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Jury trial

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A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact. [1]

258 relations: Acquittal, Aeschylus, African Americans, Alexander II of Russia, Alexis de Tocqueville, All-white jury, Allied-occupied Germany, American Revolution, Apollo, Apprendi v. New Jersey, Article Three of the United States Constitution, Assessor (law), Assize of Clarendon, Athena, Attorney General for England and Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Æthelred the Unready, École normale supérieure (Paris), Basic Laws of Sweden, Bavaria, BBC News, Beacon Theatres, Inc. v. Westover, Bench trial, Blakely v. Washington, Brazil, British Empire, Bushel's Case, California, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canton of Geneva, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Vaud, Canton of Zürich, Cato Institute, Circuit Court (Ireland), Civil and political rights, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Civil liberties, Civil procedure, Clytemnestra, Code of Criminal Procedure (India), Colman Treacy, Columbia Law Review, Common law, Constitution of Russia, Contempt of court, Contract, Coroner, ..., Corte d'Assise, County registrar, Cour d'assises, Court costs, Court of Assize (Belgium), Court of Common Pleas (England), Courts of Scotland, Crimes against humanity, Criminal Code (Canada), Criminal Justice Act 2003, Criminal law, Criminal procedure, Crown Court, CSI effect, Custom (law), David Hume, Defamation, Defendant, Diplock courts, District court, District Court (Ireland), Double jeopardy, Dragoon, Electoral roll, Elsevier, Emmendingen, Emmett Till, Emminger Reform, England, England and Wales, English law, English rule (attorney's fees), Equitable remedy, Equity (law), Erinyes, European Convention on Human Rights, False imprisonment, Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, France, Frankfurt Constitution, Frankfurt Parliament, Fraud, Fraud (Trials Without a Jury) Bill, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Freiburg im Breisgau, Frequency, Frontline (U.S. TV series), G. M. Trevelyan, Genocide, German revolutions of 1848–49, Grand jury, Guilt (law), Habeas corpus, Habsburg Monarchy, Hauenstein, Henry II of England, Hideki Tojo, High Court (Ireland), History of Athens, History of trial by jury in England, Home Secretary, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Hugo Black, Hundred (county division), Hung jury, Igor Judge, Baron Judge, Incitement to ethnic or racial hatred, Indictable offence, Indictment, Injunction, International law, Intuition, ITV (TV network), Jack Straw, Japan, Joseph Story, Judicial reform of Alexander II, Judiciary of Russia, Juries in the United States, Jury, Jury instructions, Jury nullification, Jury selection, Jury tampering, Justice, K. M. Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra, Kimberley, Northern Cape, Konstanz, Lawsuit, Lay judge, Le Temps, Lee Kuan Yew, Legal liability, Legal person, Liberty (advocacy group), List of national legal systems, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, LOT Polish Airlines Flight 165 hijacking, Lysander Spooner, Magistrate, Magna Carta, Majority, Malicious prosecution, Michigan Law Review, Ministry of Justice (France), Modern Law Review, Morality, Murder, Murder of Anni Dewani, Mutiny, National Diet, Natural person, Negotiation, Neuchâtel, New South Wales, Njáll Þorgeirsson, Northern Ireland, Northern Territory, Oberkirch (Baden), October Revolution, Operation Demetrius, Oppenau, Oresteia, Orestes, Oscar Pistorius, Oxford University Press, PDF, Peremptory challenge, Peter Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith, Pierre de Vos, Piracy, Plea bargain, Polygraph, Praetor, Presumption of innocence, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Prosecutor, Prussia, Public trial, Quakers, Queensland, Question of law, Regulation (magazine), Republic of Ireland, Rescission (contract law), Rhineland, Rights of Englishmen, Robert Badinter, Rodney King, Russia, Russian Empire, Scottsboro Boys, Sedition, Separation of powers, Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Singapore, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Socrates on Trial, South Africa, South Australia, Sparf v. United States, Special Criminal Court, Specific performance, Speedy trial, Star Chamber, Strike for cause, Summary jury trial, Supreme Court of Sweden, Supreme Court of the United States, Swabia, Tasmania, Terrorism, The Journal of Legal Studies, The New York Times, The Troubles, Thegn, Thing (assembly), Tort, Treason, Trial, Trial by combat, Trial by ordeal, Unanimity, United Kingdom, United States, United States Constitution, United States Court for Berlin, United States district court, Unlawful assembly, Verdict, Victoria (Australia), Vikings, Voir dire, Württemberg, Weimar Republic, West Germany, Western Australia, WGBH-TV, William Mead (merchant), William O. Douglas, William Penn, Xenophobia. Expand index (208 more) »

Acquittal

In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.

