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Jupiter

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. [1]

335 relations: ABC News (Australia), Adjective, Adrastea (moon), Alfvén wave, Almagest, Altaic mythologies, Amalthea (moon), Amateur astronomy, Ammonia, Ammonium hydrosulfide, Ananke group, Ancient Rome, Angular diameter, Anthony Wesley, Anticyclone, Aperture, Apparent magnitude, Apparent retrograde motion, Apsis, Aryabhata, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomer, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy (magazine), Astrophysical maser, Atmosphere, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Jupiter, Atmospheric circulation, Axial tilt, Babylon, Babylonian astronomy, Bar (unit), Barycenter, Bṛhaspati, BBC News Online, Benzene, Bond albedo, Bow shocks in astrophysics, Brady Haran, Brown dwarf, Business Insider, Callisto (moon), Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carme group, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carpo (moon), ..., Cassini–Huygens, Celestial equator, Celestial mechanics, Chinese astronomy, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Chinese gods and immortals, Chinese language, Chinese zodiac, Chromophore, Clockwise, Comet, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Conjunction (astronomy), Constellation, Convection, Convection cell, Coordinate system, Cosmic Vision, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crystal, Cyclotron, Cyclotron radiation, Deferent and epicycle, Delta-v, Diamond, Differential rotation, Discover (magazine), Dyeus, Earth, Earthly Branches, Ecliptic, Eddy current, Edward Emerson Barnard, Elara (moon), Epoch (astronomy), Equator, Equatorial bulge, Ethane, Europa (moon), Europa Clipper, Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace, European Space Agency, Exoplanet, Folk etymology, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Frank Drake, Friction, G-force, Galilean moons, Galileo (spacecraft), Galileo Galilei, Gan De, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Gauss (unit), Geocentric model, Geographical pole, Geometric albedo, Germanic paganism, Giant planet, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, God (male deity), Grand tack hypothesis, Gravity, Gravity assist, Gravity well, Great Red Spot, Greek language, Greek mythology, Guru, HD 209458 b, Heinrich Schwabe, Heliocentrism, Helium, Hertz, Himalia (moon), Himalia group, HIP 11915, HIP 11915 b, Hohmann transfer orbit, Hot Jupiter, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen deuteride, Hydrogen sulfide, Ice giant, Iliad, Indian astronomy, Indian mathematics, Inert gas, Infrared, Inquisition, Internet Archive, Invariable plane, Io (moon), Ion, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jovian (fiction), Jovian–Plutonian gravitational effect, Julian year (astronomy), Jumping-Jupiter scenario, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter Europa Orbiter, Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, Jupiter in fiction, Jupiter mass, Jyotisha, Kappa Andromedae b, Kelvin, Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism, Kenneth Franklin, Kilometre, Kirkwood gap, Konstantin Batygin, Kuiper belt, Lagrangian point, Late Heavy Bombardment, Lick Observatory, Light-year, Lightning, List of Jupiter trojans (Greek camp), List of Jupiter trojans (Trojan camp), List of periodic comets, List of Solar System objects by size, Low Earth orbit, Magnetic field, Magnetopause, Magnetosheath, Magnetosphere, Marduk, Mass, Mathematical model, Max Wolf, Mercury (planet), Metallic hydrogen, Metastability, Meteoroid, Methane, Metis (moon), Middle Ages, Minute and second of arc, Molecule, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Moons of Jupiter, NASA, NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, National Geographic, Natural satellite, Nebular hypothesis, Neon, Neptune, New Horizons, Nicolaus Copernicus, Night sky, NTV (Turkey), Nuclear fusion, Ole Rømer, Oort cloud, Opposition (planets), Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital period, Orbital plane (astronomy), Orbital resonance, Outline of Jupiter, Oval, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Pasiphae group, Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Phaethon, Phase angle (astronomy), Phase transition, Philippines, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phosphine, Photosphere, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pioneer program, Planet, Planetary core, Planetary flyby, Planets in astrology, Plasma sheet, Pluto, Polar orbit, Precipitation, Properties of water, Proto-Indo-European language, Ptolemy, Radio astronomy, Radio occultation, Radio wave, Radius, Rain, Red dwarf, Retrograde and prograde motion, Ring system, Robert Hooke, Robotic spacecraft, Rock (geology), Roman mythology, Rotation, Royal Society, Rupert Wildt, Sanxing (deities), Saturn, Science News, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Silicon, Simon Marius, Simplified Chinese characters, Sky & Telescope, Solar analog, Solar irradiance, Solar mass, Solar radius, Solar System, Solar time, Solar wind, Southern Hemisphere, Space exploration, Space.com, Spectroscopy, Speed of light, Spheroid, Star, Star formation, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sun, Sunspot, Super-Earth, Tai Sui, Taoism, Telescope, Terrestrial planet, Tesla (unit), The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thebe (moon), Themisto (moon), Thor, Tidal circularization, Tidal force, Toronto Star, Torus, Trojan (astronomy), Tropopause, Turbulence, Ultraviolet, Ulysses (spacecraft), University of Leicester, University of Nottingham, Uranus, Venus, Very Large Telescope, Vocative case, Volatiles, Vorticity, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Water vapor, Wavelength, Wide Field Camera 3, Wind speed, Windward and leeward, Wu Xing, Xi Zezong, Zeus, Zodiac, 2009 Jupiter impact event, 2010 Jupiter impact event, 588 Achilles, 624 Hektor. Expand index (285 more) »

