kaísar)) was a prominent name of the Gens Julia from Roman Republican times, borne by a number of figures, but most notably by the general and dictator Julius Caesar.

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Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul)

Gaius Julius Caesar (ca. 140 BC – 85 BC) was a Roman senator, a supporter of his brother-in-law, Gaius Marius, and the father of Gaius Julius Caesar.

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Gaius Marius

Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.

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Gaius Memmius (poet)

Gaius Memmius (died circa 49 BC, incorrectly called Gemellus, "The Twin") was a Roman orator and poet.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gallic Wars

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus

Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus was a Roman general, senator and consul (both in 53 BC and 40 BC) who was a loyal partisan of Caesar and Octavianus.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.

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Hispania Ulterior

Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Iberia", or occasionally "Thither Iberia") was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia).

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Histories (Tacitus)

Histories (Historiae) is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus.

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History of the Roman Empire

The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ides of March

The Ides of March (Idus Martiae, Late Latin: Idus Martii) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March.

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Illyricum (Roman province)

Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.

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Imperial cult of ancient Rome

The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.

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Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Intercalation (timekeeping)

Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.

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Isthmus of Corinth

The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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iUniverse, founded in October 1999, is a self-publishing company in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.Kevin Abourezk, Lincoln Journal Star, January 22, 2008.

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John Carew Rolfe

John Carew Rolfe, Ph.D. (October 15, 1859 in Newburyport, Massachusetts – March 26, 1943) was an American classical scholar, the son of William J. Rolfe.

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Juba I of Numidia

Juba I of Numidia (c. 85–46 BC, reigned 60–46 BC) was a king of Numidia.

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Julia (daughter of Caesar)

Julia Caesaris Filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA), c. 76 BC–54 BC, was the daughter of Roman dictator Julius Caesar by his first wife Cornelia, and his only child from his three marriages.

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Julia (gens)

The gens Julia or Iulia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome.

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Julia (mother of Mark Antony)

Julia (104 BC-after 39 BC) or Julia Antonia (known from the sources to distinguish her from other Juliae) was a daughter of Lucius Julius Caesar, the consul of 90 BC, and mother of the future triumvir and deputy of Caesar, Mark Antony.

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Julia (wife of Marius)

Julia (c. 130 BC – 69 BC) was a daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar II (praetor-grandfather of Caesar) and Marcia (daughter of praetor Quintus Marcius Rex).

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Julia Major (sister of Caesar)

Julia, also known as Julia Major and Julia the Elder, was the elder of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia.

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Julia Minor (sister of Caesar)

Julia, also known as Julia Minor and Julia the Younger, (101–51 BC) was the second of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Julius Caesar (play)

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599.

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Julius Sabinus

Julius Sabinus was an aristocratic Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD 69.

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Junia Tertia

Junia Tertia, also called Tertulla, (c. 60 BC – 22 AD) was the third daughter of Servilia and her second husband Decimus Junius Silanus, half-sister of Marcus Junius Brutus, and wife of Gaius Cassius Longinus.

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Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".

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Kjárr, or Kíarr, is a figure of Norse mythology that is believed to be the reflection of the Roman Emperors.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin regional pronunciation

Latin pronunciation, both in the classical and post-classical age, has varied across different regions and different eras.

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Latin spelling and pronunciation

Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.

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Laudatio Iuliae amitae

The laudatio Iuliae amitae is a well-known funeral oration that Julius Caesar delivered in 68 BC to honor his deceased aunt Julia, the widow of Marius.

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Legio XIII Gemina

Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion, also known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.

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Liberators' civil war

The Liberators' civil war was started by the Second Triumvirate to avenge Julius Caesar's murder.

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Library of Alexandria

The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.

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A lictor (possibly from ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium.

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The Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers.

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List of Roman consuls

This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.

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List of Roman dictators

A list of all of the Roman dictators and magistri equitum known from ancient sources.

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List of Roman wars and battles

The following is a List of Roman wars and battles fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Lucca Conference

At the Luca Conference, in 56 BC, (named for the town of Luca — modern Lucca — in Cisalpine Gaul) Caesar met with his political partners, Pompey and Crassus.