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Aeschylus

Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.

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All-white jury

An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding.

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Allied-occupied Germany

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Apollo

Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Apprendi v. New Jersey

Apprendi v. New Jersey,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision with regard to aggravating factors in crimes.

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Article Three of the United States Constitution

Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.

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Assessor (law)

In some jurisdictions, an assessor is a judge's or magistrate's assistant.

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Assize of Clarendon

The Assize of Clarendon was an 1166 act of Henry II of England that began the transformation of English law from such systems for deciding the prevailing party in a case, especially felonies, as trial by ordeal or trial by battle or trial by compurgation to an evidentiary model, in which evidence, inspection, and inquiry was made by laymen, knights or ordinary freemen, under oath.

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Athena

Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Attorney General for England and Wales

Her Majesty's Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known simply as the Attorney General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown.

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Australian Capital Territory

The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.

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Æthelred the Unready

Æthelred II (Old English: Æþelræd,;Different spellings of this king’s name most commonly found in modern texts are "Ethelred" and "Æthelred" (or "Aethelred"), the latter being closer to the original Old English form Æþelræd. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as the Unready, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death.

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École normale supérieure (Paris)

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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Basic Laws of Sweden

The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beacon Theatres, Inc. v. Westover

Beacon Theatres v. Westover,, was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with jury trials in civil matters.

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Bench trial

A bench trial is a trial by judge, as opposed to a trial by jury.

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Blakely v. Washington

Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004), held that, in the context of mandatory sentencing guidelines under state law, the Sixth Amendment right to a jury trial prohibited judges from enhancing criminal sentences based on facts other than those decided by the jury or admitted by the defendant.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bushel's Case

Bushel’s Case (1670) 124 E.R. 1006 (also spelled Bushell's Case) is a famous English decision on the role of juries.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canton of Geneva

The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.

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Canton of Ticino

The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Vaud

The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.

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Canton of Zürich

The canton of Zürich (Kanton) has a population (as of) of.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Circuit Court (Ireland)

The Circuit Court (An Chúirt Chuarda) of Ireland is an intermediate level court of local and limited jurisdiction in the which hears both civil and criminal matters.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civil procedure

Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).

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Clytemnestra

Clytemnestra (Κλυταιμνήστρα, Klytaimnḗstra) was the wife of Agamemnon and queen of Mycenae (or sometimes Argos) in ancient Greek legend.

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Code of Criminal Procedure (India)

The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is the main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India.

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Colman Treacy

Sir Colman Maurice Treacy, PC (born 28 July 1949) is a Lord Justice of Appeal.

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Columbia Law Review

The Columbia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at Columbia Law School.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Constitution of Russia

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.

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Contempt of court

Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.

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Contract

A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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Coroner

A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.

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Corte d'Assise

The Corte d'Assise (EN Court of Assizes) is an Italian court composed of two professional, stipendiary judges (giudici togati) and six lay judges (giudici popolari), who are selected from the people.

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County registrar

A county registrar is an official attached to the Irish Circuit Court who carries out a number of quasi-judicial and administrative functions regarding the functioning of the court within the county or counties to which he or she is assigned.

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Cour d'assises

A French cour d'assises or Assize Court is a criminal trial court with original and appellate limited jurisdiction to hear cases involving defendants accused of felonies, or crimes in French.

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Court costs

Court costs (also called law-costs) are the costs of handling a case, which, depending on legal rules, may or may not include the costs of the various parties in a lawsuit in addition to the costs of the court itself.

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Court of Assize (Belgium)

The Court of Assize, (Hof van Assisen, Cour d'Assises) in Belgium is very similar to the French court of the same name.

