17 relations: B cell, Bleomycin, Carcinogenesis, Endometrium, Fibrosis, Gene, HMOX1, Keratinocyte, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1), NFE2L2, Progesterone receptor, Protein, Protein–protein interaction, Reactive oxygen species, Short hairpin RNA, Transcription factor, Zinc finger.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others. Typically used with other cancer medications, it can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin. It may also be administered inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a fluid around the lung due to cancer; however talc is better for this. Common side effects include fever, weight loss, vomiting, and rash. A severe type of anaphylaxis may occur. It may also cause inflammation of the lungs that can result in lung scarring. Chest X-rays every couple of weeks are recommended to check for this. Bleomycin may cause harm to the baby if used during pregnancy. It is believed to primarily work by preventing the making of DNA. Bleomycin was discovered in 1962. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 14 USD and 78 USD a dose. It is made by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
HMOX1 (heme oxygenase (decycling) 1) is a human gene that encodes for the enzyme heme oxygenase 1.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NQO1 gene.
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, also known as NFE2L2 or Nrf2, is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
A short hairpin RNA or small hairpin RNA (shRNA/Hairpin Vector) is an artificial RNA molecule with a tight hairpin turn that can be used to silence target gene expression via RNA interference (RNAi).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.