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Lucius Afranius (consul)

Lucius Afranius (died 46 BC) was an ancient Roman legatus and client of Pompey the Great.

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Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (consul 58 BC)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (c. 100 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman senator and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia.

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Lucius Cornelius Cinna

Lucius Cornelius Cinna (died 84 BC) was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens.

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Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus

Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus (bef. 97 BC - 48 BC) was Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BC, an opponent of Caesar and supporter of Pompeius in the Civil War during 49 – 48 BC.

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Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC)

Lucius Julius Caesar (fl. 1st century BC) was a Roman politician and senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC.

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Ludi (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the Roman people (''populus Romanus'').

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Macaronic language

Macaronic refers to text using a mixture of languages, particularly bilingual puns or situations in which the languages are otherwise used in the same context (rather than simply discrete segments of a text being in different languages).

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Magister equitum

The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator.

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Mamurra (fl. 1st century BC) was a Roman military officer who served under Julius Caesar.

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Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.

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Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus

Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (c. 102 BC – 48 BC) was a politician of the late Roman Republic.

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Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger

Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.

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Marcus Licinius Crassus

Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Marcus Velleius Paterculus

Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), also known as Velleius was a Roman historian.

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Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

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Master of the Horse

The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.

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Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.

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Ménière's disease

Ménière's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like the world is spinning (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear.

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Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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National Archaeological Museum, Naples

The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.

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The naumachia (in Latin naumachia, from the Ancient Greek ναυμαχία/naumachía, literally "naval combat") in the Ancient Roman world referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment, and the basin or building in which this took place.

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Neurocysticercosis is a specific form of the infectious parasitic disease cysticercosis which is caused by infection with Taenia solium, a tapeworm found in pigs.

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Nicomedes IV of Bithynia

Nicomedes IV Philopator (Νικομήδης) was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.

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Ostia Antica

Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Pater Patriae

Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin honorific meaning "Father of the Country", or more literally, "Father of the Fatherland".

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Patrician (ancient Rome)

The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.

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Pharnaces II of Pontus

Pharnaces II of Pontus, also known as Pharnaces II (Φαρνάκης; about 97–47 BC) was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom until his death.

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The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Poems by Julius Caesar

Poems by Julius Caesar are mentioned by several sources in antiquity.

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Political institutions of ancient Rome

Various lists regarding the political institutions of ancient Rome are presented.

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Pompeia (wife of Caesar)

Pompeia (fl. 1st century BC) was the second wife of Julius Caesar.

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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.

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Pontifex maximus

The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.

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Pontus (region)

Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

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The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).

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In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".

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Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).

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Primary source

In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

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A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.

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Proleptic Julian calendar

The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar backwards to dates preceding AD 4 when the quadrennial leap year stabilized.

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In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.

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Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.

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Publius Cornelius Dolabella

Publius Cornelius Dolabella (c. 85–80 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman general, by far the most important of the Dolabellae.

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Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (consul 48 BC)

Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus was a Roman consul elected in 48 BC along with Gaius Julius Caesar.

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Publius Vatinius

Publius Vatinius was a Roman statesman during the last decades of the Republic.

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A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.

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In the ancient Roman calendar, Quintilis or Quinctilis was the month following Junius (June) and preceding Sextilis (August).

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (before 103 BC or c. 100 BC – 59 BC) was a consul in 60 BC and son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos, or, according to some, the son of Tribune Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer while the latter is the son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos.

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (c. 130 BC – 63 BC) was a pro-Sullan politician and general who was Roman consul in 80 BC.

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Quintus Fabius Maximus

Quintus Fabius Maximus (possibly Quintus Fabius Maximus Sanga) (died December 31, 45 BC) was a general and politician of the late Roman Republic who became suffect consul in 45 BC.

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Quintus Fufius Calenus

Quintus Fufius Calenus (died 40 BC) was a Roman general, and consul in 47 BC.

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Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.

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Render unto Caesar

"Render unto Caesar" is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, which reads in full, "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's" (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).

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Revolt of the Batavi

The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD 69 and 70.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Richard Edes

Richard Edes (or Eedes) (1555–1604) was an English churchman.

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Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

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Roman calendar

The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.

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Roman censor

The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.

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Roman consul

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).

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Roman dictator

A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.

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Roman historiography

Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.

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Roman Italy

"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman Senate

The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.

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Roman triumph

The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Ronald Syme

Sir Ronald Syme, (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989) was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist.

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The Rubicon (Rubicō, Rubicone) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.

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Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic

Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic, or Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, is a popular history book written by Tom Holland, published in 2003.

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Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.

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Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.

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Second Catilinarian conspiracy

The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida.

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Second Triumvirate

The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.

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Servilia (mother of Brutus)

Servilia (b. circa 104 BC, d. after 42 BC) was a Roman matron from a distinguished family, the Servilii Caepiones, and the half-sister of Cato the Younger.

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Servilius Casca

Publius Servilius Casca Longus (84 BC – c. 42 BC) was one of the assassins of Gaius Julius Caesar.

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Sexuality in ancient Rome

Sexuality in ancient Rome, and more broadly, sexual attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome, are indicated by Roman art, literature and inscriptions, and to a lesser extent by archaeological remains such as erotic artifacts and architecture.

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Siege of Alexandria (47 BC)

The Siege of Alexandria was a series of skirmishes and battles occurring between the forces of Julius Caesar, Cleopatra VII, Arsinoe IV, and Ptolemy XIII, between 48 and 47 BC.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Social War (91–88 BC)

The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Strongman (politics)

A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime.

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Suburra (usually spelled Subura in antiquity) was an area of the city of Rome, Italy located below the Murus Terreus on the Carinae.

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The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).

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Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

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Suleiman the Magnificent


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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Sulla's first civil war

Sulla's first civil war was one of a series of civil wars in ancient Rome, between Gaius Marius and Sulla, between 88 and 87 BC.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Talent (measurement)

The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.

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Tarsus, Mersin

Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.

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Temple of Caesar

The Temple of Caesar or Temple of Divus Iulius (Templum Divi Iuli; Tempio del Divo Giulio), also known as Temple of the Deified Julius Caesar, delubrum, heroon or Temple of the Comet Star,Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 2.93–94 is an ancient structure in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy, located near the Regia and the Temple of Vesta.

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Temple of Venus Genetrix

The Temple of Venus Genetrix (Latin: Templum Veneris Genetricis) is a ruined temple in the Forum of Caesar, Rome, dedicated to the Roman goddess Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and domesticity.

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Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

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The Twelve Caesars

De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.

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Theatre of Pompey

The Theatre of Pompey (Theatrum Pompeii, Teatro di Pompeo) was a structure in Ancient Rome built during the latter part of the Roman Republican era: completed in 55BC.

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Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, FBA (17 February 1900 – 17 September 1993) was a Canadian classical scholar and leading Latin prosopographer of the twentieth century.

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The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.

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Tillius Cimber

Lucius Tillius Cimber (died 42 BC) was a Roman senator.

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Tom Holland (author)

Thomas "Tom" Holland (born 1968) is an English writer and popular historian, who has published several non-academic works on classical and medieval history.

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Gaius Trebonius (c. 92 BC – January 43 BC) was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, who became suffect consul in 45 BC.

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Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.

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Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Tusculum portrait

The Tusculum portrait or the Tusculum bust is one of the two main portrait types of Julius Caesar, alongside the Chiaramonti Caesar.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Venatio (venatio, "hunting", plural venationes) was a type of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involving the hunting and killing of wild animals.

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Veneti (Gaul)

The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula (France), which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica.

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Veni, vidi, vici

Veni, vidi, vici ("I came; I saw; I conquered") is a Latin phrase popularly attributed to Julius Caesar who, according to Appian, used the phrase in a letter to the Roman Senate around 47 BC after he had achieved a quick victory in his short war against Pharnaces II of Pontus at the Battle of Zela.

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Venus (mythology)

Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.

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Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar

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