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Court of Common Pleas (England)

The Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court in the English legal system that covered "common pleas"; actions between subject and subject, which did not concern the king.

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Courts of Scotland

The courts of Scotland are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law.

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Criminal Code (Canada)

The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.

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Criminal Justice Act 2003

The Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c.44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Criminal procedure

Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.

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Crown Court

The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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CSI effect

The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome and the CSI infection, is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception.

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Custom (law)

Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Defamation

Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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Defendant

A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.

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Diplock courts

Diplock courts were a type of court established by the Government of the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland on 8 August 1973 during The Troubles.

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District court

District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations.

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District Court (Ireland)

The District Court (An Chúirt Dúiche) is the main court of summary jurisdiction in Ireland.

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Double jeopardy

Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.

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Dragoon

Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.

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Electoral roll

The electoral roll (also called an electoral register or poll book) is a list of persons who are eligible to vote in a particular electoral district and who are registered to vote, if required in a particular jurisdiction.

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Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Emmendingen

Emmendingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Emmendingen of Germany.

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Emmett Till

Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after a white woman said she was offended by him in her family's grocery store.

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Emminger Reform

The Emminger Decree or Emminger Reform (Emminger Verordnung, Lex Emminger, or Emmingersche Justizreform; formally the Verordnung über Gerichtsverfassung und Strafrechtspflege) was an emergency decree in the democratic Weimar Republic by Justice Minister Erich Emminger (BVP) on 4 January 1924 that among other things abolished the jury as trier of fact and replaced it with a mixed system of judges and lay judges in Germany's judiciary which still exists today.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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England and Wales

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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English rule (attorney's fees)

In the field of law and economics, the English rule (capitalized as English Rule in some jurisdictions) is a rule controlling assessment of lawyers' fees arising out of litigation.

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Equitable remedy

Equitable remedies are judicial remedies developed by courts of equity from about the time of Henry VII to provide more flexible responses to changing social conditions than was possible in precedent-based common law.

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Equity (law)

In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery and which is now administered concurrently with the common law.

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Erinyes

In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

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False imprisonment

False imprisonment occurs when a person is restricted in their personal movement within any area without justification or consent.

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Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

The Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz), abbreviated BMJV, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (officially abbreviated Fed. R. Civ. P.; colloquially FRCP) govern civil procedure (i.e. for civil lawsuits) in United States district (federal) courts.

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Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure are the procedural rules that govern how federal criminal prosecutions are conducted in United States district courts and the general trial courts of the U.S. government.

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Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frankfurt Constitution

The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.

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Frankfurt Parliament

The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).

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Fraud

In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Fraud (Trials Without a Jury) Bill

The Fraud (Trials Without a Jury) Bill 2007 was a proposed Act of Parliament introduced by the United Kingdom government.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Freiburg im Breisgau

Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Frontline (U.S. TV series)

Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.

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G. M. Trevelyan

George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.

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Genocide

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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German revolutions of 1848–49

The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.

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Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.

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Guilt (law)

In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.

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Habeas corpus

Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Hauenstein

Hauenstein is a municipality in the Südwestpfalz district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Hideki Tojo

Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.

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High Court (Ireland)

The High Court is established by Article 34 of the Constitution of Ireland, which grants it "full original jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions whether of law or fact, civil or criminal", as well as the ability to determine "the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution".

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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History of trial by jury in England

The history of trial by jury in England is influential because many English and later British colonies, including the Thirteen Colonies which became the United States, adopted the English common law system in which trial by jury plays an important part.

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Home Secretary

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hugo Black

Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.

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Hundred (county division)

A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.

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Hung jury

A hung jury or deadlocked jury is a judicial jury that cannot agree upon a verdict after extended deliberation and is unable to reach the required unanimity or supermajority.

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Igor Judge, Baron Judge

Igor Judge, Baron Judge (born 19 May 1941) is a former English judge who served as the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, the head of the judiciary, from 2008 to 2013.

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Incitement to ethnic or racial hatred

Incitement to racial or ethnic hatred is a crime under the laws of several countries.

