273 relations: A. C. Ewing, Abiogenesis, Adolf Grünbaum, Albert Einstein, Alfred Adler, Alfred Tarski, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, American Political Science Association, Amoeba, Anschluss, Aristotelian Society, Aristotle, Arthur Compton, Arthur Eddington, Arthur Schopenhauer, Atomic theory, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austrian Decoration for Science and Art, Authoritarianism, Béla Kun, Bernard Bolzano, Bertrand Russell, Bibliophilia, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Bohemia, Bold hypothesis, British Academy, Bryan Magee, Calculus of predispositions, Carl Gustav Hempel, Cato Institute, Charles Leonard Hamblin, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Charles University, Christchurch, Class conflict, Classical liberalism, Classical mechanics, Communism, Confirmation holism, Conservatism, Continental philosophy, Copenhagen interpretation, Correspondence theory of truth, Corroborating evidence, Creation–evolution controversy, Critical rationalism, ..., Cultural assimilation, Darwin College, Cambridge, Darwinism, Daubert standard, David Deutsch, David Hume, David Miller (philosopher), David Stove, Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Deflationary theory of truth, Demarcation problem, Democratic liberalism, Dimitris Dimitrakos, Dirk Verhofstadt, Donald A. Gillies, Donald T. Campbell, Dorling Kindersley, Edmund Burke, Edmund Husserl, Elizabeth II, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, England, Epistemology, Ernest Gellner, Ernst Gombrich, Essentialism, Evolution, Evolutionary epistemology, Fallibilism, Falsifiability, Free will, Friedrich Hayek, Günter Wächtershäuser, George Soros, German Reich, Gottlob Frege, Groningen, Growth of knowledge, Hans Albert, Hans-Joachim Niemann, Helmut Schmidt, Hermeneutics, Historical materialism, Historicism, Historism, Hoover Institution, Hungarians, Ian Jarvie, Ilkka Niiniluoto, Immanuel Kant, Imre Lakatos, Inductivism, Instrumentalism, Interactionism (philosophy of mind), International Academy of Humanism, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Iron–sulfur world hypothesis, Jakob Friedrich Fries, Jeremy Shearmur, Jewish assimilation, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), John Gray (philosopher), John Stuart Mill, John W. N. Watkins, Josef Popper-Lynkeus, Joseph Agassi, Karl Bühler, Karl Popper, Karl-Otto Apel, Kenley, King's College London, Konrad Lorenz, Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy, Liberal democracy, Liberalism, Liberalism in Austria, Libertarianism, Library of Living Philosophers, List of liberal theorists, Logic, Logical positivism, Logical truth, London, London School of Economics, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lutheranism, Lycophron (sophist), Martin Gardner, Marxism, Matura, Maurice Cornforth, Mendelian inheritance, Metalanguage, Metaphysics, Michael Redhead, Milton Friedman, Mind–body dualism, Mont Pelerin Society, Moritz Schlick, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Natural selection, Naturalism (philosophy), Nazism, Neptune, Nicholas Maxwell, Niels Bohr, Non-science, Null hypothesis, Open society, Open Society Foundations, Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Order of the Companions of Honour, Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, ORF (broadcaster), Otto Hahn Peace Medal, Otto Selz, Paradigm, Paradox of tolerance, Paul Arthur Schilpp, Paul Feyerabend, Paul Levinson, Penicillin, Peter Medawar, Peter Munz, Phenotype, Philosopher, Philosophical realism, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of science, Physics, Political philosophy, Poper Scientific Stand up, Popper and After, Popper's experiment, Popper's three worlds, Positivism, Positivism dispute, Pour le Mérite, Predispositioning theory, Primordial soup, Principle of sufficient reason, Probability, Problem of induction, Propensity probability, Property dualism, Psychoanalysis, Psychologism, Psychologist, Psychology, Pure mathematics, Quantum indeterminacy, Quantum mechanics, Raimund Grübl, Ralf Dahrendorf, Rationality, Reader (academic rank), Reinhold Zippelius, René Descartes, Roger Penrose, Ronald B. Levinson, Royal Society, SAGE Publications, Søren Kierkegaard, Science, Scientific American, Scientific method, Scientific realism, Scientific theory, Semantic theory of truth, Shadows of the Mind, Sigmund Freud, Silesians, Social criticism, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party of Austria, Social liberalism, Social philosophy, Social science, Socialism, Socrates, Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, Sonning Prize, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, Statistical significance, Talk.origins, Tautology (logic), The Logic of Scientific Discovery, The Myth of the Framework, The New York Times, The Open Society and Its Enemies, The Poverty of Historicism, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Theism, Theory of justification, Theory of relativity, Thomas Kuhn, Totalitarianism, Trial and error, Truth, Unended Quest, Universal quantification, University of Cambridge, University of Canterbury, University of London, University of New Zealand, University of Tübingen, University of Vienna, Upper middle class, Uranus, Verificationism, Verisimilitude, Vienna, Vienna Circle, W. W. Bartley III, Western philosophy, World Values Survey, World War II, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (223 more) » « Shrink index
Alfred Cyril Ewing (Leicester, 11 May 1899 – Manchester, 14 May 1973), usually cited as A. C. Ewing, was a British philosopher and a sympathetic critic of Idealism.
