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Karma

Index Karma

Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). [1]

128 relations: Acinteyya, Adrsta, Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta, Agnicayana, Ajiva, Alf Hiltebeitel, Amor fati, Amygdala, Anantarika-karma, Anatta, Anguttara Nikaya, Anushasana Parva, Asrava, Śramaṇa, Śrauta, Bandha (Jainism), Benjamin Penny, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Carl Jung, Causality, Causes of karma in Jainism, Cetanā, Charvaka, Christian views on sin, Cognitive dissonance, Consciousness, Consequentialism, Daniel H. H. Ingalls Sr., David Wolpe, Demiurge, Destiny, Dharma, Disease, Epistle to the Galatians, Falun Gong, Gavin Flood, Golden Rule, Good works, Gospel of Matthew, Guru Granth Sahib, Harold Coward, Hindu philosophy, Hoʻoponopono, I. K. Taimni, Idappaccayatā, Impermanence, Indian religions, Individuation, ..., Indology, Jain literature, Jain philosophy, Jainism, Jīva (Jainism), Jiva, Julius J. Lipner, Just-world hypothesis, Karma in Buddhism, Karma in Hinduism, Karma in Jainism, Karma in Tibetan Buddhism, Karma yoga, Kevala Jnana, Khandro Rinpoche, Last Judgment, Library of Congress, List of counseling topics, Live by the sword, die by the sword, Mahabharata, Mandelbrot set, Maya (religion), Medication, Meditation, Metacognition, Modern Paganism, Moksha, Moksha (Jainism), Monism, Moral agency, Moral evil, Natural evil, Nirjara, Nirvana, Nishkam Karma, Noble Eightfold Path, Omnibenevolence, Padmanabh Jaini, Peak experience, Phala, Pratītyasamutpāda, Prefrontal cortex, Problem of evil, Psychoanalysis, Ratnatraya, Reincarnation, Rigveda, Saṃsāra, Saṅkhāra, Samvara, Self-actualization, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Shatapatha Brahmana, Shinto, Sikhism, Soteriology, Substitutionary atonement, Subtle body, Synchronicity, Taoism, Tathāgata, Tattva (Jainism), Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Theodicy, Theosophical Society, Types of Karma (Jainism), Udayana, Unintended consequences, Upanishads, Valentine Daniel, Vāsanā, Vedas, Vedic Sanskrit, Vipāka, Wendy Doniger, Western culture, Western world, Wilhelm Halbfass. Expand index (78 more) »

Acinteyya

Acinteyya (Pali) is a Buddhist term that is commonly translated as imponderable or incomprehensible.

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Adrsta

Adrsta (अदृष्ट, Adr̥ṣṭa) is a concept in Indian philosophy which means that which is "unobserved, not seen, invisible".

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Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta

The Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta is a Buddhist sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya of the Tripitaka.

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Agnicayana

The Agnicayana ("the building up of the fire altar") or Athirathram (അതിരാത്രം) is a category of advanced Śrauta rituals.

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Ajiva

Ajiva (Sanskrit) is anything that has no soul or life, the polar opposite of "jīva" (soul).

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Alf Hiltebeitel

Alf Hiltebeitel is Columbian Professor of Religion, History, and Human Sciences at George Washington University in Washington DC, USA.

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Amor fati

Amor fati ("love of fate") is a Latin phrase that may be translated as "love of fate" or "love of one's fate".

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anantarika-karma

Ānantarika-karma or ānantarika-kamma is a heinous crime that through karmic process brings immediate disaster.

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Anatta

In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.

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Anguttara Nikaya

The Anguttara Nikaya (literally "Increased by One Collection," also translated "Gradual Collection" or "Numerical Discourses") is a Buddhist scripture, the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three baskets" that comprise the Pali Tipitaka of Theravada Buddhism.

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Anushasana Parva

Anushasana Parva (अनुशासन पर्व, IAST: Anuśāsanaparva) or the "Book of Instructions", is the thirteenth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata.

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Asrava

Asrava (āsrava "influx") is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.

