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Ka/Ks ratio

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In genetics, the Ka/Ks ratio is used to estimate the balance between neutral mutations, purifying selection and beneficial mutations acting on a set of homologous protein-coding genes. [1]

31 relations: Amino acid, Asparagine, Balancing selection, Bayesian inference, Chi-squared test, Gene, Genetic code, Genetics, Glutamic acid, Homology (biology), Maximum likelihood estimation, Missense mutation, Mutation, Natural selection, Negative selection (natural selection), Neutral mutation, Nonsynonymous substitution, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Observational error, Phenylalanine, Phylogenetics, Point mutation, Population genetics, Probability theory, Protein, Protein family, Sequence alignment, Silent mutation, Synonymous substitution, Valine.

Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Asparagine

Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Balancing selection

Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.

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Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

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Chi-squared test

A chi-squared test, also written as test, is any statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Maximum likelihood estimation

In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a statistical model, given observations.

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Missense mutation

In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Negative selection (natural selection)

In natural selection, negative selection or purifying selection is the selective removal of alleles that are deleterious.

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Neutral mutation

Neutral mutations are changes in DNA sequence that are neither beneficial nor detrimental to the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce.

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Nonsynonymous substitution

A nonsynonymous substitution is a nucleotide mutation that alters the amino acid sequence of a protein.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

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Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein family

A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.

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Sequence alignment

In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.

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Silent mutation

Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not have an observable effect on the organism's phenotype.

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Synonymous substitution

A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.

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Valine

Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Redirects here:

DN/dS, DN/dS ratio, DS/dN ratio, Dn/ds ratio, Omega (genetics).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ka/Ks_ratio

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