403 relations: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Abolitionism, Absolute monarchy, Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Alfred Schmidt (philosopher), Alfredo Saad-Filho, American Civil War, Analytical Marxism, Angelo Segrillo, Anton Philips, Antonio Gramsci, Anus, Apocrine, Aristotle, Arnold Ruge, Art history, Atheism, August Bebel, August Willich, Auguste Comte, Augustin Thierry, Émile Durkheim, Étienne Balibar, Bad Kreuznach, Baden Revolution, Baptism, Baron d'Holbach, Baruch Spinoza, Base and superstructure, Belgium, Ben Fine, Bonn, Bourgeoisie, British Museum, Bronchitis, Bruno Bauer, Business cycle, Café de la Régence, Capital (economics), Capital accumulation, Capital, Volume I, Capital, Volume II, Capital, Volume III, Capitalism, Carl Schorlemmer, Catarrh, Censorship, Charles Anderson Dana, Charles Babbage, ..., Charles Darwin, Charles Fourier, Charles Longuet, Chartism, Child labour, Cholera, Chris Hedges, Class conflict, Class consciousness, Classical liberalism, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Cockatoo, Colin Wilson, Collectivist anarchism, Cologne, Commodity fetishism, Communism, Communist League, Communist Party of Great Britain, Communist society, Confederate States of America, Conflict theories, Constantin Pecqueur, Continental philosophy, Crimean War, Crisis theory, Criticisms of Marxism, Critique, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Critique of the Gotha Program, Das Kapital, David Harvey, David McLellan (political scientist), David Ricardo, Denis Diderot, Depression (economics), Dermatology, Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher, Dialectic, Dialectical materialism, Dictatorship of the proletariat, E. P. Thompson, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Economic determinism, Economic inequality, Economic system, Economist, Eleanor Marx, Emancipation, Emperor of China, Empowerment, England, Epicurus, Eric Hobsbawm, Eric Mosbacher, Ernest Mandel, Euronews, European Commission, False consciousness, Ferdinand Lassalle, Fernando Vianello, Feudalism, Fidel Castro, For Marx, Fourierism, François Guizot, Francis Wheen, Franz Mehring, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Free association (Marxism and anarchism), French Left, French Revolution of 1848, French Second Republic, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, Frits Philips, From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Eliot, George Ripley (transcendentalist), Gerald Cohen, Gerard Philips, Giambattista Vico, Gothic fiction, Government of China, Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, Great Windmill Street, Grundrisse, Gymnasium (school), Hair follicle, Hal Draper, Harry Cleaver, Heinrich Heine, Heinrich Marx, Helene Demuth, Henri de Saint-Simon, Henriette Pressburg, Hidradenitis suppurativa, Highgate Cemetery, Historian, Historical materialism, History of economic thought, History of the world, Horace Greeley, Human nature, Human penis, Humanism, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hypogastrium, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, International Institute of Social History, International Socialism (magazine), International Workingmen's Association, Irish independence, Isaiah Berlin, István Mészáros (professor), Jacques Attali, James Mill, Jason Barker, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jean Longuet, Jean-Claude Juncker, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jenny Longuet, Jenny von Westphalen, Jewish emancipation, Jews, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Bellamy Foster, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph Weydemeyer, Josip Broz Tito, Journalist, Judaism, Justice, Justus von Liebig, Karl Heinzen, Karl Löwith, Karl Marx House, Karl Marx in film, Karl Marx Monument, Karl Schapper, Karl Theodor Ferdinand Grün, Khoikhoi, Kingdom of Prussia, Kostas Axelos, Kozo Uno, Kwame Nkrumah, Labor theory of value, Labour economics, Labour power, Landed property, Laura Marx, Laurence Bradshaw, Law, League of the Just, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Leninism, Leszek Kołakowski, Libertarian Marxism, Liberty Fund, Logical consequence, London, Louis Althusser, Louise Juta, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig von Westphalen, Lycurgus of Sparta, Machine, Manuel Alvarado, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Marx Memorial Library, Marx Reloaded, Marx Returns, Marx's method, Marx's theory of alienation, Marx's theory of human nature, Marx/Engels Collected Works, Marxian class theory, Marxian economics, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Marxist sociology, Marxists Internet Archive, Mary Burns, Materialism, Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx, Max Stirner, Max Weber, Maximilien Robespierre, Maximilien Rubel, Means of production, Metaphysics, Michał Kalecki, Michel Henry, Mikhail Bakunin, Mode of production, Moishe Postone, Montesquieu, Monthly Review, Morality, Moselle wine, Moses Hess, Murray Rothbard, Necromancy, Nelson Mandela, Neue Rheinische Zeitung, New-York Tribune, Newcastle University, Nicholas I of Russia, Notes on James Mill, Object (philosophy), Obshchina, On the Jewish Question, Ottoman Empire, Oulanem, Pamphlet, Pan-Slavism, Panic of 1857, Paris Commune, Paul Craig Roberts, Paul Lafargue, Paul Strathern, Penguin Books, Philips, Philosopher, Philosophy of history, Piero Sraffa, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Pleurisy, Plutarch, Poles, Political economy, Political philosophy, Political radicalism, Porta Nigra, Positivism, Pre-Marx socialists, Productivity, Proletariat, Prussia, Prussian Union of Churches, Psychosocial, Rabbi, Ralph Raico, Rationality, Ray Lankester, Reading Capital, Relations of production, Representative democracy, Retrospective diagnosis, Revolution, Revolutionary socialism, Revolutions of 1848, Rheinische Zeitung, Rhineland, Robert Owen, Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Rolling Stone, Rosa Luxemburg, Royal Society, Royal Society of Arts, Rue Vaneau, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Salvador Allende, Søren Kierkegaard, Scientific method, Scientific Revolution, Scorpion and Felix, Scrotum, Secularization, Sex organ, Shlomo Avineri, Sigmund Freud, Slavery, Slavs, Social change, Social science, Social system, Socialist mode of production, Sociocultural evolution, Sociological theory, Sociology, Soho, Solidarity, Soviet Union, State socialism, Statelessness, Stephen Jay Gould, Structural Marxism, Subject (philosophy), Surplus labour, Surplus value, Technical progress (economics), Telegraphy, Terry Eagleton, The Civil War in France, The Civil War in the United States, The Class Struggles in France 1848–1850, The Communist Manifesto, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, The German Ideology, The Hindu, The Holy Family (book), The Observer, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law, The Poverty of Philosophy, The Times, The Young Karl Marx, Theories of Surplus Value, Theses on Feuerbach, Thomas Hodgskin, Thomas Sankara, Time (magazine), Timeline of Karl Marx, To the Finland Station, Tomb of Karl Marx, Trier, Trotskyism, Truthdig, Union (American Civil War), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Bonn, University of Chicago, University of Jena, Utopia, Utopian socialism, Value, Price and Profit, Vampire, Vera Zasulich, Vince Barnett, Vladimir Lenin, Voltaire, Vorwärts!, Wage Labour and Capital, Western philosophy, Wilhelm Liebknecht, William Shakespeare, Workers of the world, unite!, Wu Weishan, Xi Jinping, Yiddish, Young Hegelians, Young Marx, Zeno.org, 19th-century philosophy. 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A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx, first published in 1859.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alfred Schmidt (born 19 May 1931, Berlin – 28 August 2012, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher.
Alfredo Saad-Filho is a Marxian economist.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Analytical Marxism is an approach to Marxist theory that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s.
Angelo de Oliveira Segrillo (born October 4, 1958) is a Brazilian historian specialized in Russia and in comparative studies of Russia, the West and Brazil.
Anton Frederik Philips (14 March 1874 – 7 October 1951) co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 – 31 December 1880) was a German philosopher and political writer.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.
