197 relations: 'Amr ibn al-'As, Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, Abbasid Caliphate, Abraham Firkovich, Abraham Geiger, Abraham ibn Daud, Abraham ibn Ezra, Abu Hanifa, Abu Isa, Albany, New York, Alexander Jannaeus, Alexandria, Aliyah, Anan ben David, Antisemitism, Ashdod, Atheism, Babylon, Baghdad, Bar Kokhba revolt, Barley, Beersheba, Benjamin Nahawandi, Bernard Revel, Bible, Biblical criticism, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Blood curse, Boethusians, Book of Deuteronomy, Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Congregation B'nai Israel (Daly City, California), Constantinopolitan Karaites, Conversion to Judaism, Counting of the Omer, Crimea, Crucifixion of Jesus, Crusades, Cynthia Ozick, Daly City, California, Diaspora, Divine providence in Judaism, Egypt, Electricity on Shabbat, Elijah Bashyazi, Etrog, Exegesis, Exilarch, Ezekiel, Fluorescent lamp, ..., Four species, Gentile, Geonim, God, Hakham, Halakha, Hanafi, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew language, Hermetic Qabalah, Hexaplex trunculus, Hijri year, Hillel the Elder, Indigofera, Iraq, Isabel Kershner, Isatis tinctoria, Islam, Israel, Israelites, Istanbul, Jesus, Jewish Kalam, Jewish religious movements, Jews, Johann Christoph Wagenseil, John Gill (theologian), John Hyrcanus, Judah Halevi, Karaite Jewish University, Karaite Synagogue (Istanbul), Kashrut, Khagan, Khan (title), Khazars, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kohen, Kuzari, Land of Israel, Latin, Lavon Affair, LED lamp, Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon, Letter to the Falashas, Levite, List of Jewish prayers and blessings, List of Karaite Jews, List of Sephardi chief rabbis of the Land of Israel, Lithuania, Lulav, Madhhab, Maimonides, Mamzer, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Meir Rekhavi, Messiah, Mezuzah, Midrash, Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, Mishnah, Mitzvah, Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, Mollusca, Mordecai Sultansky, Moses, Moshe Marzouk, Names of God in Judaism, National Library of Russia, Nehemiah, Nevi'im, New moon, Nisan, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism, Ovadia Yosef, Passover, Patrilineality, PDF, Peshat, Pharisees, Philo, Polish census of 2002, Proselytization and counter-proselytization of Jews, Qajar dynasty, Quranism, Rabbinic Judaism, Ramla, Red heifer, Religious law, Religious text, Rosh Chodesh, Russia, Russian Empire, Saadia Gaon, Sadducees, Salo Wittmayer Baron, Samaritans, Sanhedrin, Second Temple, Second Temple period, Sefer Torah, Semitic root, Seraya Shapshal, Shabbat, Shabbat candles, Shammai, Sinai Peninsula, Sivan, Six-Day War, Sola scriptura, Soviet Union, Sukkah, Synagogue, Tabernacle, Tallit, Talmud, Tanakh, Taurida Governorate, Tefillin, Tekhelet, Temple in Jerusalem, Ten Commandments, Tetragrammaton, The Exodus, The Jerusalem Post, The New York Times, Theology, Tiberian vocalization, Tiberias, Tinok shenishba, Torah, Trakai, Transcaucasia, Tricity, Poland, Tsar, Turkey, Tzitzit, Ukraine, United States, Vilnius, Warsaw, Wilhelm Gesenius, Willow, Wrocław, Yitzhak Baer, Zadok. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
Aaron ben Moses ben Asher (Hebrew:; Tiberian Hebrew: ʾAhărôn ben Mōšeh benʾĀšēr; 10th century, died c.960) was a Jewish scribe who lived in Tiberias in northern Israel and refined the Tiberian system of writing vowel sounds in Hebrew, which is still in use today, and serves as the basis for grammatical analysis.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abraham (Avraham) ben Samuel Firkovich (Hebrew אברהם בן שמואל - Avraham ben Shmuel; Karayce: Аврагъам Фиркович - Avragham Firkovich) (1786–1874) was a famous Karaite writer and archeologist, collector of ancient manuscripts, and a Karaite Hakham.
Abraham Geiger (24 May 181023 October 1874) was a German rabbi and scholar, considered the founding father of Reform Judaism.
