103 relations: Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Affricate consonant, Afroasiatic languages, Agent noun, Algeria, Algerian Arabic, Algerian War, Algiers, Alveolar consonant, Aorist, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Argument, Assimil, Ḍ, Ṣ, Ṭ, Ẓ, Č, Back vowel, Bejaia Province, Berber Arabic alphabet, Berber languages, Berber Latin alphabet, Bilabial consonant, Black Spring (Algeria), Blida, Bordj Bou Arréridj, Bordj Bou Arréridj Province, Bouïra, Bouïra Province, Boumerdès, Boumerdès Province, Causative, Central Atlas Tamazight, Central vowel, Close vowel, Construct state, Ǧ, Deixis, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, English passive voice, Ethnologue, Ethnology, French orthography, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gamma, Gemination, ..., Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical particle, History of Algeria, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, Interrogative word, Jespersen's Cycle, Jijel, Jijel Province, Kabyle people, Kabylie, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Latin, Latin epsilon, Latin script, Loanword, Logo, Morocco, Mouloud Mammeri, Nasal consonant, Northern Berber languages, Noun, Noun phrase, Open vowel, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Preterite, Proto-Berber language, Province, Reflexive verb, Relative pronoun, Salem Chaker, Schwa, Semivowel, Stop consonant, Tifinagh, Tizi Ouzou, Tizi Ouzou Province, Trill consonant, Tuareg people, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb framing, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Zenaga language. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
In linguistics, an agent noun (in Latin, nomen agentis) is a word that is derived from another word denoting an action, and that identifies an entity that does that action.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Assimil (often styled as ASSiMiL) is a French company, founded by Alphonse Chérel in 1929.
Ḍ (minuscule: ḍ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from D with the addition of a dot diacritic.
Ṣ (minuscule: ṣ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from an S with the addition of a dot below the letter.
(minuscule: ṭ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from T with the addition of a dot below the letter.
Ẓ (minuscule: ẓ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of a dot below the letter.
The grapheme Čč (Latin C with caron, also known as háček in Czech and mäkčeň in Slovak) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar affricate consonant like the English ch in the word chocolate.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Bejaia province (ولاية بجاية), stylized Béjaïa in French, is a province of Algeria in the Kabylia region.
The Berber Arabic alphabet is an Arabic-based alphabet that was used to write various Berber languages in the Middle Ages.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Berber Latin alphabet (Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The Black Spring (Berber: Tafsut Taberkant) was a series of violent disturbances and political demonstrations by Kabyle activists in the Kabylie region of Algeria in 2001, which were met by repressive police measures and became a potent symbol of Kabyle discontent with the national government.
Blida (البليدة) is a city in Algeria.
Bordj Bou Arréridj (برج بوعريريج) population 140,000 (2005 estimate), is the capital city of Bordj Bou Arréridj Province, Algeria.
Bordj Bou Arréridj (ولاية برج بوعريريج) is a province (wilaya) in northern Algeria around 200 km from the capital Algiers.
Bouïra (Berber: Tubirett) is the capital of Bouïra Province, Algeria.
Bouïra (ولاية البويرة, Wilaya de Bouira) is a province (wilaya) in the Kabylie region (also known as Tazwawa) in Algeria.
Boumerdès (Arabic: بومرداس; Kabyle: Bumerdes; Bumardas or Bomardas; formerly Rocher Noir) is the capital city of Boumerdès Province, Algeria.
Boumerdès (ولاية بومرداس) is a province (wilaya) of northern Algeria in the Kabylie region, between Algiers and Tizi-Ouzou, with its capital at the coastal city of Boumerdès (formerly Rocher-Noir) just east of Algiers.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin status constructus).
Ǧ/ǧ (G with caron, Unicode code points U+01E6 and U+01E7) is a letter used in several Latin orthographies.
In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The passive voice is a grammatical "voice".
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Much of the history of Algeria has taken place on the fertile coastal plain of North Africa, which is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib).
Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (English: National Institute for Oriental Languages and Civilizations) is a French research institution teaching languages that span Central Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Oceania.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Jespersen's Cycle (JC) is a series of processes in historical linguistics, which describe the historical development of the expression of negation in a variety of languages, from a simple pre-verbal marker of negation, through a discontinuous marker (elements both before and after the verb) and in some cases through subsequent loss of the original pre-verbal marker.
Jijel (جيجل, or Djidjelli) is the capital of Jijel Province in north-eastern Algeria.
Jijel (ولاية جيجل,, Wilaya de Jijel) is a province (wilaya) in Algeria, part of the Kabylie region, on the eastern Mediterranean coast.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin epsilon or open e (majuscule: Ɛ, minuscule: ɛ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet, based on the lowercase of the Greek letter epsilon (ε).
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mouloud Mammeri was a Berber writer, anthropologist and linguist.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Northern Berber languages are a dialect continuum spoken across the Maghreb, constituting a subgroup of the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
Proto-Berber is the reconstructed proto-language from which the modern Berber languages stem.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
In grammar, a reflexive verb is, loosely, a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject, for example, "I wash myself".
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
Salem Chaker (born 1950 in Nevers) is an Algerian Berberologist.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Tizi Ouzou or Thizi Wezzu (Berber: Tizi Wezzu or Thizi Wezzu, ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⵡⴻⵣⵣⵓ, Algerian Arabic: ثيزي وزو) is a city in north central Algeria.
Tizi Ouzou (ولاية تيزي وزو, Wilaya de Tizi Ouzou) is a province (wilayah) of Algeria in the Kabylie region.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistics, verb-framing and satellite-framing are typological descriptions of a way that verb phrases in a language can describe the path of motion or the manner of motion, respectively.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Zenaga (autonym) is a moribund Berber language spoken from the town of Mederdra in southwestern Mauritania to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal.