94 relations: A (Cyrillic), Adyghe language, Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar lateral ejective affricate, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Be (Cyrillic), Besleney, Besleney Kabardian dialect, Central consonant, Che (Cyrillic), Cherkess, Circassia, Circassian languages, Creaky voice, Cyrillic script, De (Cyrillic), Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, E (Cyrillic), Ef (Cyrillic), Ejective consonant, El (Cyrillic), Em (Cyrillic), En (Cyrillic), Er (Cyrillic), Ergative–absolutive language, Es (Cyrillic), Fricative consonant, Ge (Cyrillic), Georges Dumézil, Glottal consonant, Hard sign, I (Cyrillic), Iraq, Jordan, Ka (Cyrillic), Kabardians, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kha (Cyrillic), Labial consonant, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Lateral consonant, Latin script, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, Louis Loewe, Mutual intelligibility, ..., Nasal consonant, North Caucasus, Northwest Caucasian languages, O (Cyrillic), Palatalization (phonetics), Palochka, Pe (Cyrillic), Pharyngeal consonant, Phoneme, Postalveolar consonant, Ranko Matasović, Sha (Cyrillic), Shcha, Short I, Soft sign, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Syria, Te (Cyrillic), Tetragraph, Trill consonant, Tse (Cyrillic), Turkey, Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, U (Cyrillic), Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Uvular consonant, Vainakhish language, Ve (Cyrillic), Velar consonant, Velar ejective, Vertical vowel system, Voice (phonetics), Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, Ya (Cyrillic), Ye (Cyrillic), Yery, Yo (Cyrillic), Yu (Cyrillic), Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic). Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The alveolar lateral ejective affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Besleney (Circassian: Бэслъыный Besłynyj; Бесленеевцы Besleneevcy), also known as Beslenei or Baslaney, are one of the twelve tribes (sub-ethnic groups) of the Circassian (Adyghe) people.
The Besleney dialect (Беслъэнеибзэ, Besłæneibzæ) is one of the East Circassian dialects and usually considered a dialect of Kabardian.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Cherkess, or Cherkes (Черкесы Cherkesy; Чэркэс/Шэрджэс Čerkes/Šerdžes), is a term derived from the Russian-language name for the Circassians, a people of the North Caucasus.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
E (Э э; italics:; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Georges Dumézil (4 March 1898 – 11 October 1986, Paris) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The letter Ъ (italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак tvjórdyj znak) in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet, and as debelo jer (дебело їер, "fat yer") in pre-reform Serbian orthography.
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, Ķêbêrdej-Baĺķêr Respublikê; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика, Qabartı-Malqar Respublika), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.
The Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика, Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika; Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика, Qaraçay-Çerkes Respublika; Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ, Ķêrêšei-Šêrdžês Respublikê, Nogai: Карашай-Шеркеш Республикасы, Qaraşay-Şerkeş Respublikası) or Karachay-Cherkessia (Карача́ево-Черке́сия) is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
Louis Loewe (1809–1888) was a Silesian linguist.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (r, literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Ranko Matasović (born 14 May 1968) is a Croatian linguist, Indo-Europeanist and Celticist.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Vainakhish language consist of the dialect continuum between the Chechen and Ingush languages, mainly spoken in the Russian republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia, as well as in the Chechen diaspora.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A vertical vowel system is the system of vowels in a language that requires only vowel height to phonemically distinguish vowels.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Yo (Ё ё; italics: Ё ё) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
East Circassian, ISO 639:kbd, Kabard-Cherkes, Kabard-Cherkes language, Kabardian Adyghe dialect, Kabardian Circassian language, Kabardian alphabet, Kabardian dialect, Kabardian-Circassian language, Kabardin language, Karbadian language, Адыгэбзэ, Къэбэрдеибзэ, Къэбэрдейбзэ.