297 relations: Abraham, Abraham Abulafia, Abraham Azulai, Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, Abraham Cohen de Herrera, Abraham Isaac Kook, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Abraham Yagel, Abraham Yehudah Khein, Abulafia (surname), Adam, Adam and Eve, Adam Kadmon, Age of Enlightenment, Aggadah, AJS Review, Alchemy, Alhambra Decree, Allegory, Allusion, American Jewish University, Angel, Anim Zemirot, Anthropocentrism, Anthropomorphism in Kabbalah, Anti-Judaism, Apocalyptic literature, Apostasy, Arthur Green, Aryeh Kaplan, Ashkenazi Hasidim, Assiah, Atziluth, Avesta, Ayin and Yesh, Azazel, Baal Shem Tov, Baba Sali, Bahir, Bahya ben Asher, Baruch Ashlag, Beit El Synagogue, Ben Sira, Beri'ah, Bnei Baruch, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Genesis, Bradley Shavit Artson, Breslov (Hasidic group), Burning bush, ..., Cambridge University Press, Catholic Church, Chabad, Chabad messianism, Chaim of Volozhin, Chaim Yosef David Azulai, Chavurah, Chesed, Christian Hebraist, Christian Kabbalah, Conservative Judaism, Cross-cultural studies, Daniel C. Matt, David ben Judah Messer Leon, Dönmeh, Derech Hashem, Devekut, Divine simplicity, Dor Daim, Dualistic cosmology, Ein Sof, Elijah Benamozegh, Eliyahu de Vidas, Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Elliot R. Wolfson, Elohim, Emunoth ve-Deoth, Exegesis, Exoteric, Ezekiel, Forbidden fruit, Fordham University Press, Four Worlds, Frankism, Freemasonry, Garden of Eden, Gates of Prayer, Gedaliah Nadel, Gematria, Genizah, Gershom Scholem, Gevurah, Gilgul, Golden mean (philosophy), Golem, Great chain of being, Hadith, Hagigah, Halakha, Haredi Judaism, Harvard University Press, Hayom Yom, Hayyim ben Joseph Vital, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hekhalot literature, Herbert Weiner, Hermeneutics, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Hermetic Qabalah, Hermeticism, Hillel Zeitlin, History, History of Palestine, Hitbodedut, Holocaust theology, Immanence, Isaac ben Samuel of Acre, Isaac Luria, Isaac the Blind, Israel Sarug, Italian Jews, Jacob, Jacob Emden, Jacob Frank, Jacob Immanuel Schochet, Jacob's Ladder, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jewish Lights Publishing, Jewish meditation, Jewish mysticism, Jewish Renewal, Jewish studies, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Joseph Dan, Joseph Karo, Judah Loew ben Bezalel, Judaism, Ka-Bala, Kabbalah Centre, Kabbalah Society, Kalonymos family, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Land of Israel, Lawrence Kushner, Lekhah Dodi, Leon of Modena, List of Hasidic dynasties, List of Jewish Kabbalists, Louis Ginzberg, Louis Jacobs, Lurianic Kabbalah, Maimonides, Malkuth, Marc B. Shapiro, Martin Buber, Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, Menahem Azariah da Fano, Merkabah mysticism, Messiah in Judaism, Metaphysics, Middle Ages, Midrash, Mikraot Gedolot, Millennialism, Mishnah, Misnagdim, Mitzvah, Mizrahi Jews, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Moses, Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, Moshe Alshich, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, Moshe Idel, Mount Sinai, Musar literature, Mysticism, Nachman of Breslov, Nachmanides, Names of God in Judaism, Nathan of Gaza, Nechama Leibowitz, Nehunya ben HaKanah, Neoplatonism, Nevi'im, New Age, New Testament, Notarikon, Occult, Ohr, Ontology, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Judaism outreach, Ovadia Yosef, Oxford University Press, Panentheism, Pardes (Jewish exegesis), Pardes Rimonim, Partzufim, Paulist Fathers, Peshat, Philip Berg, Pogrom, Practical Kabbalah, Primary texts of Kabbalah, Princeton University Press, Pseudepigrapha, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Rachel Elior, Raziel, Rebbe, Reconstructionist Judaism, Reform Judaism, Reincarnation, Religious Zionism, Renaissance, Rishonim, Rosicrucianism, Saadia Gaon, Sabbatai Zevi, Sabbateans, Sanhedrin, Satan, Satmar (Hasidic dynasty), Saul, Saul Lieberman, Secret society, Sefer HaRazim, Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, Sefer Yetzirah, Sefirot, Sephardi Jews, Serpents in the Bible, Shabbat, Shalom Sharabi, Shem HaMephorash, Shi'ur Qomah, Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz, Shulchan Aruch, Simeon bar Yochai, Stanford University Press, Sukkah, SUNY Press, Syncretism, Talmud, Tanakh, Temple in Jerusalem, Temurah (Kabbalah), Ten Commandments, Tetragrammaton, The Daily Telegraph, Theocentricism, Theurgy, Tiferet, Tikkun olam, Tomer Devorah, Torah, Torah study, Tosafot, Tree of life, Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Tzadik, Tzadikim Nistarim, Tzimtzum, University of California Press, Vedas, Venice, Vilna Gaon, Wayne State University Press, Western esotericism, Wissenschaft des Judentums, Yaakov Yehuda Aryeh Leib Frenkel, Yakir Yerushalayim, Yale University Press, Yam Suph, Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg, Yehuda Liebes, Yemenite Jews, Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Yeshiva, Yesod, Yetzirah, Yiḥyah Qafiḥ, Yitzchok Hutner, Yohanan Alemanno, Yosef Hayyim, Yosef Qafih, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, Zeir Anpin, Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies, Zohar, Zoroastrianism, 613 commandments. Expand index (247 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (אברהם בן שמואל אבולעפיה) was the founder of the school of "Prophetic Kabbalah".