August Willich (November 19, 1810 – January 22, 1878), born Johann August Ernst von Willich, was a military officer in the Prussian Army and a leading early proponent of communism in Germany.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
Augustin Thierry (or Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry; 10 May 1795 – 22 May 1856) was a French historian.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Étienne Balibar (born 23 April 1942) is a French philosopher.
Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Baden Revolution (Badische Revolution) of 1848/1849 was a regional uprising in the Grand Duchy of Baden which was part of the revolutionary unrest that gripped almost all of Central Europe at that time.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Ben Fine (born 1948) is Professor of Economics at the University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Bruno Bauer (6 September 180913 April 1882) was a German philosopher and historian.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
The Café de la Régence in Paris was an important European centre of chess in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.
Capital, Volume II: The Process of Circulation of Capital is the second of three volumes of Capital: Critique of Political Economy.
Capital, Volume III, subtitled The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole, is the third volume of Capital: Critique of Political Economy.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl Schorlemmer FRS (30 September 1834 – 27 June 1892) was a German chemist who did research on hydrocarbons and contributed to the study of the history of chemistry.
Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Anderson Dana (August 8, 1819 – October 17, 1897) was an American journalist, author, and senior government official.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.
Charles Longuet (14 February 1839, Caen, Calvados – 5 August 1903, Paris) was a journalist and prominent figure in the French working-class movement, including the 1871 Paris Commune, as well as a Proudhonist member of the General Council of the First International or International Working Men's Association (1866–67, 1871–72).
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christopher Lynn Hedges (born September 18, 1956) is an American journalist, Presbyterian minister, and visiting Princeton University lecturer.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.
A cockatoo is a parrot that is any of the 21 species belonging to the bird family Cacatuidae, the only family in the superfamily Cacatuoidea.
Colin Henry Wilson (26 June 1931 – 5 December 2013) was an English writer, philosopher and novelist.
Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy, commodity fetishism is the perception of the social relationships involved in production, not as relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and commodities exchanged in market trade.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist League (German: Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established on June 1, 1847 in London, England.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform.
Constantin Pecqueur (26 October 1801 – 17 December 1887) was a French economist, socialist theoretician and politician.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Crisis theory, concerning the causes and consequences of the tendency for the rate of profit to fall in a capitalist system, is now generally associated with Marxian economics.
Criticisms of Marxism have come from various political ideologies and academic disciplines.
Critique is a method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse.
Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right (Zur Kritik der Hegelschen Rechtsphilosophie) is a manuscript written by German political philosopher Karl Marx in 1843 in Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher.
The Critique of the Gotha Program (Kritik des Gothaer Programms) is a document based on a letter by Karl Marx written in early May 1875 to the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP), with whom Marx and Friedrich Engels were in close association.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David W. Harvey (born 31 October 1935) is the Distinguished Professor of anthropology and geography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY).
David McLellan (born 1940) is a British scholar of Karl Marx and Marxism.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
The Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher (German–French Annals) was a journal published in Paris by Karl Marx and Arnold Ruge.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (also referred to as The Paris Manuscripts) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx.
Economic determinism is a socioeconomic theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist, or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx (16 January 1855 – 31 March 1898), sometimes called Eleanor Aveling and known to her family as Tussy, was the English-born youngest daughter of Karl Marx.
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.
Eric Mosbacher (22 December 1903 – 2 July 1998) was an English journalist and translator from Italian, French, German and Spanish.
Ernest Ezra Mandel (also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter; 5 April 1923 – 20 July 1995), was a Marxist economist and a Trotskyist activist and theorist.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.
Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864), born as Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb Lassal and also known as Ferdinand Lassalle-Wolfson, was a German-Jewish jurist, philosopher, socialist, and political activist.
Fernando Vianello (August 17, 1939 – August 10, 2009) was an Italian economist and academic.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
For Marx (Pour Marx) is a 1965 book by Louis Althusser, a leading theoretician of the French Communist Party.