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Śramaṇa

Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".

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Śrauta

Śrauta is a Sanskrit word that means "belonging to śruti", that is, anything based on the Vedas of Hinduism.

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Bandha (Jainism)

Bandha (also karma-bandha) in Jainism, is the mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas (fine matter).

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Benjamin Penny

Benjamin David Penny (born 27 October 1959) is an Australian academic specialising in religious and spiritual movements in modern and contemporary China.

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Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Causality

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Causes of karma in Jainism

The karmic process in Jainism is based on seven truths or fundamental principles (tattva) of Jainism which explain the human predicament.

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Cetanā

Cetanā (Sanskrit, Pali; Tibetan Wylie: sems pa) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "volition", "intention", "directionality", etc.

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Charvaka

Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

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Christian views on sin

The doctrine of sin is central to Christianity, since its basic message is about redemption in Christ.

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Cognitive dissonance

In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values.

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Consciousness

Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Consequentialism

Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.

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Daniel H. H. Ingalls Sr.

Daniel Henry Holmes Ingalls Sr. (May 4, 1916 – July 17, 1999) was the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University.

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David Wolpe

David J. Wolpe (born 1958) is the Max Webb Senior Rabbi of Sinai Temple.

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Demiurge

In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.

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Destiny

Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.

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Dharma

Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Epistle to the Galatians

The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.

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Falun Gong

Falun Gong or Falun Dafa (Standard Mandarin Chinese:; literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice") is a modern Chinese spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness, compassion, and forbearance.

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Gavin Flood

Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) FBA is a British scholar of comparative religion specialising in Shaivism and phenomenology, but with research interests that span South Asian traditions.

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Golden Rule

The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.

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Good works

In Christian theology, good works, or simply works, are a person's (exterior) actions or deeds, in contrast to inner qualities such as grace or faith.

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Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Harold Coward

Harold Coward (born 1936) is a Canadian scholar of bioethics and religious studies.

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Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.

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Hoʻoponopono

Hooponopono (ho-o-pono-pono) is a Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness.

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I. K. Taimni

I.

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Idappaccayatā

Idappaccayatā (Pali, also idappaccayata; Sanskrit: idaṃpratyayatā) is a Buddhist term that is translated as "specific conditionality" or "this/that conditionality".

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Impermanence

Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Individuation

The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.

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Indology

Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.

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Jain literature

Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.

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Jain philosophy

Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness) completely.

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Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jīva (Jainism)

The Jīva or Atman (आत्मन्) is a philosophical term used within Jainism to identify the soul.

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Jiva

In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (जीव,, alternative spelling jiwa; जीव,, alternative spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force.

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Julius J. Lipner

Julius Lipner (born 11 August 1946), who is of Indo-Czech origin, is Professor of Hinduism and the Comparative Study of Religion at the University of Cambridge.

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Just-world hypothesis

The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished.

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Karma in Buddhism

Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing".

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Karma in Hinduism

Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's (Atman's) reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth.

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Karma in Jainism

Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.

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Karma in Tibetan Buddhism

Karma in Tibetan Buddhism is one of the central issues addressed in Eastern philosophy, and an important part of its general practice.

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Karma yoga

Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action".

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Kevala Jnana

Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.

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Khandro Rinpoche

Mindrolling Jetsün Khandro Rinpoche (birth name Tsering Paldrön; born August 19, 1967) is a lama in Tibetan Buddhism.

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Last Judgment

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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List of counseling topics

Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.

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Live by the sword, die by the sword

"Live by the sword, die by the sword" is a proverb in the form of a parallel phrase, which can be traced back to the ancient Greek dramatist Aeschylus in 458 BCE.

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Mahabharata

The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

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Mandelbrot set

The Mandelbrot set is the set of complex numbers c for which the function f_c(z).

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Maya (religion)

Maya (Devanagari: माया, IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Meditation

Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Metacognition

Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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Moksha

Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.

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Moksha (Jainism)

Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.

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Monism

Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Moral agency

Moral agency is an individual's ability to make moral judgments based on some notion of right and wrong and to be held accountable for these actions.