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Adolf Grünbaum (born May 15, 1923) is a philosopher of science and a critic of psychoanalysis, as well as Karl Popper's philosophy of science.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
The Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (AAU), or University of Klagenfurt, is a federal Austrian university and the largest research and higher education institution in the Austrian province Carinthia.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Academy of Sciences (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften) is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria.
The Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst) is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria and forms part of the national honours system of that country.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bibliophilia or bibliophilism is the love of books, and a bibliophile or bookworm is an individual who loves and frequently reads books.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bold hypothesis (or "bold conjecture") is a concept in the philosophy of science of Karl Popper, first explained in his debut The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1935) and subsequently elaborated in writings such as Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (1963).
The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences.
Bryan Edgar Magee (born 12 April 1930) is a British philosopher, broadcaster, politician, author, and poet, best known as a popularizer of philosophy.
Calculus of predispositions is a basic part of predispositioning theory and belongs to the indeterministic procedures.
Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (January 8, 1905 – November 9, 1997) was a German writer and philosopher.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Charles Leonard Hamblin (1922 – 14 May 1985) was an Australian philosopher, logician, and computer pioneer, as well as a professor of philosophy at the New South Wales University of Technology (now the University of New South Wales) in Sydney.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Christchurch (Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.
Corroborating evidence (or corroboration) is evidence that supports a proposition already supported by initial evidence, therefore confirming the original proposition.
The creation–evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. evolution debate or the origins debate) involves an ongoing, recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life.
Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Darwin College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
In United States federal law, the Daubert standard is a rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony.
David Elieser Deutsch (born 18 May 1953) is an Israeli-born British physicist at the University of Oxford.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David W. Miller (born 19 August 1942, Watford) is an English philosopher and prominent exponent of critical rationalism.
David Charles Stove (15 September 1927 – 2 June 1994), was an Australian philosopher.
The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.
In philosophy and logic, a deflationary theory of truth is one of a family of theories that all have in common the claim that assertions of predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called "truth" to such a statement.
The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs.
Not to be confused with liberal democracy, democratic liberalism aims to reach a synthesis of democracy which is the participation of the people in the power, and the rational liberalism, which declines the emotional populism.
Dimitris Dimitrakos (Δημήτρης Δημητράκος; born 1936) is a Greek philosopher, currently Professor Emeritus of Political Philosophy in the Philosophy of Science Department of the University of Athens.
Dirk Verhofstadt (b. Dendermonde 1955) is a Belgian social liberal (Rawlsian) theorist and brother of former Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt.
Donald A. Gillies (born 1944) is a British philosopher and historian of science and mathematics.
Donald Thomas Campbell (November 20, 1916 – May 5, 1996) was an American social scientist.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary epistemology refers to three distinct topics: (1) the biological evolution of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans, (2) a theory that knowledge itself evolves by natural selection, and (3) the study of the historical discovery of new abstract entities such as abstract number or abstract value that necessarily precede the individual acquisition and usage of such abstractions.
Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Günter Wächtershäuser (born 1938 in Gießen), a German chemist turned patent lawyer, is widely known for his work on the origin of life, and in particular his iron-sulfur world theory, a theory that life on Earth had hydrothermal origins.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.
A term coined by Karl Popper in his work The Logic of Scientific Discovery to denote what he regarded as the main problem of methodology and the philosophy of science, i.e. to explain and promote the further growth of scientific knowledge.
Hans Albert (born 8 February 1921) is a German philosopher.