Fourierism is the systematic set of economic, political, and social beliefs first espoused by French intellectual Charles Fourier (1772–1837).
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (4 October 1787 – 12 September 1874) was a French historian, orator, and statesman.
Francis James Baird Wheen (born 22 January 1957) is a British journalist, writer and broadcaster.
Franz Erdmann Mehring (27 February 1846 – 28 January 1919), was a German Communist and a Revolutionary Socialist Politician who was a senior member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany during the German Revolution in 1918–19.
Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
Free association (also called "free association of producers" or, as Marx often called it, a "community of freely associated individuals") is a relationship among individuals where there is no state, social class, authority, or private ownership of means of production.
The Left in France (gauche française) was represented at the beginning of the 20th century by two main political parties: the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Frederik Jacques "Frits" Philips (16 April 1905 – 5 December 2005) was the fourth chairman of the board of directors of the Dutch electronics company Philips, which his uncle and father founded.
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
George Ripley (October 3, 1802 – July 4, 1880) was an American social reformer, Unitarian minister, and journalist associated with Transcendentalism.
Gerald Allan "Jerry" Cohen, FBA (14 April 1941 – 5 August 2009) was a Marxist political philosopher who held the positions of Quain Professor of Jurisprudence, University College London and Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, All Souls College, Oxford.
Gerard Leonard Frederik Philips (9 October 1858 – 26 January 1942) was a Dutch industrialist and co-founder, with his father Frederik Philips, of Philips as a family business in 1891.
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.
The Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine (Großherzogtum Niederrhein), or simply known as the Lower Rhine Province (Provinz Niederrhein), was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and existed from 1815 to 1822.
Great Windmill Street is a thoroughfare running north-south in Soho, London.
The Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Hal Draper (born Harold Dubinsky; September 19, 1914 – January 26, 1990) was an American socialist activist and author who played a significant role in the Berkeley, California Free Speech Movement.
Harry Cleaver Jr. (21 January 1944) is an American scholar, Marxist theoretician, and professor emeritus at the University of Texas at Austin.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.
Heinrich Marx (15 April 1777, Saarlouis – 10 May 1838, Trier) was a lawyer and the father of the socialist philosopher Karl Marx.
Helene "Lenchen" Demuth (31 December 1820 - 4 November 1890) was the housekeeper of Jenny and Karl Marx, later serving as the household manager and political confidante of Friedrich Engels.
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.
Henriette Pressburg (20 September 1788 – 30 November 1863) later on marriage, Henriette Marx, was the mother of the socialist philosopher and economist Karl Marx.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a long term skin disease characterized by the occurrence of inflamed and swollen lumps.
Highgate Cemetery is a place of burial in north London, England.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author, statesman, founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
In anatomy, the hypogastrium (also called the hypogastric region or suprapubic region) is a region of the abdomen located below the umbilical region.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The International Institute of Social History (IISG) is one of the largest archives for labour, left and social history in the world.
International Socialism is a British-based quarterly journal established in 1960 and published in London by the Socialist Workers Party which discusses socialist theory.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
Irish independence may refer to.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
István Mészáros (19 December 1930 – 1 October 2017) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Sussex.
Jacques Attali (born 1 November 1943) is a French economic and social theorist, writer, political adviser and senior civil servant, who served as a counselor to President François Mitterrand from 1981 to 1991 and was the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 1991-1993.
James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.
Jason Barker is a British theorist of contemporary French philosophy, a film director, screenwriter and producer.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jean-Laurent-Frederick Longuet (1876–1938) was a French socialist and Karl Marx's grandson.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jenny Caroline "Jennychen" Marx Longuet (1 May 1844 – 11 January 1883) was the eldest daughter of Jenny von Westphalen Marx and Karl Marx.