ABC News (Australia)

ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adrastea (moon)

Adrastea (Αδράστεια), also known as, is the second by distance, and the smallest of the four inner moons of Jupiter.

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Alfvén wave

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the magnetic field lines.

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Almagest

The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.

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Altaic mythologies

Altaic mythologies include.

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Amalthea (moon)

Amalthea (Ἀμάλθεια) is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet.

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Amateur astronomy

Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ammonium hydrosulfide

Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)SH.

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Ananke group

The Ananke group is a group of retrograde irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar orbits to Ananke and are thought to have a common origin.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angular diameter

The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.

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Anthony Wesley

Anthony Wesley (born 1965) is an Australian computer programmer and amateur astronomer, known for his discoveries of the 2009 and 2010 Jupiter impact events.

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Anticyclone

An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".

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Aperture

In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.

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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.

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Apparent retrograde motion

Apparent retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.

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Apsis

An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.

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Aryabhata

Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

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Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomical symbols

Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Astronomy (magazine)

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.

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Astrophysical maser

An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Atmosphere of Jupiter

The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.

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Atmospheric circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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Babylon

Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Babylonian astronomy

The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.

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Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

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Barycenter

The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.

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Bṛhaspati

Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति, often written as Brihaspati) is an Indian name, and refers to different mythical figures depending on the age of the text.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bond albedo

The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.

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Bow shocks in astrophysics

Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Callisto (moon)

Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carme group

The Carme group is a group of retrograde irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar orbits to Carme and are thought to have a common origin.

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Carnegie Institution for Science

The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.

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Carpo (moon)

Carpo (Greek: Καρπώ), also, is a natural satellite of Jupiter.

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Cassini–Huygens

The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Celestial equator

The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.

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Celestial mechanics

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.

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Chinese astronomy

Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).

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Chinese Buddhism

Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese gods and immortals

Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshipped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese zodiac

The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle.

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Chromophore

A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.

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Clockwise

Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.

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Conjunction (astronomy)

In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.

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Constellation

A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.

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Convection

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Convection cell

In the field of fluid dynamics, a convection cell is the phenomenon that occurs when density differences exist within a body of liquid or gas.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Cosmic Vision

Cosmic Vision (also known as Cosmic Vision 2015–2025) is a European Space Agency (ESA) long-term space science missions programme spanning between years 2015 and 2025, a successor to the Horizon 2000 long-term scientific programme.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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Cyclotron radiation

Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.

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Deferent and epicycle

In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.

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Delta-v

Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Differential rotation

Differential rotation is seen when different parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocities (rates of rotation) at different latitudes and/or depths of the body and/or in time.

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Discover (magazine)

Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.

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Dyeus

Dyēus (also *Dyḗus Ph2tḗr, alternatively spelled dyēws) is believed to have been the chief deity in the religious traditions of the prehistoric Proto-Indo-European societies.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earthly Branches

The Earthly Branches or Twelve Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, and zodiac.