Abraham ben Mordecai Azulai (c. 1570–1643) (אברהם בן מרדכי אזולאי) was a Kabbalistic author and commentator born in Fes, Morocco.
Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon (אברהם בן רמב"ם; also known as Rabbeinu Avraham ben ha-Rambam, and Avraham Maimuni) (1186 – December 7, 1237) was the son of Maimonides who succeeded his father as Nagid of the Egyptian Jewish community.
Abraham Cohen de Herrera (רבי אברהם כהן בן דוד דה-הירירה), also known as Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira (c. 1570 – c. 1635), was a religious philosopher and cabbalist.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century.
Abraham Yagel (Monselice 1553 – 1623) was an Italian Jewish catechist, philosopher, and cabalist.
Abraham Yehudah Khein (1878 in Chernigov–5 October 1957) was a Hasidic Rabbi in the Ukrainian town Nyezhin and a pacifist anarchist.
Abulafia (أبو العافية, or; אבולעפיה) is a Sephardi Jewish surname whose etymological origin is in the Arabic language.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Adam Kadmon (Primordial Man; also Adam Ila'a, אדם עילאה "supreme man"; abbreviated as א"ק, A"K), in Kabbalah, is the first spiritual World that came into being after the contraction of God's infinite light.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.
AJS Review, published on behalf of the Association for Jewish Studies, publishes scholarly articles and book reviews covering the field of Jewish Studies.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context.
The American Jewish University, formerly the separate institutions University of Judaism and Brandeis-Bardin Institute, is a Jewish institution in Los Angeles, California.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
Anim Zemirot (אנעים זמירות, lit. "I shall sing sweet songs") is a Jewish liturgical poem sung in the synagogue at the end of Shabbat and holiday morning services.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
Kabbalah, the central system in Jewish mysticism, uses subtle anthropomorphic analogies and metaphors to describe God in Judaism.
Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.
Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Arthur Green, whose Hebrew name is אברהם יצחק גרין, born March 21, 1941, is an American scholar of Jewish mysticism and Neo-Hasidic theologian.
Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (אריה משה אליהו קפלן.; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi and author known for his knowledge of physics and kabbalah.
The Hasidim of Ashkenaz (חסידי אשכנז, trans. Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists") were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Assiah (or 'Asiyah, also known as Olam Asiyah, עולם עשיה in Hebrew, literally "the World of Action") is the last of the four spiritual worlds of the Kabbalah —Atziluth, Briah, Yetzirah, 'Asiyah— based on the passage in.
Atziluth or Atzilut (also Olam Atzilut, עולם אצילות, literally "the World of Emanation"), is the highest of four worlds in which exists the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Ayin (אַיִן, meaning "nothingness", related to Ein-"not") is an important concept in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy.
Azazel (ʿAzazel; ʿAzāzīl) appears in the Bible in association with the scapegoat rite.
Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1700, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (בעל שם טוב) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi considered the founder of Hasidic Judaism.
Rabbi Israel Abuhatzeira (ישראל אבוחצירא), known as the Baba Sali (بابا صلى, באבא סאלי, lit. "Praying Father") (1889–1984) was a leading Moroccan Sephardic rabbi and kabbalist who was renowned for his ability to work miracles through his prayers.
Bahir or Sefer HaBahir (Hebrew: סֵפֶר הַבָּהִיר, "Book of the Bright") is an anonymous mystical work, attributed to a 1st-century rabbinic sage Nehunya ben HaKanah (a contemporary of Yochanan ben Zakai) because it begins with the words, "R.
Bahya ben Asher ibn Halawa, also known as Rabbeinu Behaye (רבינו בחיי, 1340 – 1255), was a rabbi and scholar of Judaism.
Rabbi Baruch Shalom HaLevi Ashlag (also known as the RABASH) (January 22, 1907 – September 13, 1991) was a Kabbalist, the firstborn and successor of Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag also known as Baal Hasulam, the author of "The Sulam" commentary on the Zohar.
The Beit El Synagogue ("House of God" synagogue), (also known as Midrash Hasidim and Yeshivat haMekubalim) has been (and remains to this day) the center of kabbalistic study in Jerusalem for over 250 years.
Ben Sira, or Ben Sirach, also known as Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira or Jesus Ben Sirach, (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem.
Beri'ah (Hebrew: בריאה or בריה), Briyah, or Briah (also known as Olam Briah, עולם בריאה in Hebrew, literally "the World of Creation"), is the second of the four celestial worlds in the Tree of Life of the Kabbalah, intermediate between the World of Emanation (Atziluth) and the World of Formation (Yetzirah), the third world, that of the angels.