Freiin Johanna Bertha Julie Jenny von Westphalen (12 February 1814 – 2 December 1881) was the wife of the philosopher Karl Marx.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Bellamy Foster (born August 15, 1953) is a professor of sociology at the University of Oregon and also editor of Monthly Review.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Joseph Arnold Weydemeyer (February 2, 1818, Münster – August 26, 1866, St. Louis, Missouri) was a military officer in the Kingdom of Prussia and the United States as well as a journalist, politician and Marxist revolutionary.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Karl Peter Heinzen (22 February 1809 – 12 November 1880) was a revolutionary author who resided mainly in Germany and the United States.
Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 – 26 May 1973) was a German philosopher, a student of Husserl and Heidegger.
The Karl Marx House museum (Karl-Marx-Haus) is a writer's house museum in Trier (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany).
Karl Marx and his ideas have been represented in film in genres ranging from documentary to fictional drama, art house and comedy.
The Karl Marx Monument (Karl-Marx-Monument) is a 7.10m-tall stylized head of Karl Marx in Chemnitz, Germany.
Karl Schapper (December 30, 1812 in Weinbach – April 28, 1870, London) was a German socialist and labour leader.
Karl Theodor Ferdinand Grün (30 September 1817 – 18 February 1887), also known by his alias Ernst von der Haide, was a German journalist, political theorist and socialist politician.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kostas Axelos (also spelled Costas Axelos; Κώστας Αξελός; June 26, 1924 – February 4, 2010) was a Greek-French philosopher.
was a Japanese economist and is considered one of the most important theorists on the field of Marx's theory of value.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.
In real estate, a landed property or landed estate is a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to do the actual work of the estate.
Jenny Laura Marx (26 September 1845 – 25 November 1911), better known as Laura Marx, was the second daughter of Karl Marx and Jenny von Westphalen.
Laurence Bradshaw (1899–1978) was an English sculptor, printmaker, and artist.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The League of Outlaws was an international revolutionary fellowship organization of German emigrant artisans from 1834–1838, from which the Christian communist League of the Just or League of Justice branched off in 1836.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (LPR; Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion, VPR) outlines his ideas on Christianity as a form of self-consciousness.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leszek Kołakowski (23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.
Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louise Juta, born Louise (or Luise) Marx (14 November 1821 - 3 July 1893) was a bookseller and the sister of Karl Marx.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Freiherr Johann Ludwig von Westphalen (11 July 1770 – 3 March 1842) was a liberal government official, Prussian aristocrat with Scottish heritage, and a friend, mentor, and father-in-law of Karl Marx.
Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos,; 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Manuel Bernardo Alvarado Green (15 March 1948 – 30 April 2010) was a Guatemalan-born British academic, who specialized in media studies.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
The Marx Memorial Library in London holds more than 43,000 books, pamphlets and newspapers on Marxism, Scientific Socialism and Working class history.
Marx Reloaded is a 2011 German documentary film written and directed by the British writer and theorist Jason Barker.
Marx Returns is the debut novel by the British writer and filmmaker Jason Barker.
Various Marxist authors have focused on Marx's method of analysis and presentation (historical materialist and logically dialectical) as key factors both in understanding the range and incisiveness of Karl Marx's theoretical writing in general and Das Kapital in particular.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
Some Marxists posit what they deem to be Karl Marx's theory of human nature, which they accord an important place in his critique of capitalism, his conception of communism, and his 'materialist conception of history'.
Marx/Engels Collected Works (usually known as MECW) is the largest collection of translations into English of the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In Marxism, Marxian class theory asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxist sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Mary Burns (29 September 1821 – 7 January 1863)Whitfield, Roy (1988) Friedrich Engels in Manchester, Working Class Movement Library, was a working-class Irish woman, best known as the lifelong partner of Friedrich Engels.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
The Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx consist mostly of Karl Marx's attempts to understand the foundations of infinitesimal calculus, from around 1873–1883.
Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
Maximilien Rubel (10 October 1905 in Chernivtsi – 28 February 1996 in Paris) was a famous Marxist historian and council communist.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michał Kalecki (22 June 1899 – 18 April 1970) was a Polish economist.