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Indictable offence

In many common law jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore), an indictable offence is an offence which can only be tried on an indictment after a preliminary hearing to determine whether there is a prima facie case to answer or by a grand jury (in contrast to a summary offence).

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Indictment

An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.

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Injunction

An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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Intuition

Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.

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ITV (TV network)

ITV is a British commercial TV network.

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Jack Straw

John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946) is an English politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackburn from 1979 to 2015.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Joseph Story

Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845.

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Judicial reform of Alexander II

The judicial reform of Alexander II is generally considered one of the most successful and consistent of all his reforms (along with the military reform).

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Judiciary of Russia

The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.

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Juries in the United States

The most outstanding feature in the United States is that verdicts in criminal cases must be unanimous.

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Jury

A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Jury instructions

Jury instructions are the set of legal rules that jurors ought follow when deciding a case.

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Jury nullification

Jury nullification is a concept where members of a trial jury find a defendant not guilty if they do not support a government's law, do not believe it is constitutional or humane, or do not support a possible punishment for breaking the law.

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Jury selection

Jury selection is the selection of the people who will serve on a jury during a jury trial.

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Jury tampering

Jury tampering is the crime of unduly attempting to influence the composition and/or decisions of a jury during the course of a trial.

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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K. M. Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra

Commander K. M. Nanavati vs.

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Kimberley, Northern Cape

Kimberley is the capital and largest city of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

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Konstanz

Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Lay judge

A lay judge is a person assisting a judge in a trial and as such are sometimes called lay assessors.

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Le Temps

Le Temps (literally "The Times") is a Swiss French-language daily newspaper published in Berliner format in Geneva by Le Temps SA.

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Lee Kuan Yew

Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.

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Legal liability

In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Liberty (advocacy group)

Liberty, formerly and still formally called the National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL), is an advocacy group based in the United Kingdom, which campaigns to protect civil liberties and promote human rights – through the courts, in Parliament and in the wider community.

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List of national legal systems

The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.

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Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales

The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales.

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LOT Polish Airlines Flight 165 hijacking

LOT Polish Airlines Flight 165 hijacking was the hijacking of a LOT Polish Airlines that occurred on 30 August 1978.

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Lysander Spooner

Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century.

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Magistrate

The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Majority

A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.

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Malicious prosecution

Malicious prosecution is a common law intentional tort, while like the tort of abuse of process, its elements include (1) intentionally (and maliciously) instituting and pursuing (or causing to be instituted or pursued) a legal action (civil or criminal) that is (2) brought without probable cause and (3) dismissed in favor of the victim of the malicious prosecution.

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Michigan Law Review

The Michigan Law Review is an American law review that was established in 1902 and is completely run by law students.

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Ministry of Justice (France)

The Ministry of Justice is controlled by the French Minister of Justice - Keeper of the Seals (Ministre de la Justice - Garde des Sceaux), a top-level cabinet position in the French Government.

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Modern Law Review

The Modern Law Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of Modern Law Review Ltd.

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Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Murder

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Murder of Anni Dewani

Anni Ninna Dewani (née Hindocha; 12 March 1982 – 13 November 2010) was a Swedish woman of Indian origin who was murdered while on her honeymoon in South Africa after the taxi in which she and her husband were travelling was hijacked.

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Mutiny

Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.

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National Diet

The is Japan's bicameral legislature.

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Natural person

In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.

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Negotiation

Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.

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Neuchâtel

Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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Njáll Þorgeirsson

Njáll Þorgeirsson (Njáll son of Þorgeir, the name Njáll is a Norse derivative of the Irish name Niall.) was a 10th-century Icelandic lawyer who lived at Bergþórshvoll and is one of the main protagonists of Njáls saga, a medieval Icelandic saga.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.

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Oberkirch (Baden)

Oberkirch is a town in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany about 12 km North-East of Offenburg and belongs to the Ortenaukreis district.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Operation Demetrius

Operation Demetrius was a British Army operation in Northern Ireland on 9–10 August 1971, during the Troubles.

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Oppenau

Oppenau is a town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Oresteia

The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.

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Orestes

In Greek mythology, Orestes (Ὀρέστης) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.

