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Abdul Hadi Dawi High School, located in Kabul's District 9 near the 3rd Mikrorayon, is named after Abdul Hadi Dawi (Abdul Hadi Dawai) a renowned Afghan poet, diplomat and government official.
The Abdul Rahman Mosque (Dari: مسجد عبدالرحمان; د عبدالرحمان جومات), also known as the Grand Mosque of Kabul, is one of the largest mosques in Afghanistan.
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
Adolph "Spike" Dubs (August 4, 1920 – February 14, 1979) was the United States Ambassador to Afghanistan from May 13, 1978, until his death in 1979.
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.
The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, by Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation.
This article covers the Afghan history between 28 April 1992, the day that a new interim Afghan government was supposed to replace the Republic of Afghanistan of President Mohammad Najibullah, and the Taliban's conquest of Kabul establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996.
Afghan Jet International Airlines (هواپیمایی بینالمللی افغان جت) was an Afghan airline.
The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.
The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), also known as the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), consist of.
An Afghan rug (or Afghan carpet) is a type of handwoven floor-covering textile traditionally made in Afghanistan.
Afghan Turk International School & Colleges are the members of a chain of Turkish educational institutions established in 1995 and running under the auspices of Afghan Turk International Cag Educational Foundation for pursuit of excellence in education in Afghanistan.
The Afghan Wireless Communication Company, commonly referred to as Afghan Wireless or AWCC, is Afghanistan's first wireless communications company.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afghanistan Information Management Services (AIMS) is a Kabul-based Afghan non-governmental organisation (NGO).
Afghanistan International Bank (AIB) is a local commercial bank in Afghanistan, with its head office in Kabul.
Afghanistan–United Kingdom relations refer to bilateral relations between Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Asian Highway 76 (AH76) is a major road of northern Afghanistan.
Asian Highway 77 (AH77) is a road in the Asian Highway Network running 1298 km (811 miles) from Jabal Saraj, Afghanistan to Mary, Turkmenistan.
Ahmad Shah Baba Mina (احمدشاه بابا مېنه), formerly known as Arzan Qimat (ارزان قیمت), is a neighborhood in far eastern Kabul (District 12), nearby the Pul-e-Charkhi prison.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Shah Massoud (Dari Persian: احمد شاه مسعود; September 2, 1953September 9, 2001) was an Afghan political and military leader.
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India.
The Aisha-i-Durani School or Durani High School is a girls' school in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Akhtar Abdur Rahman Khan (Urdu: اختر عبد الرحمن‎; 11 June 1924 – 17 August 1988), was a Pakistani General who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of the Pakistan Armed Forces from 1987–1988 and as Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) from 1979-1987.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground (د کابل الکوزی نړيوال کريکټ لوبغالی) is a cricket stadium in east Kabul, Afghanistan that was opened on 2011 and has a seating capacity of 6,000 spectators.
Amani High School, also known in German as Amani-Oberrealschule Kabul, (لیسه عالی امانی) is a school in Kabul (District 10), Afghanistan.
Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).
Amirzai Sangin (اميرزی سنگين, born 6 June 1949) is a politician in Afghanistan, currently serving as the Minister of Communications & Information Technology.
Anandapala or Anantpala was a ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
A true antique (antiquus; "old", "ancient") is an item perceived as having value because of its aesthetic or historical significance, and often defined as at least 100 years old (or some other limit), although the term is often used loosely to describe any objects that are old.
An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arg (ارګ; ارگ; meaning "citadel") serves as the presidential palace in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Ariana Afghan Airlines Co.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Asamayi is a mountain range located directly to the west of downtown Kabul city, Afghanistan.
The Ashina (Middle Chinese: (Guangyun)), also known as Asen, Asena, or Açina, was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turkic peoples.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Azizi Bank is the largest commercial bank in Afghanistan, having almost 75 branches in Kabul and throughout the provinces of the country.
The Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) was one of the largest European industrial conglomerates of the 20th century, founded by Czech engineer Emil Škoda in 1859 in Plzeň, then in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.
The Bagh-e Bala Palace is a former royal palace in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Bagram (بگرام) is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 60 kilometers north of the capital Kabul.
Bagrami District is located in the central part of Kabul Province in Afghanistan.
Bala Hissar ("High Fort") is an ancient fortress located in the south of the old city of Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bamyan Province (ولایت بامیان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central highlands of the country.