Bnei Baruch (also known as Kabbalah Laam, קבלה לעם) is an universalist kabbalah association founded by Michael Laitman in the early 1990s.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Bradley Shavit "Brad" Artson (born 1959) is an American rabbi, author, speaker, and the occupant of the Abner and Roslyn Goldstine Dean's Chair of the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at the American Jewish University in Los Angeles, California, where he is Vice-President.
Breslov (also Bratslav, also spelled Breslev) is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772–1810), a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism.
The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.
Chabad messianism, or Lubavitch messianism,also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism.
Chaim of Volozhin (also known as Chaim ben Yitzchok of Volozhin or Chaim Ickovits; January 21, 1749 – June 14, 1821)Jewish Encyclopedia Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, pp. 347-349; idem, Kiryah Ne'emanah, pp. 156-158; Lewin, Aliyyot Eliyahu (ed. Stettin), p. 70; Schechter, Studies in Judaism, p. 85, Philadelphia, 1896; Jatzkan, Rabbenu Eliyah mi-Wilna, pp. 100-106, St.
Haim Yosef David Azulai ben Yitzhak Zerachia (1724 – 1 March 1806), commonly known as the Hida (the acronym of his name), was a Jerusalem born rabbinical scholar, a noted bibliophile, and a pioneer in the publication of Jewish religious writings.
A chavurah or havurah (חבורה Hebrew: "fellowship", plural chavurot) is a small group of like-minded Jews who assemble for the purposes of facilitating Shabbat and holiday prayer services, sharing communal experiences such as lifecycle events, or Jewish learning.
Chesed (חֶסֶד, also Romanized ḥesed) is a Hebrew word with the basic meaning "zeal, affect", from the root heth-samekh-dalet "eager and ardent desire".
A Christian Hebraist is a scholar of Hebrew who comes from a Christian family background/belief, or is a Jewish adherent of Christianity.
The Renaissance saw the birth of Christian Kabbalah/Cabala (from the Hebrew קַבָּלָה "reception", often transliterated with a 'C' to distinguish it from Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah), also spelled Cabbala.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.
Daniel Chanan Matt is a scholar of Kabbalah and a professor at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley.
David ben Judah Messer Leon (c. 1470 in Venice – c. 1526 in Salonica) was an Italian rabbi, physician and writer, who defended the value of secular disciplines and the Renaissance humanities as an important part of traditional Jewish studies.
The Dönmeh (Dönme) were a group of crypto-Sabbateans (commonly referred to as crypto-Jews) in the Ottoman Empire who converted publicly to Islam, but were said to have retained their beliefs.
Derech HaShem (The "Way of God") is a philosophical text written in the 1730s by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto.
Devekut, debekuth, deveikuth or deveikus (Heb. דבקות; Mod. Heb. "dedication", traditionally "clinging on" to God) is a Jewish concept referring to closeness to God.
In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts.
The Dardaim or Dor daim (דרדעים), are adherents of the Dor Deah movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Ein Sof, or Eyn Sof (אין סוף), in Kabbalah, is understood as God prior to his self-manifestation in the production of any spiritual realm, probably derived from Ibn Gabirol's term, "the Endless One" (she-en lo tiklah).
Elijah Benamozegh, sometimes Elia or Eliyahu, (born 1822; died 6 February 1900) was an Italian rabbi and a noted Kabbalist, highly respected in his day as one of Italy's most eminent Jewish scholars.
Eliyahu de Vidas (1518–1587, Hebron) was a 16th-century rabbi in Ottoman Palestine.
Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler (1892 – 30 December 1953) was an Orthodox rabbi, Talmudic scholar, and Jewish philosopher of the 20th century.
Elliot R. Wolfson (born 23 November 1956) is the Marsha and Jay Glazer Endowed Chair in Jewish Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Elohim (Hebrew: ’ĕlōhîm) is one of the many names or titles for God in the Hebrew Bible; the term is also used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to other gods.
The Book of Beliefs and Opinions (completed 933) is a text written by Saadia Gaon which is the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside, and independent from, a person's experience and can be ascertained by anyone (related to common sense).
Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
Forbidden fruit is a phrase that originates from the Book of Genesis concerning Adam and Eve in Genesis 2:16–17.
The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.
The Four Worlds (עולמות Olamot/Olamos, singular: Olam עולם), sometimes counted with a prior stage to make Five Worlds, are the comprehensive categories of spiritual realms in Kabbalah in the descending chain of Existence.
Frankism was a Jewish religious movement of the 18th and 19th centuries,.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
Gates of Prayer, the New Union Prayer Book (GOP) is a Reform Jewish siddur that was announced in October 1975 as a replacement for the 80-year-old Union Prayer Book (UPB), incorporating more Hebrew content and was updated to be more accessible to modern worshipers.
Rabbi Gedaliah Nadel (1923–2004) is known as one of the heads of Kollel Chazon Ish and was the leading decider of Jewish Law in the Chazon Ish neighborhood of Bene Barak.