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Moral evil

Moral evil is the result of any morally negative event caused by the intentional action or inaction of an agent, such as a person.

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Natural evil

Natural evil is evil for which “no non-divine agent can be held morally responsible for its occurrence.” By contrast, moral evil is “caused by human activity.” The existence of natural evil challenges belief in the omnibenevolence or the omnipotence of deities and the existence of deities including God.

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Nirjara

Nirjara is one of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy, and refers to the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma (soul), essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation.

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Nirvana

(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.

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Nishkam Karma

Nishkam Karma (sanskrit IAST: niṣkāmakarma), self-less or desireless action, is an action performed without any expectation of fruits or results, and the central tenet of Karma Yoga path to Liberation.

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Noble Eightfold Path

The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.

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Omnibenevolence

Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".

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Padmanabh Jaini

Padmanabh Shrivarma Jaini is an Indian born scholar of Jainism and Buddhism, currently living in Berkeley, California, United States.

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Peak experience

A peak experience is a moment accompanied by a euphoric mental state often achieved by self-actualizing individuals.

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Phala

Phala is a Sanskrit term that means “fruit” of one's actions in Hinduism and Buddhism.

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Pratītyasamutpāda

Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Problem of evil

The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).

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Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Ratnatraya

Jainism emphasises that ratnatraya (triple gems of Jainism) — the right faith (Samyak Darshana), right knowledge (Samyak Gyana) and right conduct (Samyak Charitra) — constitutes the path to liberation.

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Reincarnation

Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Saṃsāra

Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.

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Saṅkhāra

(Pali; Sanskrit) is a term figuring prominently in Buddhism.

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Samvara

Samvara (saṃvara) is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.

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Self-actualization

Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.

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Self-fulfilling prophecy

A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.

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Shatapatha Brahmana

The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.

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Shinto

or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.

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Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Soteriology

Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.

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Substitutionary atonement

Technically speaking, substitutionary atonement is the name given to a number of Christian models of the atonement that regard Jesus as dying as a substitute for others, 'instead of' them.

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Subtle body

A subtle body is one of a series of psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings.

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Synchronicity

Synchronicity (Synchronizität) is a concept, first introduced by analytical psychologist Carl Jung, which holds that events are "meaningful coincidences" if they occur with no causal relationship yet seem to be meaningfully related.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Tathāgata

Tathāgata is a Pali and Sanskrit word; Gotama Buddha uses it when referring to himself in the Pāli Canon.

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Tattva (Jainism)

Jain philosophy explains that seven tattvas (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality.

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Thanissaro Bhikkhu

hānissaro Bhikkhu, also known as Ajaan Geoff (born 1949), is an American Buddhist monk.

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Theodicy

Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.

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Theosophical Society

The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.

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Types of Karma (Jainism)

According to Jain karma theory, there are eight main types of karma (Prikriti) which are categorized into the ‘harming’ and the ‘non-harming’; each divided into four types.

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Udayana

Udayana, also known as Udayanācārya (Udyanacharya, or Master Udayana), was a very important Hindu logician of the tenth century who attempted to reconcile the views held by the two major schools of logic (Nyaya and Vaisheshika).

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Unintended consequences

In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.

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Upanishads

The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.

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Valentine Daniel

Professor Errol Valentine Daniel is a Sri Lankan Tamil academic, anthropologist and author.

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Vāsanā

Vāsanā (Sanskrit; Devanagari: वासना) is a behavioural tendency or karmic imprint which influences the present behaviour of a person.

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Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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Vipāka

Vipāka (Sanskrit and Pāli) is a Buddhist term that refers to the ripening or maturation of karma (Pāli kamma), or intentional actions.

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Wendy Doniger

Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wilhelm Halbfass

Wilhelm Halbfass (11 May 1940 in Northeim – 25 May 2000) was a German-born Indologist.

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Redirects here:

Action (Buddhism), Chowdarie, Good karma, Karma law, Karma: Western Interpretation, Karmaphala, Karmas, Karmatic, Karmic, The Karmic, Карма, कर्म.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma

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