Abraham ibn Daud (אברהם אבן דאוד; ابراهيم بن داود) was a Spanish-Jewish astronomer, historian, and philosopher; born at Cordoba, Spain about 1110; died in Toledo, Spain, according to common report, a martyr about 1180.
Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abu 'Isa (also known as Ovadiah, Ishaq ibn Ya'qub al-Isfahani, Isaac ibn Jacob al-Isfahani) was a self-proclaimed Jewish prophet sometime in the 8th century AD in Persia and the leader of a short-lived revolt.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Anan Ben David (c. 715 - c. 795) (ענן בן דוד) is widely considered to be a major founder of the Karaite movement of Judaism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Ashdod (help; أَشْدُود or إِسْدُود) is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
Benjamin Nahawandi or Benjamin ben Moses Nahawandi (Nahāwandī, بنیامین نهاوندی; בנימין אלנהאונדי) was a prominent Persian Jewish scholar of Karaite Judaism.
Bernard (Dov) Revel (ברנרד רבל; September 17, 1885 – December 2, 1940) was an Orthodox rabbi and scholar.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
The blood curse refers to a New Testament passage from the Gospel of Matthew, which describes events taking place in Pilate's court before the crucifixion of Jesus and specifically the apparent willingness of the Jews to accept liability for Jesus' death.
The Boethusians were a Jewish sect closely related to, if not a development of, the Sadducees.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel (הרבנות הראשית לישראל, Ha-Rabanut Ha-Rashit Li-Yisra'el) is recognized by law as the supreme rabbinic and spiritual authority for Judaism in Israel.
Congregation B'nai Israel is the only Karaite synagogue in the United States.
The Constantinopolitan Karaites or Greco-Karaites are a Karaite community with a specific historical development and a distinct cultural, linguistic and literary heritage, while they share particular commonalities with the Romaniote Jews.
Conversion to Judaism (גיור, giyur) is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethnoreligious community.
Counting of the Omer (Sefirat HaOmer, sometimes abbreviated as Sefira or the Omer) is an important verbal counting of each of the forty-nine days between the Jewish holidays of Passover and Shavuot as stated in the Hebrew Bible:.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cynthia Shoshana Ozick (born April 17, 1928) is an American short story writer, novelist, and essayist.
Daly City is the largest city in San Mateo County, California, United States, with an estimated 2014 population of 106,094.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Divine providence (השגחה פרטית Hashgochoh Protis or Hashgaha Peratit, lit. divine supervision of the individual) is discussed throughout Rabbinic literature, by the classical Jewish philosophers, and by the tradition of Jewish mysticism.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Many Jews who strictly observe Shabbat (the Sabbath), especially within Orthodox Judaism, refrain from what is considered turning electricity on or off during Shabbat.
Elijah ben Moses Bashyazi of Adrianople or Elijah Bašyazi (in Hebrew, Eliyahu ben Moshe ben Menahem) (c. 1420 in Adrianople – 1490 in Adrianople) was a Karaite Jewish hakham of the fifteenth century.
Etrog (אֶתְרוֹג, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The Exilarch (ראש גלות Rosh Galut, ריש גלותא Reysh Galuta or Resh Galvata lit. "head of the exile", رأس الجالوت Raas al-Galut, Greek: Αἰχμαλωτάρχης Aechmalotarches lit. "leader of the captives") was the leader of the Diaspora Jewish community in Babylon following the deportation of King Jeconiah and his court into Babylonian exile after the first fall of Jerusalem in 597 BCE and augmented after the further deportations following the destruction of the kingdom of Judah in 587 BCE.
Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
The four species (ארבעת המינים, also called arba'a minim) are four plants mentioned in the Torah (Leviticus 23:40) as being relevant to the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Hakham (or chakam(i), haham(i), hacham(i); חכם, "wise") is a term in Judaism, meaning a wise or skillful man; it often refers to someone who is a great Torah scholar.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Hermetic Qabalah is a Western esoteric tradition involving mysticism and the occult.
Hexaplex trunculus (also known as Murex trunculus, Phyllonotus trunculus, or the banded dye-murex) is a medium-sized sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex shells or rock snails.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
Indigofera is a large genus of over 750 species of flowering plants belonging to the pea family Fabaceae.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isabel Kershner is a journalist and author who began reporting from Jerusalem for The New York Times in 2007.