Gematria (גמטריא, plural or, gematriot) originated as an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher later adopted into Jewish culture that assigns numerical value to a word, name, or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other or bear some relation to the number itself as it may apply to Nature, a person's age, the calendar year, or the like.
A genizah (or geniza; Hebrew: "storage"; plural: genizot or genizoth or genizahs) is a storage area in a Jewish synagogue or cemetery designated for the temporary storage of worn-out Hebrew-language books and papers on religious topics prior to proper cemetery burial.
Gerhard Scholem who, after his immigration from Germany to Israel, changed his name to Gershom Scholem (Hebrew: גרשום שלום) (December 5, 1897 – February 21, 1982), was a German-born Israeli philosopher and historian.
Gevurah or geburah (גבורה) is the fifth sephirah in the kabbalistic tree of life, and it is the second of the emotive attributes of the sephirot.
Gilgul/Gilgul neshamot/Gilgulei Ha Neshamot (Heb. גלגול הנשמות, Plural: גלגולים Gilgulim) describes a Kabbalistic concept of reincarnation.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud).
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Tractate Ḥagigah (literally "Festival Offering") deals with the Three Pilgrimage Festivals (Passover, Shavuot, Sukkot) and the pilgrimage offering that men were supposed to bring in Jerusalem.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hayom Yom (היום יום, "Today is day...") is anthology of Hasidic aphorisms and customs arranged according to the calendar for the Hebrew year of 5703 (1942–43).
Hayyim ben Joseph Vital (רבי חיים בן יוסף ויטאל; Safed,https://books.google.com/books?id.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
The Hekhalot literature (sometimes transliterated Heichalot) from the Hebrew word for "Palaces", relating to visions of ascents into heavenly palaces.
Herbert Weiner was an ordained American Reform rabbi in South Orange, New Jersey, and the author of The Wild Goats of Ein Gedi and Nine and a Half Mystics.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Ordo Hermeticus Aurorae Aureae; or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn (Aurora Aurea)) was an organization devoted to the study and practice of the occult, metaphysics, and paranormal activities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Hermetic Qabalah is a Western esoteric tradition involving mysticism and the occult.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
Hillel Zeitlin (1871–1942) was a Yiddish and Hebrew writer who edited the Yiddish newspaper Moment, among other literary activities.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
Hitbodedut (התבודדות, lit. "self-seclusion", Ashkenazic pronunciation: hisboydedes/hisboydedus or hisbodedus, Sephardic pronunciation: hitbodedút) refers to an unstructured, spontaneous and individualized form of prayer and meditation, popularized by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov.
Holocaust theology is a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God in the universe in light of the Holocaust of the late 1930s and 1940s.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Isaac ben Samuel of Acre (fl. 13th–14th century) (Hebrew: יצחק בן שמואל דמן עכו, Yitzhak ben Shmuel d'min Akko) was a Jewish kabbalist who fled to Spain.
Isaac (ben Solomon) Luria Ashkenazi (1534Fine 2003, p. – July 25, 1572) (יִצְחָק בן שלמה לוּרְיָא אשכנזי Yitzhak Ben Sh'lomo Lurya Ashkenazi), commonly known in Jewish religious circles as "Ha'ARI" (meaning "The Lion"), "Ha'ARI Hakadosh" or "ARIZaL", was a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Syria.
Rabbi Yitzhak Saggi Nehor (רַבִּי יִצְחַק סַגִּי נְהוֹר), also known as Isaac the Blind (c. 1160–1235 in Provence, France), has the Aramaic epithet "Saggi Nehor" meaning "of Much Light" in the sense of having excellent eyesight, an ironic euphemism for being blind.
Israel Sarug Ashkenazi (also "Saruk") (16th century; 1590–1610) was a pupil of Isaac Luria, and devoted himself at the death of his master to the propagation of the latter's Kabbalistic system, for which he gained many adherents in various parts of Italy.
Italian Jews (Ebrei italiani, יהודים איטלקים Yehudim Italkim) can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews living or with roots in Italy, or, in a narrower sense, to mean the Italkim, an ancient community who use the Italian liturgy as distinct from the communities dating from medieval or modern times who use the Sephardic liturgy or the Nusach Ashkenaz.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jacob Emden, also known as Ya'avetz (June 4, 1697 – April 19, 1776), was a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement.
Jacob Joseph Frank (יעקב פרנק, Jakub Józef Frank, born Jakub Lejbowicz; 1726 – December 10, 1791) was an 18th-century Polish-Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676) and also of the biblical patriarch Jacob.
Jacob Immanuel Schochet (August 27, 1935 – July 27, 2013) was a Swiss-born Canadian rabbi, academic and scholar who wrote and lectured on the history and philosophy of Hasidism and on themes of Jewish thought and ethics.
Jacob's Ladder (סולם יעקב) is the connection between the earth and heaven that the biblical Patriarch Jacob dreams about during his flight from his brother Esau, as described in the Book of Genesis.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jewish Lights Publishing is a publishing company.
Jewish meditation can refer to several traditional practices, ranging from visualization and intuitive methods, forms of emotional insight in communitive prayer, esoteric combinations of Divine names, to intellectual analysis of philosophical, ethical or mystical concepts.
Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.