Hans Joachim Niemann (born in 1941 in Kiel), is a German philosopher who has developed the methods of critical rationalism for applying them in the fields of metaphysics and ethics.
Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
Historism is a philosophical and historiographical theory, founded in 19th-century Germany (as Historismus) and especially influential in 19th- and 20th-century Europe.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Ian Charles Jarvie (born 8 July 1937) is a philosopher trained in England, long resident in Canada.
Ilkka Maunu Olavi Niiniluoto (born March 12, 1946) is a Finnish philosopher and mathematician, serving as a professor of philosophy at the University of Helsinki since 1981.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Imre Lakatos (Lakatos Imre; November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of mathematics and science, known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its 'methodology of proofs and refutations' in its pre-axiomatic stages of development, and also for introducing the concept of the 'research programme' in his methodology of scientific research programmes.
Inductivism is the traditional model of scientific method attributed to Francis Bacon, who in 1620 vowed to subvert allegedly traditional thinking.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
Interactionism or interactionist dualism is the theory in the philosophy of mind which holds that matter and mind are two distinct and independent substances that exert causal effects on one another.
The International Academy of Humanism, established in 1983, is a programme of the Council for Secular Humanism.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
The iron–sulfur world hypothesis is a set of proposals for the origin of life and the early evolution of life advanced in a series of articles between 1988 and 1992 by Günter Wächtershäuser, a Munich patent lawyer with a degree in chemistry, who had been encouraged and supported by philosopher Karl R. Popper to publish his ideas.
Jakob Friedrich Fries (23 August 1773 – 10 August 1843) was a German post-KantianTerry Pinkard, German Philosophy 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp.
Jeremy Shearmur was formerly a Reader in Philosophy in the School of Philosophy at the Australian National University, who retired at the end of 2013.
Jewish assimilation (התבוללות, Hitbolelut) refers to the gradual cultural assimilation and social integration of Jews in their surrounding culture as well as the ideological program promoting conformity as a potential solution to historic Jewish marginalization in the age of emancipation.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John William Nevill Watkins (31 July 1924, Woking, Surrey – 26 July 1999, Salcombe, Devon) was an English philosopher, a professor at the London School of Economics from 1966 until his retirement in 1989 and a prominent proponent of critical rationalism.
Josef Popper-Lynkeus (21 February 1838 – 22 December 1921) was an Austrian scholar, writer, and inventor.
Joseph Agassi (יוסף אגסי; born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927) is an Israeli academic with contributions in logic, scientific method, and philosophy.
Karl Ludwig Bühler (27 May 1879 – 24 October 1963) was a German psychologist and linguist.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Karl-Otto Apel (15 March 1922 – 15 May 2017) was a German philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Frankfurt am Main.
Kenley is a district in the south of the London Borough of Croydon (historically in Surrey).
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.
The Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy is awarded once a year by the Inamori Foundation for lifetime achievements in the arts and philosophy.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in Austria.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Library of Living Philosophers is a series of books conceived of and started by Paul Arthur Schilpp in 1939; Schilpp remained editor until 1981.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (LBG) is an Austrian network of specialized research institutes that are not part of a university.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lycophron (Λυκόφρων) was a sophist of Ancient Greece.
Martin Gardner (October 21, 1914May 22, 2010) was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Maurice Campbell Cornforth (28 October 1909 – 31 December 1980) was a British Marxist philosopher.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Broadly, any metalanguage is language or symbols used when language itself is being discussed or examined.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael Logan Gonne Redhead (born 30 December 1929) is a British academic and philosopher of physics.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) is an international liberal organization composed of economists, philosophers, historians, intellectuals, business leaders.
Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.
Nassim Nicholas Taleb (نسيم نقولا طالب., alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960) is a Lebanese–American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Nicholas Maxwell (born 3 July 1937) is a philosopher who has devoted much of his working life to arguing that there is an urgent need to bring about a revolution in academia so that it seeks and promotes wisdom and does not just acquire knowledge.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
A non-science is an area of study that is not scientific, especially one that is not a natural science or a social science that is an object of scientific inquiry.
In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.
The open society was conceived in 1932 by French philosopher Henri Bergson.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the only federal decoration of Germany.
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms.
The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.
Österreichischer Rundfunk (Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, ORF) is the Austrian national public service broadcaster.
The Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold is named after the German nuclear chemist and 1944 Nobel Laureate Otto Hahn, an honorary citizen of Berlin.