Isatis tinctoria, also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Kalam was an early medieval style of Jewish philosophy that evolved in response to the Islamic Kalam, which in turn was a reaction against Aristotelian philosophy.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Christoph Wagenseil (November 26, 1633 - October 9, 1705) was a German Christian Hebraist.
John Gill (23 November 1697 – 14 October 1771) was an English Baptist pastor, biblical scholar, and theologian who held to a firm Calvinistic soteriology.
John Hyrcanus (Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE).
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
The Karaite Jewish University is a non-profit corporation incorporated in California, U.S.A., in November 2005 for the purposes of disseminating the study of Karaite Judaism.
The Karaite Synagogue (Hebrew: Kal Ha Kadosh Be Kushta Bene Mikra or in Karahim Sinagogu, Karaim Sinagogu, Karayim Sinagogu) is a Kenesa in the Hasköy district of Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
The Kuzari, full title The Book of Refutation and Proof in Support of the Abased Religion (كتاب الحجة والدليل في نصرة الدين الذليل), also known as the Book of the Kuzari, (ספר הכוזרי) is one of the most famous works of the medieval Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet Judah Halevi, completed around 1140.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Lavon affair refers to a failed Israeli covert operation, code named Operation Susannah, conducted in Egypt in the Summer of 1954.
A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).
The Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon (c. 1100) was a communication written by six elders of the Karaite Jewish community of Ascalon and sent to their coreligionists in Alexandria nine months after the fall of Jerusalem during the First Crusade.
This is the letter written in 1905 by the Karaite Jews of Saint Petersburg under Samuel ben Moses Shapshal to the Falashas.
A Levite or Levi is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi.
Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews.
People associated with Karaite Judaism include.
This list of Sephardi chief rabbis of the Land of Israel documents the rabbis who served as the spiritual leader of the Sephardic community in the Land of Israel from the mid 17th-century to present.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lulav (לולב) is a closed frond of the date palm tree.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
A mamzer (ממזר) is a person born from certain forbidden relationships, or the descendant of such a person, in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish religious law.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Meir Yosef Rekhavi (born 1962) is a British Karaite Hakham and author.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
A mezuzah (מְזוּזָה "doorpost"; plural: mezuzot) comprises a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah (and). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the (is) our God, the is One".
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov (Михаи́л Семёнович Воронцо́в; &ndash) was a Russian prince and field-marshal, renowned for his success in the Napoleonic wars and most famous for his participation in the Caucasian War from 1844 to 1853.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mordecai Sultansky (מרדכי סולטנסקי) was a Crimean Karaite hakham of the nineteenth century.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moshe Marzouk (משה מרזוק; or Musa Lieto Marzuk, موسى ليتو مرزوق; born 20 December 1926 – 31 January 1955) was an Egyptian Karaite Jew, hanged in 1955 for his involvement in a series of bombings in Cairo codenamed Operation Suzannah.
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (known as the Imperial Public Library from 1795 to 1917; Russian Public Library from 1917 to 1925; State Public Library from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after M.Saltykov-Shchedrin); NLR), is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but also the first national library in the country.
Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Ovadia Yosef (עובדיה יוסף Ovadya Yosef,; September 24, 1920 – October 7, 2013) was an Iraqi-born Talmudic scholar, a posek, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983, and the founder and long-time spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-Orthodox Shas party.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peshat (also P'shat) is one of four classical methods of Jewish biblical exegesis used by rabbis and Jewish bible scholars in reading the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Polish census of 2002 (Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2002) was a census in Poland taken from 21 May to 8 June 2002.
A number of religious groups, particularly Christians and Muslims, are involved in proselytization of Jews, attempts to recruit, or "missionize" Jews.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
The red heifer (פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה; para adumma), also known as the red cow, was a cow brought to the priests as a sacrifice according to the Hebrew Bible, and its ashes were used for the ritual purification of Tum'at HaMet ("the impurity of the dead"), that is, an Israelite who had come into contact with a corpse.
Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Rosh Chodesh or Rosh Hodesh (ראש חודש; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Salo Wittmayer Baron (May 26, 1895 – November 25, 1989) was a Polish-born American historian, described as "the greatest Jewish historian of the 20th century".