Jewish Renewal is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and musical practices.
Jewish studies (or Judaic studies) is an academic discipline centered on the study of Jews and Judaism.
The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a religious education organization located in New York, New York.
Joseph Ber Soloveitchik (יוסף דב הלוי סולובייצ׳יק Yosef Dov ha-Levi Soloveychik; February 27, 1903 - April 9, 1993) was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher.
Joseph Dan (יוסף דן, born 1935) is an Israeli scholar of Jewish mysticism.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Judah Loew ben Bezalel, alt.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Ka-Bala was a talking board game manufactured and released by Transogram in 1967.
The Kabbalah Centre International is a non-profit organizationworldwide located in Los Angeles, California that provides courses on the Zohar and Kabbalistic teachings online as well as through its regional and city-based centers and study groups worldwide.
The Kabbalah Society is a London-based organisation founded to promote what it states is the Toledano Tradition of Kabbalah, initially researched, and now taught by Warren Kenton.
Kalonymos or Kalonymus (קלונימוס) is a prominent Jewish family who lived in Italy, which, after the settlement at Mainz and Speyer of several of its members, took during many generations a leading part in the development of Jewish learning in Germany.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Lawrence Kushner (born 1943) is a Reform rabbi and the scholar-in-residence at Congregation Emanu-El in San Francisco, California.
Lekha Dodi (לכה דודי; also transliterated as Lecha Dodi, L'chah Dodi, Lekah Dodi, Lechah Dodi; Ashkenazic pronunciation: Lecho Dodi) is a Hebrew-language Jewish liturgical song recited Friday at dusk, usually at sundown, in synagogue to welcome Shabbat prior to the evening services.
Leon Modena or Yehudah Aryeh Mi-modena (1571–1648) was a Jewish scholar born in Venice in a family whose ancestors migrated to Italy after an expulsion of Jews from spain.
A Hasidic dynasty is a dynasty led by Hasidic Jewish spiritual leaders known as rebbes, and usually has some or all of the following characteristics.
This page lists figures in Kabbalah according to historical chronology and schools of thought.
Rabbi Louis Ginzberg (לוי גינצבורג, Levy Gintzburg, November 28, 1873 – November 11, 1953) was a Talmudist and leading figure in the Conservative Movement of Judaism of the twentieth century.
Louis Jacobs CBE (17 July 1920 – 1 July 2006) was the founder of Masorti (Conservative) Judaism in the United Kingdom, and a leading writer and theologian.
Lurianic Kabbalah is a school of kabbalah named after the Jewish rabbi who developed it: Isaac Luria (1534–1572; also known as the "ARI'zal", "Ha'ARI" or "Ha'ARI Hakadosh").
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Malkuth, Malchut or Malchus (Hebrew: ملكوت;מלכות, "kingdom"), or Shekhinah, is the tenth of the sephirot in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.
Marc B. Shapiro (Hebrew: מלך שפירא, born 1966) is a professor and the author of various books and articles on Jewish history, philosophy, theology, and rabbinic literature.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (September 9, 1789 (29 Elul 5549) – March 17, 1866 (13 Nissan 5626) OS) also known as the Tzemach Tzedek was an Orthodox rabbi, leading 19th century posek, and the third Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement.
Menahem Azariah da Fano (also called Immanuel da Fano, and Rema MiPano) (1548 – 1620) was an Italian rabbi, Talmudist, and Kabbalist.
Merkabah/Merkavah mysticism (or Chariot mysticism) is a school of early Jewish mysticism, c. 100 BCE – 1000 CE, centered on visions such as those found in the Book of Ezekiel chapter 1, or in the hekhalot ("palaces") literature, concerning stories of ascents to the heavenly palaces and the Throne of God.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
The Mikraot Gedolot (מקראות גדולות) "Great Scriptures," often called the "Rabbinic Bible" in English, is an edition of the Tanakh (in Hebrew) that generally includes four distinct elements.
Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years"), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some Christian denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth in which Christ will reign for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come") of the New Heavens and New Earth.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Misnagdim (also Mitnagdim; singular misnaged/mitnaged) is a Hebrew word meaning "opponents".
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law, with the secular, modern world.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero (משה קורדובירו Moshe Kordovero ‎; 1522–1570) was a central figure in the historical development of Kabbalah, leader of a mystical school in 16th-century Safed, Israel.
Moshe Alshich משה אלשיך, also spelled Alshech, (1508–1593), known as the Alshich Hakadosh (the Holy), was a prominent rabbi, preacher, and biblical commentator in the latter part of the 16th century.
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (משה חיים לוצאטו, also Moses Chaim, Moses Hayyim, also Luzzato) (1707 in Padua – 16 May 1746 in Acre (26 Iyar 5506)), also known by the Hebrew acronym RaMCHaL (or RaMHaL), was a prominent Italian Jewish rabbi, kabbalist, and philosopher.
Moshe Idel (Hebrew: משה אידל) is a Romanian born historian and philosopher of Jewish mysticism.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
Musar literature is didactic Jewish ethical literature which describes virtues and vices and the path towards perfection in a methodical way.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Nachman of Breslov (נחמן מברסלב), also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Reb Nachman Breslover (רבי נחמן ברעסלאווער), Nachman from Uman (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810), was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
Nathan Benjamin ben Elisha Hayyim ha'Levi Ashkenazi / Ghazzati or Nathan of Gaza (נתן העזתי; 1643–1680) was a theologian and author born in Jerusalem.