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Ecliptic

The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.

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Eddy current

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.

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Edward Emerson Barnard

Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer.

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Elara (moon)

Elara (Ελάρα) is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter.

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Epoch (astronomy)

In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.

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Equator

An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Equatorial bulge

An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.

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Ethane

Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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Europa Clipper

Europa Clipper is an interplanetary mission in development by NASA comprising an orbiter.

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Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace

The Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace (EJSM/Laplace) was a proposed joint NASA/ESA unmanned space mission slated to launch around 2020 for the in-depth exploration of Jupiter's moons with a focus on Europa, Ganymede and Jupiter's magnetosphere.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Formation and evolution of the Solar System

The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.

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Frank Drake

Frank Donald Drake (born May 28, 1930) is an American astronomer and astrophysicist.

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Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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G-force

The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Galileo (spacecraft)

Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gan De

Gan De (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer/astrologer born in the State of Qi also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong).

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Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Geographical pole

A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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Geometric albedo

In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.

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Germanic paganism

Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.

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Giant planet

A giant planet is any massive planet.

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Giovanni Alfonso Borelli

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (28 January 1608 – 31 December 1679) was a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician.

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.

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God (male deity)

A god is a male deity, in contrast with a goddess, a female deity.

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Grand tack hypothesis

In planetary astronomy, the grand tack hypothesis proposes that after its formation at 3.5 AU, Jupiter migrated inward to 1.5 AU, before reversing course due to capturing Saturn in an orbital resonance, eventually halting near its current orbit at 5.2 AU.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gravity assist

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.

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Gravity well

A gravity well or gravitational well is a conceptual model of the gravitational field surrounding a body in space – the more massive the body, the deeper and more extensive the gravity well associated with it.

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Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Guru

Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.

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HD 209458 b

HD 209458 b, also given the nickname Osiris,http://exoplanets.co/exoplanets-tutorial/extrasolar-planet-hd-209458-b.html is an exoplanet that orbits the solar analog HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 159 light-years from the Solar System.

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Heinrich Schwabe

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (25 October 1789 – 11 April 1875) a German astronomer remembered for his work on sunspots.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Himalia (moon)

Himalia is the largest irregular satellite of Jupiter.

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Himalia group

The Himalia group is a group of prograde irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar orbits to Himalia and are thought to have a common origin.

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HIP 11915

HIP 11915 is a G-type main-sequence star located about 190 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus.

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HIP 11915 b

HIP 11915 b is an exoplanet orbiting the solar twin star HIP 11915 about 190 light-years (57 parsecs, or nearly km) from Earth in the constellation Cetus.

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Hohmann transfer orbit

In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.

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Hot Jupiter

Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital period (P The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Hot Jupiters are the easiest extrasolar planets to detect via the radial-velocity method, because the oscillations they induce in their parent stars' motion are relatively large and rapid compared to those of other known types of planets. One of the best-known hot Jupiters is 51 Pegasi b. Discovered in 1995, it was the first extrasolar planet found orbiting a Sun-like star. 51 Pegasi b has an orbital period of about 4 days.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen deuteride

Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule substance or compound of the two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H deuterium.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Ice giant

An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.

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Iliad

The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Indian astronomy

Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.

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Indian mathematics

Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century.

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Inquisition

The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Invariable plane

The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.

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Io (moon)

Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Jovian (fiction)

In science fiction, a Jovian is an inhabitant of the planet Jupiter.

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Jovian–Plutonian gravitational effect

The Jovian–Plutonian gravitational effect was a hoax phenomenon purported to cause a noticeable short-term reduction in gravity on Earth that was invented for April Fools' Day by the English astronomer Patrick Moore and broadcast on BBC Radio 2 on 1 April 1976.

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Julian year (astronomy)

In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.

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Jumping-Jupiter scenario

The jumping-Jupiter scenario specifies an evolution of giant-planet migration described by the Nice model, in which an ice giant (Uranus, Neptune, or an additional Neptune-mass planet) is scattered inward by Saturn and outward by Jupiter, causing the step-wise separation of their orbits.