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Seraya Shapshal or His Excellency Hajji Seraya Khan Shapshal (Karaim: Серая Бен Мордехай Шапшал; Seraja Šapšalas; Seraj Szapszał; Серге́й Маркович Шапшал) (1873–1961) was a hakham and leader of the Crimean and then the Polish and Lithuanian Crimean Karaites (Karaim) community.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shabbat candles (נרות שבת) are candles lit on Friday evening before sunset to usher in the Jewish Sabbath.
Shammai (50 BCE – 30 CE, שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Sivan (Hebrew: סִיוָן, Standard Sivan Tiberian Sîwān; from Akkadian simānu, meaning "Season; time") is the ninth month of the civil year and the third month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Sola Scriptura (Latin: by scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A or succah (סוכה; plural, סוכות or sukkos or sukkoth, often translated as "booth") is a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Tabernacle (מִשְׁכַּן, mishkan, "residence" or "dwelling place"), according to the Tanakh, was the portable earthly dwelling place of God amongst the children of Israel from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan.
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Taurida Governorate (Таврическая губернія, modern spelling Таврическая губерния, Tavricheskaya guberniya; Таврiйська губернія, Tavrijśka gubernija; Tavrida guberniyası, Таврида губерниясы) or the Government of Taurida was an historical governorate of the Russian Empire.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
Tekhelet (Hebrew: təḵêleṯ, "blue-violet", or "blue", or "turquoise" (alternate spellings include tekheleth, t'chelet, techelet and techeiles) is a blue dye highly prized by ancient Mediterranean civilizations and mentioned 49 times in the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh. It was used in the clothing of the High Priest, the tapestries in the Tabernacle, and the tassels (Hebrew: ציצית, Tzitzit (or Ṣiṣiyot), pl. Tzitziyot or Ṣiṣiyot) affixed to the corners of one's four-cornered garment, such as the Tallit (garment worn during prayer, usually). In the Septuagint, tekhelet was translated into Greek as hyakinthos ("hyacinth"). The color of the hyacinth flower ranges from violet blue to a bluish purple. According to the Talmud, the dye of Tekhelet was produced from a marine creature known as the Ḥillazon (also spelled Chilazon). According to the Tosefta (Men. 9:6), the Ḥillazon is the exclusive source of the dye. After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans, the sole use of the Tekhelet dye was in Tzitzit. A set of Tzitzit consists of four tassels, some of their strands being Tekhelet, which Rashi describes as green as “poireau,” the French word for leek, transliterated into Hebrew. There are three opinions in Rabbinic literature as to how many are to be blue: 2 strings; 1 string; 1 half string. These strands are then threaded and hang down, appearing to be eight. The four strands are passed through a hole 25 to 50 mm away from the corners of the four-cornered cloth. Tekhelet is mentioned in the third paragraph of the daily prayers known as the Sh'ma Yisrael (Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל; "Hear, Israel"), citing Bemidbar – Parashat Shelakh (Book of Numbers 15:37–41).
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Tinok shenishba (Hebrew: תינוק שנשבה, literally, "captured infant") is a talmudical term that refers to a Jewish individual who sins inadvertently as a result of having been raised without an appreciation for the thought and practices of Judaism.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Trakai (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort in Lithuania.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Tricity, or Tri-City (Trójmiasto, Trzëgard) is a metropolitan area in Poland consisting of three cities in Pomerania: Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, as well as minor towns in their vicinity.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tzitzit (plural tsitsiyot) are specially knotted ritual fringes, or tassels, worn in antiquity by Israelites and today by observant Jews and Samaritans.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yitzhak Baer (יצחק בער; 20 December 1888 – 22 January 1980) was German-Israeli historian and an expert in medieval Spanish Jewish history.
Zadok (or 'Zadok HaKohen, also spelled 'Sadok, Zadoq or Tzadok צדוק הכהן), meaning "Righteous" "Justified", was a Kohen (priest), biblically recorded to be a descendant from Eleazar the son of Aaron (1 Chron 6:4-8).
Bene Mikra, Caraism, Caraite, Caraites, Carite, Crimean Karaite Judaism, Jewish Karaites, Jewish Protestantism, Karaimism, Karaism, Karaite (Jewish sect), Karaite Jew, Karaite Jewish, Karaite Jews, Karaite Karaism, Karaite judaism, Karaite tzitzit, Karaitic, Karaym, Qaraism, Qaraite Judaism.