Nechama Leibowitz (נחמה ליבוביץ׳; September 3, 1905 – 12 April 1997) was a noted Israeli Bible scholar and commentator who rekindled interest in Bible study.
Nehunya ben HaKanah (נחוניה בן הקנה was a tanna of the 1st and 2nd centuries. It appears from Bava Batra 10b that Neḥunya was a contemporary, but not a pupil, of Johanan ben Zakai. He was the teacher of Ishmael ben Elisha. Neḥunya was rich and had a large retinue of servants; but he was distinguished for his meekness and forgiving nature, to which he attributed his attainment of great age (Megillah 28a); two short prayers composed by him exhibit the same qualities (Berakhot iv. 2; Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot iv. 2). According to the statement of Rabbi Yochanan (Shevu'ot 26a), Neḥunya interpreted the entire Torah by the hermeneutic rule known as the "general and particular" ("kelal u-feraṭ"), which rule has also been adopted by his pupil Rabbi Ishmael as the eight of his 13 hermeneutic rules. Neḥunya is frequently mentioned in the Talmud; in Hullin 129b he is referred to as the antagonist of Eliezer and Joshua in regard to a halakhah (comp., however, Eduyot vi. 2). He said that the Pharaoh of the Exodus was rescued from the Red Sea, that he repented, that he afterward reigned in Nineveh, and that it was he who in the time of Jonah exhorted the inhabitants of Nineveh to repentance (Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer xliii.). Neḥunya is known also for his ethical saying: "Whoso receives upon him the yoke of the Torah, from him is removed the yoke of royalty and that of worldly care; and whoso throws off the yoke of the Torah, upon him is laid the yoke of royalty and that of worldly care" (Pirkei Avot iii. 6; Avot of Rabbi Natan recension B, xxxii.). As Ishmael b. Elisha, Neḥunya's disciple, is regarded by the kabbalists as their chief representative, Neḥunya is considered to have been Ishmael's teacher in mysticism also. He is generally supposed to have been the author of the daily prayer beginning אנא בכח, the initials of which form the forty-two-lettered name of God. He is also supposed by some to have been the author of the Bahir and of the Sefer ha-Peli'ah.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Notarikon (נוטריקון Noṭariqōn) is a method of deriving a word, by using each of its initial (Hebrew) or final letters to stand for another, to form a sentence or idea out of the words.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Ohr ("Light" אור; plural: Ohros/Ohrot "Lights") is a central Kabbalistic term in the Jewish mystical tradition.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Orthodox Jewish outreach, often referred to as Kiruv or Keruv (קירוב, קֵרוּב "bringing close"), is the collective work or movement of Orthodox Judaism that reaches out to non-Orthodox Jews to encourage belief in God and living according to Orthodox Jewish law.
Ovadia Yosef (עובדיה יוסף Ovadya Yosef,; September 24, 1920 – October 7, 2013) was an Iraqi-born Talmudic scholar, a posek, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983, and the founder and long-time spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-Orthodox Shas party.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
"Pardes" refers to (types of) approaches to biblical exegesis in rabbinic Judaism or to interpretation of text in Torah study.
Pardes Rimonim (meaning "Pardes-Orchard of Pomegranates", sometimes known as the Pardes) is a primary text of Kabbalah, composed in 1548 by the Jewish mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero in Safed, Galilee.
Partzufim/Partsufim (פרצופים, singular Partzuf, פרצוף), meaning "Divine Personae / Visages / Faces / Forms / Configurations", are particular reconfigured arrangements of the 10 sephirot (Divine attributes/emanations of Kabbalah) into harmonised interactions in Creation.
The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, better known as the Paulist Fathers, is a Roman Catholic society of apostolic life for men founded in New York City in 1858 by Servant of God Isaac Thomas Hecker in collaboration with George Deshon, Augustine Hewit, and Francis A. Baker.
Peshat (also P'shat) is one of four classical methods of Jewish biblical exegesis used by rabbis and Jewish bible scholars in reading the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh.
Philip S. Berg (original name Feivel Gruberger) (August 20, 1927 – September 16, 2013) was an American rabbi and dean of the worldwide Kabbalah Centre organization.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Practical Kabbalah (קבלה מעשית Kabbalah Ma'asit) in historical Judaism, is a branch of the Jewish mystical tradition that concerns the use of magic.
The primary texts of Kabbalah were once part of an ongoing oral tradition.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Rachel Elior (born 28 December 1949) is an Israeli professor of Jewish philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Jerusalem, Israel.
Raziel (רזיאל "Secret of God") is an archangel within the teachings of Jewish mysticism (of the Kabbalah of Judaism) who is the "Keeper of Secrets" and the "Angel of Mysteries".
Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rishonim (ראשונים; sing. ראשון, Rishon, "the first ones") were the leading rabbis and poskim who lived approximately during the 11th to 15th centuries, in the era before the writing of the Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: שׁוּלחָן עָרוּך, "Set Table", a common printed code of Jewish law, 1563 CE) and following the Geonim (589-1038 CE).