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire or by dropping bombs from aircraft on fortifications, combatants, or towns and buildings.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Built-up area (BUA) is a term used primarily in urban planning, real estate development, building design and the construction industry.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Centre d'Enseignement Français en Afghanistan (CEFA) consists of two Franco-Afghan schools in the center of Kabul, Afghanistan, together educating around 6,000 Afghan students.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
Chaghcharān (Dari-Persian), also called Firuzkuh, Dari-Persian) is a town and district in central Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Ghor Province. It is located on the southern side of the Hari River, at an altitude of 2,230 m above sea level. In 2014, the Government of Afghanistan formally changed the name of this town to Firuzkoh. Chaghcharan is linked by a 380-kilometre-long highway with Herat to the west and is about the same distance from Kabul to the east and is also served by Chaghcharan Airport. It has a population of about 15,000 who are mostly Dari speakers. However the recent data showed a population of 31,266 (in 2015). it has 1 district and a total land area of 2,614 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 3,474.
Chakari (Cakaray, Chakaray) was a village in Khaki Jabbar District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan.
Chaman Hozoori (چمن حضوری) is a park in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Persian: چهار آسیاب Chahār Aasiāb Char Asiab, Chahar Asiab, Charasiab, Charasiah or Charasia is a town, ca.
Charikar (چاریکار, pronounced Chârikâr) is the main town of the Koh Daman Valley and the capital of Parwan Province in northern Afghanistan.
For the pavilion in Iran, see Chehel Sotoun Chihil Sutun (چهلستون, meaning "Forty Columns"), also spelled Chehel Sutoon or Chelsutoon, is an area in southern Kabul, Afghanistan, part of District 7.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The terms city limit and city boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.
The Kabul - City Of Light Development is an urban reconstruction plan, first proposed by urban planner and architect Hisham N. Ashkouri to revitalize the capital city of Afghanistan.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry.
CURE International is a Christian nonprofit organization based in New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Da Afghanistan Bank (Pashto:د افغانستان بانک; Dari: بانک مرکزی افغانستان) is the central bank of Afghanistan.
The Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is the most massive member of the pelican family, and perhaps the world's largest freshwater bird, although rivaled in weight and length by the largest swans.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darul Aman Palace (قصر دارالامان.; د دارالامان ماڼۍ; "abode of peace" or, in a double meaning "abode of Aman") is a ruined palace located about sixteen kilometers (ten miles) south-west outside of the center of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Darulaman (دارالامان) is a locality in the south-western fringes of Kabul, Afghanistan, forming part of District 6.
Deh Mazang (دهمزنگ), also spelled Demazang or Dih Mazang, is a hillside settlement in west Kabul, Afghanistan, located on the southern side of the Asamayi mountain.
Deh Sabz District is situated northeast of Kabul City in Afghanistan.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL providing international courier, parcel, and express mail services.
A director general or director-general (plural: directors generals, sometimes director generals) or general director is a senior executive officer, often the chief executive officer, within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators.
Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
East Horizon Airlines is an Afghan airline which began operation in December 2013.
The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.
The Embassy of the United States of America in Kabul is the diplomatic mission of the United States of America in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Emirates (طَيَران الإمارات DMG: Ṭayarān Al-Imārāt) is an airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society.
Emirates Telecommunication Group Company PJSC, (مؤسسة الإمارات للاتصالات, Mu'asissat al-'Imārāt lil-'Ittiṣālāt, literally, "Emirates Institute for Communications"), branded trade name Etisalat (اتصالات, literally "communications"), is a multinational Emirati based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 16 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
FedEx Corporation is an American multinational courier delivery services company headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee.
The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Disaster in Afghanistan) was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.
flydubai (فلاي دبي), legally Dubai Aviation Corporation (مؤسسة دبي للطيران), is a government-owned low-cost airline with its head office and flight operations in Terminal 2 of Dubai International Airport.
A footbridge (also called a pedestrian bridge, pedestrian overpass, or pedestrian overcrossing) is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists, animal traffic, and horse riders, instead of vehicular traffic.
Foreign relations of Afghanistan are handled by the nation's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is headed by Salahuddin Rabbani.
A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.
The French Medical Institute for Children (FMIC) is a children's hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan, established in 2005.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
The Garden of Babur (locally called Bagh-e Babur, باغ بابر / bāġ-e bābur) is a historic park in Kabul, Afghanistan, and also the last resting-place of the first Mughal emperor Babur Ashes of Babur was moved to kabul by Akbar written in baburnama.
Gardēz (ګردېز, گردیز) is the capital of the Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications (GSM).
The Geneva Accords, known formally as the agreements on the settlement of the situation relating to Afghanistan, were signed on 14 April 1988 at the Geneva headquarters of the United Nations, between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the United States and the Soviet Union serving as guarantors.
George Forster (died 1792) was an English traveller and civil servant of the East India Company, on the Madras establishment.
Ghazi Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in eastern Kabul, Afghanistan, mainly used to play football.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Ghulam Farooq Wardak (born 1959) is a politician in Afghanistan, formerly serving as the Minister of Education.
Ghulam Haidar Khan High School is an all-boys school located in Khair Khana, Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
A guest house (also guesthouse) is a kind of lodging.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.
Gulf Air (طيران الخليج Ṭayarān al-Khalīj) is the flag carrier of Bahrain.
Habibia High School (دبیرستان حبیبیه) is a school in southwestern Kabul, Afghanistan which has educated many of the former and current Afghan elite, including President Hamid Karzai and musician Ahmad Zahir.
Habibullah Khan (June 3, 1872 – February 20, 1919) was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919.
King Habibullah Kalakani (fa, or Bache Saqqaw, fa), 19 January 1891 – 1 November 1929), was King of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan He was executed nine months later by Nadir Khan.Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 459. Princeton University Press, 1973 Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a mujahid, a "warrior of God." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw (literally son of the water carrier) and bandit king.
Hafizullah Amin (Pashto/حفيظ الله امين; born 1 August 1929 – 27 December 1979) was an Afghan communist politician during the Cold War.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Hamid Karzai International Airport (د حامد کرزي نړيوال هوايي ډګر; میدان هوائی بین المللی حامدکرزی) is located from the city center of Kabul in Afghanistan.
The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group using asymmetric warfare to fight against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
HBL (حبِیب بَینک), (formerly Habib Bank Limited) is a Karachi based multinational bank.
Health in Afghanistan is unsatisfactory but slowly improving.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism in Afghanistan is practiced by a tiny minority of Afghans, believed to be about 1,000 individuals who live mostly in Kabul and other major cities of the country.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
The hippie trail (also the overland) is the name given to the overland journey taken by members of the hippie subculture and others from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s between Europe and South Asia, mainly through Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (including Jammu and Kashmir) and Nepal.
Hisham N. Ashkouri (هشام أشكري, born August 15, 1948, Baghdad, Iraq) is a Boston and New York-based architect.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
The Inter-Continental (also known as the Inter-Con) is a five star hotel located in the Karte Parwan neighbourhood in western Kabul, Afghanistan.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Id Gah Mosque or Eid Gah Mosque is the second largest mosque in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
There is a small community of Indians in Afghanistan who are Afghans of Indian origin as well as Indian construction and aid workers involved in rebuilding and humanitarian assistance efforts.
Indira Gandhi Children's hospital located in Kabul is a Children's hospital of Afghanistan.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The International School of Kabul (ISK) was a private co-educational K-12 school in Kabul, Afghanistan.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام – ولاية خراسان, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah Khorasan), or ISIL-KP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, استخری, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jadayi Maiwand (جاده میوند, Maiwand Avenue), also spelled Jada Maiwand or Jade Maiwand, is a major thoroughfare in the old center of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (سید جمالالدین افغانی), also known as Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn Asadābādī (سید جمالالدین اسدآبادی) and commonly known as Al-Afghani (1838/1839 – 9 March 1897), was a political activist and Islamic ideologist in the Muslim world during the late 19th century, particularly in the Middle East, South Asia and Europe.
The Jamhuriat Hospital (Republic Hospital) is state-owned hospital located in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Jayapala, was the ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty from 964 to 1001 CE.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jinnah Hospital (جناح روغتون; شفاخانه جناح) is a 400-bed hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kabul bus rapid transit is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Kabul, Afghanistan, currently under construction.
Kabul City Center (کابل سیتی سینتر), is Afghanistan's first modern-style indoor shopping mall that opened in 2005.