Otto Selz (14 February 1881 – 27 August 1943) was a German psychologist from Munich, Bavaria, who formulated the first non-associationist theory of thinking, in 1913.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
The paradox of tolerance was described by Karl Popper in 1945.
Paul Arthur Schilpp (February 6, 1897 – September 6, 1993) was an American educator.
Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).
Paul Levinson (born March 25, 1947) is an American writer and professor of communications and media studies at Fordham University in New York City.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Sir Peter Brian Medawar (28 February 1915 – 2 October 1987) was a British biologist born in Brazil, whose work on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance was fundamental to the practice of tissue and organ transplants.
Peter Munz (12 May 1921 – 14 October 2006) was a philosopher and historian, Professor of the Victoria University of Wellington; among the major influences on his work were Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Poper Scientific Stand Up is the first Latin American stand-up comedy group that is engaged in the popularization of science.
Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists is a book about irrationalism by David Stove first published by Pergamon Press in 1982.
Popper's experiment is an experiment proposed by the philosopher Karl Popper to put to the test different interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM).
Popper's three worlds is a way of looking at reality, described by the British philosopher Karl Popper in a lecture in 1978.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
The positivism dispute (German: Positivismusstreit) was a political-philosophical dispute between the critical rationalists (Karl Popper, Hans Albert) and the Frankfurt School (Theodor Adorno, Jürgen Habermas) in 1961, about the methodology of the social sciences.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
Predispositioning theory, in the field of decision theory and systems theory, is a theory focusing on the stages between a complete order and a complete disorder.
Primordial soup, or prebiotic soup, is a hypothetical condition of the Earth's atmosphere before the emergence of life.
The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, highlighting the apparent lack of justification for.
The propensity theory of probability is one interpretation of the concept of probability.
Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is composed of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and mental properties.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychologism is a philosophical position, according to which psychology plays a central role in grounding or explaining some other, non-psychological type of fact or law.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.
Quantum indeterminacy is the apparent necessary incompleteness in the description of a physical system, that has become one of the characteristics of the standard description of quantum physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Raimund Grübl (12 August 1847, Vienna - 12 May 1898) was a mayor of Vienna.
Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, (1 May 1929 – 17 June 2009) was a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and liberal politician.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.
Reinhold Zippelius (born 19 May 1928) is a German jurist and law scholar.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
Ronald Bartlett Levinson (October 18, 1896 in Chicago, Illinois – November 21, 1980 in Bangor, Maine) was an internationally renowned American philosopher who focused in his work on Plato.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.
Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness is a 1994 book by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose that serves as a followup to his 1989 book The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and The Laws of Physics.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a social-democratic political party in Austria and alongside the People's Party one of the two traditional major parties.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
A total solar eclipse occurred on May 29, 1919.
The Sonning Prize (Sonningprisen) is a Danish culture prize awarded biennially for outstanding contributions to European culture.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
talk.origins (often capitalised to Talk.Origins or abbreviated as t.o.) is a moderated Usenet discussion forum concerning the origins of life, and evolution.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
The Logic of Scientific Discovery is a 1959 book about the philosophy of science by Karl Popper.
The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality is a 1994 book by Karl Popper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws.
The Poverty of Historicism is a 1957 book by philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author argues that the idea of historicism is dangerous and bankrupt.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography (1976) is a book by Karl Popper.
In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Canterbury (Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha; postnominal abbreviation Cantuar. or Cant. for Cantuariensis, the Latin name for Canterbury) is New Zealand's second oldest university.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of New Zealand was New Zealand's sole degree-granting university from 1874 to 1961.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).
Verisimilitude (or truthlikeness) is a philosophical concept that distinguishes between the relative and apparent (or seemingly so) truth and falsity of assertions and hypotheses.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.
William Warren Bartley III (October 2, 1934 – February 5, 1990), known as W. W. Bartley III, was an American philosopher specializing in 20th century philosophy, language and logic, and the Vienna Circle.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.
Carl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations, Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, Conjectures and refutations, K. Popper, K. R. Popper, Karl R Popper, Karl R. Popper, Karl Raimond Popper, Karl Raimund Popper, Karl popper, Popper, Karl, Popper, Sir Karl Raimund, Popperazzi, Popperian, Sir Karl Popper, Sir Karl Raimund Popper, Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA.