31 relations: Amino acid, Asparagine, Balancing selection, Bayesian inference, Chi-squared test, Gene, Genetic code, Genetics, Glutamic acid, Homology (biology), Maximum likelihood estimation, Missense mutation, Mutation, Natural selection, Negative selection (natural selection), Neutral mutation, Nonsynonymous substitution, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Observational error, Phenylalanine, Phylogenetics, Point mutation, Population genetics, Probability theory, Protein, Protein family, Sequence alignment, Silent mutation, Synonymous substitution, Valine.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.
Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.
A chi-squared test, also written as test, is any statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a statistical model, given observations.
In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In natural selection, negative selection or purifying selection is the selective removal of alleles that are deleterious.
Neutral mutations are changes in DNA sequence that are neither beneficial nor detrimental to the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce.
A nonsynonymous substitution is a nucleotide mutation that alters the amino acid sequence of a protein.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not have an observable effect on the organism's phenotype.
A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.