The Kabul Golf Club is a nine-hole golf course located near Qargha, around 7 miles from the center of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Kābul (translit, translit), situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
The Kabul River (کابل سیند, دریای کابل), the classical Cophes, is a long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.
Kabul Serena Hotel is a luxury hotel in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
Kabul University (KU) (Pashto دکابل پوهنتون Da Kābul Pohantūn / Dari پوهنتون کابل Pohantūn-e Kābul) is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.
The Kabul Zoo (باغوحش کابل), is located in Kabul, Afghanistan, on the bank of the Kabul River and adjacent to the Deh Mazang Circle.
The Kabul–Darulaman Tramway was a narrow gauge railway in Afghanistan.
Kabulistan (Pashto/کابلستان) is a historical regional name referring to the territory that is centered on present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan.
Kāfiristān, or Kāfirstān (کافرستان), is a historical region that covered present-day Nuristan Province in Afghanistan and its surroundings.
The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa; Nuristani: Kasivo; کالاش), or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch. They are considered unique among the peoples of Pakistan. They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious community, practising a religion which some scholars characterise as a form of animism, and other academics as "a form of ancient Hinduism". The neighbouring Nuristani people of the adjacent Nuristan (historically known as Kafiristan) province of Afghanistan once practised the faith adhered to by the Kalash. By the late 19th century, much of Nuristan had been converted to Islam, although some evidence has shown the people continued to practice their customs. Over the years, the Nuristan region has also been the site of much war activity that has led to the death of many endemic Nuristanis and has seen an inflow of surrounding Afghans to claim the vacant region, who have since admixed with the remaining natives. The Kalash of Chitral maintained their own separate cultural traditions.Newby, Eric. A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush. 2008.
Kam Air (Pashto/Dari: کام ایر) is an airline headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khair Khāna (خير خانه) is a neighborhood in north west Kabul, Afghanistan, part of District 11.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Khost (خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, and the largest city of Loya Paktia.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The Kidarites (Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo) were a dynasty of the "Ki" clan named after their ruler Kidara.
The Kingdom of Kapisi was located in what is now Afghanistan.
Kote Sangi (کوته سنگی) is a neighborhood and major intersection in western Kabul, Afghanistan, part of District 5.
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan language: Κοζουλου Καδφιζου, also Κοζολα Καδαφες; Kharoṣṭhī: Kujula Kasasa; Ancient Chinese: 丘就卻, Qiujiuque; reigned 30–80 CE, or 40-90 CE according to BopearachchiOsmund Bopearachchi, 2007) was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kushano-Sassanids (also called Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid Persians who established their rule in Bactria and in northwestern Pakistan during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of national capitals ordered by elevation.
The only city in Afghanistan with over 1 million population is its capital, Kabul.
This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.
The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
List of Afghan Rulers in present-day Afghanistan with capital at Kabul.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Mahan Airlines, operating under the name Mahan Air (Havâpeymâye Mâhân) is a privately-owned Iranian airline based in Tehran, Iran.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Massoud Circle is a major roundabout in Kabul, Afghanistan, named after Ahmad Shah Massoud.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
On 31 May 2017, a truck bomb exploded in a crowded intersection in Kabul, Afghanistan, near the German embassy at about 08:25 local time (03:55 GMT) during rush hour, killing over 150 and injuring 413, mostly civilians, and damaging several buildings in the embassy.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/مزار شریف), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Mercedes-Benz has been making buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
Microdistrict, or microraion (микрорайо́н, мікрараён, мікрорайон, միկրոշրջան), is a residential complex—a primary structural element of the residential area construction in the Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet and former Communist states.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Milli Bus (Pashto/Persian: ملي بس, National Bus), also spelt Millie Bus, is a government-run bus service operating across Afghanistan.
The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) is an organ of the government of Afghanistan.
The Afghan Ministry of Education (د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت)is responsible for policy formulation, the organization and supervision of education in Afghanistan.
The Ministry of Interior Affairs (د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو وزارت) is headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is responsible for law enforcement in Afghanistan.
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg (1499 or 1500–1551) was a Chagatai Turko-Mogol military general, ruler of Kashmir, and a historical writer.
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
Mohammed Daoud Khan or Daud Khan (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and later the President of Afghanistan.