Rosicrucianism is a spiritual and cultural movement which arose in Europe in the early 17th century after the publication of several texts which purported to announce the existence of a hitherto unknown esoteric order to the world and made seeking its knowledge attractive to many.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
Sabbateans (Sabbatians) is a complex general term that refers to a variety of followers of disciples and believers in Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676), a Jewish rabbi who was proclaimed to be the Jewish Messiah in 1665 by Nathan of Gaza.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Satmar (סאטמאר or) is a Hasidic group originating from the city of Szatmárnémeti, Hungary (now Satu Mare, Romania), where it was founded in 1905 by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Saul Lieberman (Hebrew: שאול ליברמן, May 28, 1898 – March 23, 1983), also known as Rabbi Shaul Lieberman or, among some of his students, The Gra"sh (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was an Israeli rabbi and a scholar of Talmud.
A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.
Sefer HaRazim (ספר הרזים, "Book of Secrets") is a Jewish mystical text supposedly given to Noah by the angel Raziel, and passed down throughout Biblical history to Solomon, for whom it was a great source of his wisdom, and purported magical powers.
Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, (Hebrew,ספר רזיאל המלאך., "the book of Raziel the angel"), is a medieval Practical Kabbalah grimoire written primarily in Hebrew and Aramaic.
Sefer Yetzirah (Sēpher Yəṣîrâh, Book of Formation, or Book of Creation) is the title of the earliest extant book on Jewish esotericism, although some early commentators treated it as a treatise on mathematical and linguistic theory as opposed to Kabbalah.
Sefirot (סְפִירוֹת səphîrôṯ), meaning emanations, are the 10 attributes/emanations in Kabbalah, through which Ein Sof (The Infinite) reveals Itself and continuously creates both the physical realm and the chain of higher metaphysical realms (Seder hishtalshelus).
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serpents (נחש nāḥāš) are referred to in both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Sar Shalom Sharabi (שר שלום מזרחי דידיע שרעבי), also known as the Rashash, the Shemesh or Ribbi Shalom Mizraḥi deyedi`a Sharabi (1720–1777), was a Yemenite-Israeli Jewish Rabbi, Halachist, Chazzan and Kabbalist.
The Shem HaMephorash (Hebrew: שם המפורש, alternatively Shem ha-Mephorash or Schemhamphoras), meaning the explicit name, is an originally Tannaitic term describing a hidden name of God in Kabbalah (including Christian and Hermetic variants), and in some more mainstream Jewish discourses.
Shi’ur Qomah (Hebrew: שיעור קומה, lit. Divine Dimensions) is a Midrashic text that is part of the Heichalot literature.
Shlomo ha-Levi Alkabetz, also spelt Alqabitz, Alqabes; (Hebrew: שלמה אלקבץ) (1500 – 1576) was a rabbi, kabbalist and poet perhaps best known for his composition of the song Lecha Dodi.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
Simeon bar Yochai (Aramaic: רבן שמעון בר יוחאי, Rabban Shimon bar Yoḥai), also known by his acronym Rashbi, was a 2nd-century tannaitic sage in ancient Judea, said to be active after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
A or succah (סוכה; plural, סוכות or sukkos or sukkoth, often translated as "booth") is a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Temurah is one of the three ancient methods used by Kabbalists to rearrange words and sentences in the Bible, in the belief that by this method they can derive the esoteric substratum and deeper spiritual meaning of the words.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Theocentricism is the belief that God is the central aspect to our existence, as opposed to anthropocentrism or existentialism.
Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.
Tiferet ("Adornment", תפארת) alternatively Tifaret, Tifereth, Tyfereth or Tiphereth, is the sixth sefira in the kabbalistic Tree of Life.
Tikkun olam (תיקון עולם (literally, "repair of the world", alternatively, "construction for eternity") is a concept in Judaism, interpreted in Orthodox Judaism as the prospect of overcoming all forms of idolatry, and by other Jewish denominations as an aspiration to behave and act constructively and beneficially. Documented use of the term dates back to the Mishnaic period. Since medieval times, kabbalistic literature has broadened use of the term. In the modern era, among the post Haskalah Ashkenazi movements, tikkun olam is the idea that Jews bear responsibility not only for their own moral, spiritual, and material welfare, but also for the welfare of society at large. To the ears of contemporary pluralistic Rabbis, the term connotes "the establishment of Godly qualities throughout the world".
Tomer Devorah (Hebrew: תומר דבורה, English: The Palm Tree of Deborah) was written in Hebrew in the middle of the 16th century by Moses Cordovero, a Jewish kabbalist in Safed, Israel.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torah study is the study of the Torah, Hebrew Bible, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaism's religious texts.
The Tosafot or Tosafos (תוספות) are medieval commentaries on the Talmud.
The tree of life is a widespread myth (mytheme) or archetype in the world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally,Giovino, Mariana (2007).
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
Tzadik/Zadik/Sadiq (צדיק, "righteous one", pl. tzadikim ṣadiqim) is a title in Judaism given to people considered righteous, such as Biblical figures and later spiritual masters.