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Juno (spacecraft)

Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.

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Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.

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Jupiter Europa Orbiter

As a part of the defunct Europa Jupiter System Mission – Laplace (EJSM/Laplace), the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) was a proposed orbiter probe slated for lift-off in 2020 and planned for detailed studies of Jupiter's moons Europa and Io as well as the Jovian magnetosphere.

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Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter

Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) was a part of the international Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM).

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Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an interplanetary spacecraft in development by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defence and Space as the main contractor.

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Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a proposed NASA spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter.

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Jupiter in fiction

The planet Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system, is a popular backdrop for science fiction stories and films.

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Jupiter mass

Jupiter mass, also called Jovian mass is the unit of mass equal to the total mass of the planet Jupiter.

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Jyotisha

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, IAST: Jyotiṣa) is the science of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time.

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Kappa Andromedae b

Kappa Andromedae b is a substellar object and massive planet or brown dwarf orbiting Kappa Andromedae, a star in the Andromeda constellation, about 170 light years away.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools.

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Kenneth Franklin

Kenneth Linn Franklin (March 25, 1923 – June 18, 2007) was an American astronomer and educator.

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Kilometre

The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.

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Kirkwood gap

A Kirkwood gap is a gap or dip in the distribution of the semi-major axes (or equivalently of the orbital periods) of the orbits of main-belt asteroids.

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Konstantin Batygin

Konstantin Batygin (Константи́н Юрьевич Батыгин) is a Russian-American astronomer and Assistant Professor of Planetary Sciences at Caltech.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.

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Late Heavy Bombardment

The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.

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Lick Observatory

The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California.

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Light-year

The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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List of Jupiter trojans (Greek camp)

This is a list of Jupiter trojans that lie in the Greek camp, an elongated, curved region around the leading Lagrangian point, 60° ahead of Jupiter's orbit.

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List of Jupiter trojans (Trojan camp)

This is a list of Jupiter trojans that lie in the Trojan camp, an elongated, curved region around the trailing Lagrangian point 60° behind Jupiter.

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List of periodic comets

Periodic comets (also known as short-period comets) are comets having orbital periods of less than 200 years or that have been observed during more than a single perihelion passage (e.g. 153P/Ikeya–Zhang).

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List of Solar System objects by size

This is a partial list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius, and subdivided into several size classes.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetopause

The magnetopause is the abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma.

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Magnetosheath

The magnetosheath is the region of space between the magnetopause and the bow shock of a planet's magnetosphere.

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Magnetosphere

A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Marduk

Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.

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Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Max Wolf

Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Metallic hydrogen

Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.

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Metastability

In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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Meteoroid

A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Metis (moon)

Metis (Μήτις), also known as, is the innermost moon of Jupiter.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Moons of Jupiter

There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA IRTF) is a telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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Nebular hypothesis

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Night sky

The term night sky, usually associated with astronomy from Earth, refers to the nighttime appearance of celestial objects like stars, planets, and the Moon, which are visible in a clear sky between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.

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NTV (Turkey)

NTV is a Turkish nationwide television news channel.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Ole Rømer

Ole Christensen Rømer (25 September 1644 – 19 September 1710) was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.

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Opposition (planets)

In positional astronomy, two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body (usually Earth).

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital elements

Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Orbital plane (astronomy)

The orbital plane of a revolving body is the geometric plane on which its orbit lies.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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Outline of Jupiter

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Jupiter: Jupiter – fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Oval

An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Pasiphae group

The Pasiphae group is a group of retrograde irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar orbits to Pasiphae and are thought to have a common origin.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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Perturbation (astronomy)

In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.

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Phaethon

In Greek mythology, Phaethon (Φαέθων, Phaéthōn), was the son of the Oceanid Clymene and the solar deity Helios.

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Phase angle (astronomy)

Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Phosphine

Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.

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Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.

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Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

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Pioneer 11

Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.

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Pioneer program

The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary core

The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.

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Planetary flyby

A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.

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Planets in astrology

Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is.