Muhammad Nadir Shah (محمد نادر شاه, محمد نادر شاه – born Muhammad Nadir Khan; 9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
MTN Group Limited, formerly M-Cell, is a South Africa-based multinational mobile telecommunications company, operating in many African, European and Asian countries.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Murad Khane (مراد خانی) is a district of the old city in Kabul, Afghanistan.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims were drawn eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Nancy Hatch Dupree (October 3, 1927 – September 10, 2017) was an American historian whose work primarily focused on the history of modern Afghanistan.
The National Archives of Afghanistan are located in Kabul and were established in 1890.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Museum of Afghanistan (Persian: موزیم ملی افغانستان, Mūzīyam-e mellī-ye Afghānestān; د افغانستان ملی موزیم, Də Afghānistān Millī Mūzīyəm), also known as the Kabul Museum, is a two-story building located 9 km southwest of the center of Kabul in Afghanistan.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazo Ana high schools are girls schools in Afghanistan.
New Kabul Bank is a bank in Afghanistan that has its main branch in the capital city of Kabul.
The Notable Names Database (NNDB) is an online database of biographical details of over 40,000 people of note.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
Nur Muhammad Taraki (15 July 1917 – 8 October 1979) was an Afghan statesman during the Cold War who served as President of Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
Located in Kabul, Afghanistan, the OMAR Mine Museum contains a collection of 51 types of land mines out of the 53 used in Afghanistan over the years.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains.
The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.
Paghman (Pashto/Persian: پغمان) is a town in the hills near Afghanistan's capital of Kabul.
Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan has long been accused by its neighbours India and Afghanistan, and western nations like the United StatesInternational Terrorism: Threats and Responses: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary By United States Congress House Committee on the Judiciary,, 1996, pp.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
Pamir Airways was a privately owned airline headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, operating scheduled passenger flights out of Kabul International Airport.
Pāṛachinār (پاڑه چنار; پاڑه چنار), formerly called Tutki, is the a city in Kurram Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Parwān (Persian/Pashto: پروان), also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan.
Pashayi or Pashai is a group of languages spoken by the Pashai people in parts of Kapisa, Laghman, Nuristan, Kunar, and Nangarhar Provinces in Northeastern Afghanistan.
Pashayi or Pashai (Persian: مردم پشهای) are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern Afghanistan.
Pashtany Bank is the firm controlled by the Afghan government that controls the Central Bank of Afghanistan, the Afghan national insurance company and Ariana Afghan Airlines.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, Hezb-e dimūkrātĩk-e khalq-e Afghānistān, د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātīk gund; abbreviated PDPA) was a political party established on 1 January 1965.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
On 26 April 1992, the Peshawar Accords were announced, proclaiming an Afghan interim government (Islamic State of Afghanistan) to start serving on 28 April 1992.
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) is a US-based not-for-profit human rights NGO that uses medicine and science to document and advocate against mass atrocities and severe human rights violations around the world.
The Karzai administration was the government of Afghanistan under President Hamid Karzai, who became the head of state of Afghanistan in December 2001 after the Taliban government was overthrown.
The Prime Minister of Afghanistan was a post in the Afghan government.
Private schools, also known to many as independent schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments.
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.
Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces (ولايت wilåyat).
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pul-e Khishti Mosque is the largest mosque in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Pul-e Khomri (Persian:پل خمری) is a city in northern Afghanistan.
Punjab National Bank (PNB) is an Indian multinational banking and financial services company.
Qargha (بند قرغه) is a dam and reservoir in Afghanistan near Kabul.
The Qarlughids, a tribe of Turkic and Hazaras origin, controlled Ghazni and the lands of the Bamyan and the Kurram Valley (Ghazna, Banban, and Kurraman), establishing a Muslim principality and dynasty lasting between 1224 and 1266.
Radio Kabul is the public radio station of Afghanistan.
The Rahman Baba High School (Pashto: د رحمان بابا عالي ليسه) is located in west Kabul, Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has three railroad lines in the north of the country.
A replica is an exact reproduction, such as of a painting, as it was executed by the original artist or a copy or reproduction, especially one on a scale smaller than the original.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Roshan (روشن) is a leading Afghan telecommunications provider, serving nearly 6.0 million active subscribers.
Rula Ghani (born Rula F. Saadah; Afghan name: Bibi Gul) is the current First Lady of Afghanistan and wife of the incumbent President of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
There are estimated to be 1,500 Russians living in Afghanistan.