The Tzadikim Nistarim (צַדִיקִים נִסתָּרים, "hidden righteous ones") or Lamed Vav Tzadikim (ל"ו צַדִיקִים,x"36 righteous ones"), often abbreviated to Lamed Vav(niks), refers to 36 righteous people, a notion rooted within the more mystical dimensions of Judaism.
The tzimtzum or tsimtsum (Hebrew צמצום ṣimṣūm "contraction/constriction/condensation") is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah to explain Isaac Luria's doctrine that God began the process of creation by "contracting" his Ein Sof (infinite) light in order to allow for a "conceptual space" in which finite and seemingly independent realms could exist.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, (ר' אליהו בן שלמה זלמן Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman) known as the Vilna Gaon (דער װילנער גאון, Gaon z Wilna, Vilniaus Gaonas) or Elijah of Vilna, or by his Hebrew acronym HaGra ("HaGaon Rabbenu Eliyahu") or Elijah Ben Solomon (Sialiec, April 23, 1720 – Vilnius October 9, 1797), was a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of misnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries.
Wayne State University Press (or WSU Press) is a university press that is part of Wayne State University.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
"Wissenschaft des Judentums" ("Jewish Studies" or "Judaic Studies" in German) refers to a nineteenth-century movement premised on the critical investigation of Jewish literature and culture, including rabbinic literature, using scientific methods to analyze the origins of Jewish traditions.
Rabbi Yaakov Yehuda Aryeh Leib Frenkel יעקב יהודה אריה ליב פרענקיל (died June 12, 1940) also known as the Gevuras Aryeh after his major work, was Rabbi of Piricse and a renowned Kabbalist.
Yakir Yerushalayim (יַקִּיר יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; Worthy Citizen of Jerusalem) is an annual citizenship prize in Jerusalem, Israel, inaugurated in 1967.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yam Suph has traditionally been understood to refer to the saltwater inlet located between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, known in English as the Red Sea.
Rabbi Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg (1884-1966) was a noted Orthodox rabbi, posek ("decisor" of Jewish law) and rosh yeshiva.
Yehuda Liebes (born 1947) is an Israeli academic and scholar.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz (ישעיהו ליבוביץ; 29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual, professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a polymath known for his outspoken opinions on Judaism, ethics, religion, and politics.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yesod (Hebrew: יסוד "foundation") is a sephirah or node in the kabbalistic Tree of Life, a system of Jewish philosophy.
Yetzirah (also known as Olam Yetsirah, עולם יצירה in Hebrew) is the third of four worlds in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, following Atziluth and Briah and preceding Assiah.
Yiḥyah Qafiḥ (רבי יחיא בן שלמה קאפח also Yiḥyah ibn Shalomo el Qafiḥ) (1850–1931), known also by his term of endearment "Ha-Yashish" (English: "the Elder"), served as the Chief Rabbi of Sana'a, Yemen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Yohanan Alemanno (born in Constantinople or in Mantua, c. 1435 – died after 1504) was an Italian Jewish humanist philosopher and exegete, and teacher of the Hebrew language to Italian humanists including Pico della Mirandola.
Yosef Hayim (1 September 1835 – 30 August 1909) (Iraqi Hebrew: Yoseph Ḥayyim; Hebrew: יוסף חיים מבגדאד) was a leading Baghdadi hakham (Sephardi rabbi), authority on halakha (Jewish law), and Master Kabbalist.
Yosef Qafiḥ (יוסף קאפח), widely known as Rabbi Kapach (27 November 1917 – 21 July 2000), was a Yemenite-Israeli authority on Jewish religious law (halakha), a dayan of the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Israel, and one of the foremost leaders of the Yemenite Jewish community in Israel, where he was sought after by non-Yemenites as well.
Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi (English name, Warren Kenton) is an author of books on the Toledano Tradition of Kabbalah, a teacher of the discipline, with a worldwide following, and a founder member of the Kabbalah Society.
Meshullam Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, commonly called "Reb Zalman", (28 August 1924 – 3 July 2014) was one of the founders of the Jewish Renewal movement and an innovator in ecumenical dialogue.
Ze`ir Anpin (Aramaic: זְעֵיר אַנפִּין meaning "Lesser Countenance/Small Face", called Microprosopus in the Kabbala Denudata) is a revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.
The Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies, informally known as the "Ziegler School" or simply "Ziegler", is the graduate program of study leading to Ordination as Conservative Rabbis at the American Jewish University (formerly known as the University of Judaism).
The Zohar (זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
Cabbalistic, Criticism of Kabbalah, History of Kabbalah, Jewish Kabbalah, Jewish mystics, Kabalah, Kabalist, Kabalistic, Kabalists, Kaballa, Kaballah, Kaballahism, Kaballism, Kaballist, Kaballistic, Kabbalah: Attitudes Toward, Kabbalah: History of, Kabbalh, Kabbalic, Kabbalism, Kabbalist, Kabbalistic, Kabbalistic Judaism, Kabbalistically, Kabbalists, Kabballa, Kabballah, Kabballist, Mekubal, Qavalah, Traditional Jewish Kabbalah, Wisdom of Kabbalah, קַבָּלָה.