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Oscar Pistorius

Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (born 22 November 1986) is a South African former sprint runner who was convicted of murdering his girlfriend in 2013.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Peremptory challenge

In English and American law, the right of peremptory challenge is a right in jury selection for the attorneys to reject a certain number of potential jurors without stating a reason.

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Peter Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith

Peter Henry Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith (born 5 January 1950) is a British barrister and a former Attorney General for England and Wales and for Northern Ireland.

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Pierre de Vos

Pierre Francois de Vos (born 29 June 1963) is a South African constitutional law scholar.

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Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Plea bargain

The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.

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Polygraph

A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.

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Praetor

Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).

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Presumption of innocence

The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.

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Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.

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Prosecutor

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Public trial

Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Queensland

Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Question of law

In law, a question of law, also known as a point of law, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law.

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Regulation (magazine)

Regulation is a quarterly periodical about policy published by the Cato Institute.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Rescission (contract law)

In contract law, rescission has been defined as the unmaking of a contract between parties.

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rights of Englishmen

The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.

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Robert Badinter

Robert Badinter (born 30 March 1928 in Paris) is a French lawyer and politician known for having championed the abolition of the death penalty in France in 1981.

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Rodney King

Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an African-American taxi driver who became known internationally as the victim of Los Angeles Police Department brutality, after a videotape was released of several police officers beating him during his arrest on March 3, 1991.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Scottsboro Boys

The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 20, accused in Alabama of raping two White American women on a train in 1931.

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Sedition

Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.

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Socrates on Trial

Socrates on Trial is a play depicting the life and death of the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Australia

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.

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Sparf v. United States

Sparf v. United States, 156 U.S. 51 (1895), or Sparf and Hansen v. United States,.

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Special Criminal Court

The Special Criminal Court (SCC) (Cúirt Choiriúil Speisialta) is a juryless criminal court in Ireland which tries terrorism and serious organised crime cases.

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Specific performance

Specific performance is an equitable remedy in the law of contract, whereby a court issues an order requiring a party to perform a specific act, such to complete performance of the contract.

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Speedy trial

The right to a speedy trial is a human right under which it is asserted that a government prosecutor may not delay the trial of a criminal suspect arbitrarily and indefinitely.

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Star Chamber

The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.

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Strike for cause

Strike for cause (also referred to as challenge for cause or removal for cause) is a method of eliminating potential members from a jury panel in the United States.

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Summary jury trial

Summary jury trial is an alternative dispute resolution technique, increasingly being used in civil disputes in the United States.

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Supreme Court of Sweden

The Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta domstolen, abbreviated HD) is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swabia

Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.

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Tasmania

Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Journal of Legal Studies

The Journal of Legal Studies is a law journal published by the University of Chicago Press focusing on interdisciplinary academic research in law and legal institutions.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Troubles

The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.

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Thegn

The term thegn (thane or thayn in Shakespearean English), from Old English þegn, ðegn, "servant, attendant, retainer", "one who serves", is commonly used to describe either an aristocratic retainer of a king or nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England, or, as a class term, the majority of the aristocracy below the ranks of ealdormen and high-reeves.

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Thing (assembly)

A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.

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Tort

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Treason

In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.

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Trial

In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.

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Trial by combat

Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.

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Trial by ordeal

Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience.

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Unanimity

Unanimity is agreement by all people in a given situation.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States Court for Berlin

The United States Court for Berlin was a United States Article II court that had extraterritorial jurisdiction over American-occupied Berlin.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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Unlawful assembly

Unlawful assembly is a legal term to describe a group of people with the mutual intent of deliberate disturbance of the peace.

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Verdict

In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Voir dire

Voir dire is a legal phrase for a variety of procedures connected with jury trials.

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Württemberg

Württemberg is a historical German territory.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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WGBH-TV

WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 19), is a PBS member television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

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William Mead (merchant)

William Mead (1628–1713) was a London merchant, and a prominent early Quaker, connected by marriage to George Fox.

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William O. Douglas

William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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William Penn

William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.

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Xenophobia

Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.

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Redirects here:

Jury Trial, Jury system, Jury trials, Scottish juries, Trial by jury, Trials by jury.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jury_trial

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