The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
Dubai and Kabul-based Safi Airways Co. (صافي هوايي شرکت; خطوط هوایی صافی) is the first and largest privately owned airline from Afghanistan.
Safi Landmark Hotel is a hotel in Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Salang Pass (كتل سالنگ, el.) is nowadays the major mountain pass connecting northern Afghanistan with Parwan Province, with onward connections to Kabul Province, southern Afghanistan, and to the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia and the Middle East, which has had shifting meanings over the centuries.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Saur Revolution (إنقلاب ثور or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); د ثور انقلاب), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978.
The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque (the name translates to Mosque of the King of Two Swords) is a yellow two-story mosque in Kabul (District 2) on Andarabi Road, just off the Kabul River and the Shah-Do Shamshira bridge in the center of the city.
Shahr-e Naw (شهرنو), also spelled Share Naw, Share Now or Shari Naw, is a neighborhood in north-west Kabul, Afghanistan, mostly part of District 4.
Shahr-e Naw Park (پارک شهرنو) is an urban park in the Shahr-e Naw district of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sher Ali Khan (شير علي خان)(c. 1825 – February 21, 1879) was Amir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1866 and from 1868 until his death in 1879.
Shia Islam in Afghanistan is practiced by a minority of the population; estimates vary from 7% to 15% or 20%.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sikhism in Afghanistan is limited to small populations, primarily in major cities, with the largest numbers of Afghan Sikhs living in Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kabul, and to a lesser extent Kandahar.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Spetsnaz (p), abbreviation for Войска специа́льного назначе́ния, tr. Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya, (Special Purpose Forces or Special Purpose Military Units), is an umbrella term for special forces in Russian and is used in numerous post-Soviet states.
SpiceJet is a low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, India.
Standard Chartered PLC is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, England.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Tajbeg Palace or Tapa-e-Tajbeg (د تاج بېګ ماڼۍ; قصر تاج بيگ; Palace of the Large Crown), also known as Queen's Palace, is a palace built in the 1920s and located about 10 miles (16 km) south-west outside the centre of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
Area codes in Afghanistan are two digits long.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Canadian Press (CP; La Presse Canadienne) is a national news agency headquartered in Toronto, Canada.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The following is a timeline of the history of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
TNT N.V. was an international express, mail delivery and logistics services company with headquarters in Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.
The tomb of Timur Shah Durrani (Maqbara-i-Timur Shah) is located in Kabul.
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Kabul trolleybus system was a public transport service in Kabul, the capital and largest city of Afghanistan.
Turabaz Khan (1885–1981) جنرال طره بازخان,was a notable Afghan National Army (ANA) General.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Turks in Afghanistan are Turkish people who live in Afghanistan.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
Wazīr Akbar Khān (1816–1845; وزير اکبر خان), born Mohammad Akbar Khān (محمد اکبر خان) and also known as Amīr Akbar Khān (امير اکبر خان), was an Afghan prince, general, and finally emir for about three years until his death.
Wazir Akbar Khan (وزیر اکبر خان) is a neighbourhood in northern Kabul, Afghanistan, forming part of District 10.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae (Middle Persian: Xiyōn or Hiyōn; Avestan: Xiiaona; Sogdian xwn; Pahlavi Xyon) are Romanisations of the ethnonym of a nomadic people who were prominent in Transoxania, Bactria and Iran during the 4th and 7th centuries CE.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār (يعقوب بن الليث الصفار), or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī (یعقوب لیث صفاری), born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak (رادمان پور ماهک) (October 25, 840 – June 5, 879), a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan).
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zablon Simintov (born 1959) is an Afghan carpet trader and restaurateur who is believed to be the last remaining Jew living in Afghanistan.
Shah Zaman Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic), (c. 1770 – 1844) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800.
Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The 1973 Afghan coup d'etat took place on July 17, 1973 in Kabul, Afghanistan when forces led by then-army commander Lieutenant General Mohammed Daoud Khan and then-Chief of Staff General Abdul Karim Mustaghni overthrew the monarchy in a somewhat bloodless coup.
The 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes struck in northern Afghanistan during the month of March.
The 3 Hoot uprising (قیام 3 حوت, Qeyam-e 3 Hut) refers to a week of civil unrest in Kabul, Afghanistan that started on February 22, 1980, occurring two months after the Soviet intervention.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
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