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Plasma sheet

In the magnetosphere, the plasma sheet is a sheet-like region of denser (0.3-0.5 ions/cm3 versus 0.01-0.02 in the lobes) hot plasma and lower magnetic field near the equatorial plane, between the magnetosphere's north and south lobes.

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Pluto

Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Polar orbit

A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.

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Radio occultation

Radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary atmosphere or ring system.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Retrograde and prograde motion

Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).

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Ring system

A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robotic spacecraft

A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rupert Wildt

Rupert Wildt (June 25, 1905 – January 9, 1976) was a German-American astronomer.

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Sanxing (deities)

The Sanxing (三星 "Three Stars"), who are Fu, Lu, and Shou, or Cai, Zi and Shou (財子壽), are the gods of the three stars and the three qualities of Prosperity (Fu), Status (Lu), and Longevity (Shou) in Chinese religion.

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Semi-major and semi-minor axes

In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Simon Marius

Simon Marius (Latinized from German Simon Mayr; January 20, 1573 – January 5, 1625) was a German astronomer.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sky & Telescope

Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.

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Solar analog

Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.

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Solar radius

Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar time

Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Space exploration

Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.

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Space.com

Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunspot

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.

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Super-Earth

A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.

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Tai Sui

Tai Sui is a Chinese term for the stars directly opposite Jupiter during its roughly 12-year orbital cycle.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thebe (moon)

Thebe (Θήβη) also known as, is the fourth of Jupiter's moons by distance from the planet.

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Themisto (moon)

Themisto (from Greek: Θεμιστώ), also known as, is a small prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter.

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Thor

In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.

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Tidal circularization

Tidal circularization is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting body, and the primary object that it orbits whereby the eccentricity of the orbit is reduced over time so that the orbit becomes less elliptical and more circular.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

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Toronto Star

The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.

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Torus

In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

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Trojan (astronomy)

In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.

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Tropopause

The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

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Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Ulysses (spacecraft)

Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.

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University of Leicester

The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Very Large Telescope

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Volatiles

In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.

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Vorticity

In continuum mechanics, the vorticity is a pseudovector field that describes the local spinning motion of a continuum near some point (the tendency of something to rotate), as would be seen by an observer located at that point and traveling along with the flow.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Water vapor

No description.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Wide Field Camera 3

The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is the Hubble Space Telescope's last and most technologically advanced instrument to take images in the visible spectrum.

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Wind speed

Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.

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Windward and leeward

Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.

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Wu Xing

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..

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Xi Zezong

Xi Zezong (June 6, 1927, Yuanqu, Shanxi – December 27, 2008, Beijing) was a Chinese astronomical historian.

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Zeus

Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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Zodiac

The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.

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2009 Jupiter impact event

The 2009 Jupiter impact event, occasionally referred to as the Wesley impact, was a July 2009 impact on Jupiter that caused a black spot in the planet's atmosphere.

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2010 Jupiter impact event

The 2010 Jupiter impact event was a bolide impact event on Jupiter by an object estimated to be about 8–13 meters in diameter.

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588 Achilles

588 Achilles, provisional designation, is a large Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, and the first of its kind discovered by Max Wolf at the Heidelberg Observatory in 1906, who named it after the legendary hero Achilles from Greek mythology.

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624 Hektor

624 Hektor is the largest Jupiter trojan and the namesake of the Hektor family, with a highly elongated shape equivalent in volume to a sphere of approximately 225 to 250 kilometers diameter. It was discovered on 10 February 1907, by astronomer August Kopff at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany, and named after the Trojan prince Hector, from Greek mythology. It has one small 12-kilometer sized satellite, Skamandrios, discovered in 2006.

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Astronomy Jupiter, History of Jupiter, Jovian life, Jovian orbit, Jupiter (Planet), Jupiter (astronomy), Jupiter (planet), Jupiter weight, Jupiter's, Jupiter's radio emissions, Jupitor, Life on Jupiter, Orbit of Jupiter, Physical characteristics of Jupiter, Planet Jupiter, Sol 5, Sol V, Sol f, Sol-5, Structure of Jupiter, Sun f, The mass of Jupiter, The planet Jupiter, The weight of Jupiter, Weight of Jupiter, Wood Star, Zenography.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter

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