Michel Henry (10 January 1922 – 3 July 2002) was a French philosopher, phenomenologist and novelist.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of.
Moishe Postone (17 April 1942 – 19 March 2018) was a Canadian Western Marxist historian, philosopher and political economist.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Moselle wine is produced in three countries along the Moselle river: France, Luxembourg (the Musel) and Germany (the Mosel).
Moses (Moshe) Hess (January or June 21, 1812 – April 6, 1875) was a French-Jewish philosopher and a founder of Labor Zionism.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
Necromancy is a practice of magic involving communication with the deceased – either by summoning their spirit as an apparition or raising them bodily – for the purpose of divination, imparting the means to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge, to bring someone back from the dead, or to use the deceased as a weapon, as the term may sometimes be used in a more general sense to refer to black magic or witchcraft.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was a German daily newspaper, published by Karl Marx in Cologne between 1 June 1848 and 19 May 1849.
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley (1811–1872).
Newcastle University (officially, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
"Notes on James Mill" is a text written by Karl Marx in 1844, originally part of the so-called "Paris Notebooks".
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
Obshchina (p, literally: "commune") or Mir (мир, literally: "society" (one of the meanings)) or Selskoye obshestvo (Cельское общество, "Rural community", official term in the 19th and 20th century) were peasant village communities, as opposed to individual farmsteads, or khutors, in Imperial Russia.
"On the Jewish Question" is a work by Karl Marx, written in 1843, and first published in Paris in 1844 under the German title "Zur Judenfrage" in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher. It was one of Marx's first attempts to develop what would later be called the materialist conception of history.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oulanem is a drama or poetic play written by Karl Marx in 1839 during his years as a student.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Paul Craig Roberts (born April 3, 1939) is an American economist, journalist, blogger, and former civil servant.
Paul Lafargue (15 January 1842 – 25 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura.
Paul Strathern (born 1940) is a British writer and academic.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Piero Sraffa (5 August 1898 – 3 September 1983) was an influential Italian economist, who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
The Porta Nigra (Latin for black gate) is a large Roman city gate in Trier, Germany.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
While Marxism had a significant impact on socialist thought, pre-Marxist thinkers (before Karl Marx wrote on the subject) have advocated socialism in forms both similar and in stark contrast to Marx and Engels' conception of socialism, advocating some form of collective ownership over large-scale production, worker-management within the workplace, or in some cases, a form of planned economy.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Ralph Raico (October 23, 1936 – December 13, 2016) was an American libertarian historian of European liberalism and a professor of history at Buffalo State College.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Sir Edwin Ray Lankester (15 May 1847 – 13 August 1929) was a British zoologist.
Reading Capital (Lire le Capital) is a 1965 work of Marxist philosophy by Louis Althusser, Étienne Balibar, Roger Establet, Jacques Rancière, and Pierre Macherey.
Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A retrospective diagnosis (also retrodiagnosis or posthumous diagnosis) is the practice of identifying an illness after the death of the patient (sometimes in a historical figure) using modern knowledge, methods and disease classifications.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Rheinische Zeitung ("Rhenish Newspaper") was a 19th-century German newspaper, edited most famously by Karl Marx.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.
Roberto Mangabeira Unger (born 24 March 1947) is a philosopher and politician.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.
Rue Vaneau is a street in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Scorpion and Felix, A Humoristic Novel (Skorpion und Felix, Humoristischer Roman) is the only comedic fictional story to have been written by Karl Marx.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Shlomo Avineri (Hebrew: שלמה אבינרי) (born 1933 in Bielsko, then an ethnic German town, Poland) is an Israeli political scientist.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.
Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Structural Marxism was an approach to Marxist philosophy based on structuralism, primarily associated with the work of the French philosopher Louis Althusser and his students.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Surplus labour (German: Mehrarbeit) is a concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.
Technical progress (or technological progress) is an economic measure of innovation.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Terence Francis "Terry" Eagleton FBA (born 22 February 1943) is a British literary theorist, critic and public intellectual.
"The Civil War in France" (German: "Der Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich") was a pamphlet written by Karl Marx, as an official statement of the General Council of the International on the character and significance of the struggle of the Communards in the Paris Commune.
The Civil War in the United States is a collection of articles on the American Civil War by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels for the New York Tribune and Die Presse of Vienna between 1861 and 1862, and correspondence between Marx and Engels between 1860 and 1866.
The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850 was a set of articles written by Karl Marx for the newspaper Neue Rheinische Zeitung in 1850.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England.
The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature (Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie) is a book written by the German philosopher Karl Marx as his university thesis.
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon) is an essay written by Karl Marx between December 1851 and March 1852, and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution, a German monthly magazine published in New York City and established by Joseph Weydemeyer.
The German Ideology (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Holy Family (Die heilige Familie) is a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in November 1844.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State: in the Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats) is an 1884 historical materialist treatise by Friedrich Engels.
"The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law" (German: "Philosophische Manifest der historischen Rechtsschule") is a manuscript written by German political philosopher Karl Marx in 1842.
The Poverty of Philosophy (French: Misère de la philosophie) is a book by Karl Marx published in Paris and Brussels in 1847, where he lived in exile from 1843 until 1849.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Young Karl Marx (Le jeune Karl Marx) is a 2017 Biography, Drama, History film about Karl Marx directed by Haitian filmmaker and political activist Raoul Peck, co-written by Peck and Pascal Bonitzer, and starring August Diehl.
Theories of Surplus Value (Theorien über den Mehrwert) is a draft manuscript written by Karl Marx between January 1862 and July 1863.
The "Theses on Feuerbach" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845.
Thomas Hodgskin (born 12 December 1787, Chatham, Kent; d. 21 August 1869, Feltham, Middlesex) was an English socialist writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of free trade and early trade unions.
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (21 December 1949 – 15 October 1987) was a Burkinabé pro-people revolutionary, Marxist, pan-Africanist and President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.
To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History (1940) is a book by American critic and historian Edmund Wilson.
The Tomb of Karl Marx stands in the Eastern cemetery of Highgate Cemetery, north London, England.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Truthdig is a news website that provides a mix of long-form articles, blog items, curated links, interviews, arts criticism and commentary on current events delivered from a politically progressive, left-leaning point of view.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
"Value, Price and Profit" (German: "Lohn, Preis und Profit") was a speech given to the First International Working Men's Association in June in 1865 by Karl Marx.
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.
Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич; – 8 May 1919) was a Russian Menshevik writer and revolutionary.
Vince Barnett (July 4, 1902 – August 10, 1977) was an American film actor.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Vorwärts! (Forward!) was a biweekly newspaper published in Paris from January to December 1844.
"Wage Labour and Capital" (German: "Lohnarbeit und Kapital") is an essay on economics by Karl Marx, written in 1847 and first published in articles in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in April 1849.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht (29 March 1826 – 7 August 1900) was a German socialist and one of the principal founders of the Social Democratic Party (SPD).
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").
Wu Weishan (born: January 1962) is Curator of the National Art Museum of China,Vice-Chairman of the China Artists Association, President of the Chinese Academy of Sculpture and Director of the Academy of Fine Arts at Nanjing University.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.
Some theorists consider Karl Marx's thought to be divided into a "young" period and a "mature" one.
Zeno.org is a digital library with German texts and other content such as pictures, facsimile, etc., which has been started by the Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, a German publishing house and sister enterprise of Directmedia Publishing GmbH.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
Carl Heinrich Marx, Carl Marks, Carl Marx, Father of Communism, K Marx, K. H. Marx, K. Marx, Karl Heinrich Marx, Karl Marks, Karl mardx, Karl marx, Karol Marks, Marx, Marx, Karl, Marx, Karl, 1818-1883.