190 relations: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Adaptation, Adaptive radiation, Adenine, Albert Levan, Allopatric speciation, Ameles, Amniocentesis, Ancient Greek, Aneuploidy, Angelman syndrome, Ascaris suum, Autosome, B chromosome, Barr body, Brittany, C. D. Darlington, Cancer, Carl Nägeli, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell division, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Centromere, Chilocorus stigma, Chromatin, Chromosomal inversion, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Chromosome 13, Chromosome 14, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 21, Chromosome 22, Chromosome abnormality, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Colchicine, Common shrew, Competition (biology), Constitutive heterochromatin, Copepod, Crepis, Cretaceous, Cri du chat syndrome, Crocus, Cytogenetic notation, Cytogenetics, Cytosine, ..., Derivative chromosome, DNA, DNA replication, Dog whelk, Dosage compensation, Down syndrome, Drosophila, Drosophilidae, Dye, Edwards syndrome, Endoreduplication, Equisetum, Euchromatin, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, False color, Female, Fern, Fetus, Fibroblast, Fluorescence, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Fluorophore, G banding, G. Ledyard Stebbins, Gamete, Gene, Genetics, Genomic imprinting, Genotyping, Germline, Giemsa stain, Gravidity and parity, Guanine, Guyot, Hampton L. Carson (biologist), Haplodiploidy, Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiian tropical high shrublands, Hawaiian tropical rainforests, Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, Heterochromatin, Hominidae, Homologous recombination, Hotspot (geology), Human genome, Hymenoptera, Indian muntjac, Interferometry, Interphase, Jack jumper ant, Joe Hin Tjio, Journal of Human Evolution, Klinefelter syndrome, Kure Atoll, Kurt Benirschke, List of organisms by chromosome count, Locus (genetics), Lotus tenuis, Male, Mantidae, Marsupial, Mauna Kea, Medicine, Meiosis, Mepacrine, Metaphase, Michael J. D. White, Microscope, Mitosis, Mollusca, Morphogenesis, Mosaic (genetics), Muntjac, Necker Island (Hawaii), Nematode, Neotropical Ichthyology, New Latin, Nondisjunction, Nuclear envelope, Nucleolus organizer region, Oogonium, Ophioglossum, Pacific Plate, Paleopolyploidy, Patau syndrome, Phenotype, Philadelphia chromosome, Phosphate, Placentalia, Ploidy, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Polytene chromosome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Prometaphase, Protozoa, Psilotaceae, Radiometric dating, Reduplication, Reeves's muntjac, Salamander, Sciaridae, Sex chromosome, Sex-determination system, Shortnose sturgeon, Silver nitrate, Soma (biology), Somatic (biology), Somatic cell, Species, Spermatogonium, Staining, Systematics, Taxonomy (biology), Telomere, The Guardian, Theodor Boveri, Theophilus Painter, Thymine, Tissue culture, Transcription (biology), Trisomy, Trisomy 9, Trypsin, Turner syndrome, Vacant niche, Vicia faba, Virtual karyotype, Visual appearance, Walther Flemming, White blood cell, X chromosome, X-inactivation, X0 sex-determination system, XY sex-determination system, Y chromosome, 1p36 deletion syndrome. Expand index (140 more) » « Shrink index
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Albert Levan (8 March 1905 – 28 March 1998) was a Swedish botanist and geneticist.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Ameles is a wide-ranging genus of praying mantises represented in Africa, Asia, and Europe by species such as.
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also for sex determination, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and then the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the nervous system.
Ascaris suum, also known as the large roundworm of pig, is a parasitic nematode that causes ascariasis in pigs.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
In addition to the normal karyotype, wild populations of many animal, plant, and fungi species contain B chromosomes (also known as supernumerary, accessory, (conditionally-)dispensable, or lineage-specific chromosomes).
A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Cyril Dean Darlington FRS (19 December 1903 – 26 March 1981) was an English biologist, geneticist and eugenicist, who discovered the mechanics of chromosomal crossover, its role in inheritance, and therefore its importance to evolution.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli (26 or 27 March 1817 – 10 May 1891) was a Swiss botanist.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
Chilocorus stigma, commonly known as the twice-stabbed ladybug, is a native resident of the United States and Canada but does not live west of the Sierra Nevada.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.
The common shrew (Sorex araneus) or Eurasian shrew is the most common shrew, and one of the most common mammals, throughout Northern Europe, including Great Britain, but excluding Ireland.
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.
Constitutive heterochromatin domains are regions of DNA found throughout the chromosomes of eukaryotes.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Crepis, commonly known in some parts of the world as hawksbeard or hawk's-beard (but not to be confused with the related genus Hieracium with a similar common name), is a genus of annual and perennial flowering plants of the family Asteraceae superficially resembling the dandelion, the most conspicuous difference being that Crepis usually has branching scapes with multiple heads (though solitary heads can occur).
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cri du chat syndrome, also known as chromosome 5p deletion syndrome, 5p− syndrome (pronounced "five P minus") or Lejeune's syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder due to chromosome deletion on chromosome 5.
Crocus (English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family comprising 90 species of perennials growing from corms.
The following table summarizes symbols and abbreviations used in cytogenetics.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A derivative chromosome (der) is a structurally rearranged chromosome generated either by a rearrangement involving two or more chromosomes or by multiple aberrations within a single chromosome (e.g. an inversion and a deletion of the same chromosome, or deletions in both arms of a single chromosome).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
The dog whelk, dogwhelk, or Atlantic dogwinkle, scientific name Nucella lapillus, is a species of predatory sea snail, a carnivorous marine gastropod mollusc in the family Muricidae, the rock snails.
Dosage compensation is the process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes between members of different biological sexes.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
The Drosophilidae are a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 18.
Endoreduplication (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA, and protein) that is enriched in genes, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
False color (or false colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.
G-banding, G banding, or Giemsa banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to produce a visible karyotype by staining condensed chromosomes.
George Ledyard Stebbins Jr. (January 6, 1906 – January 19, 2000) was an American botanist and geneticist who is widely regarded as one of the leading evolutionary biologists of the 20th century.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.
Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
Giemsa stain, named after German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa, is used in cytogenetics and for the histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites.
In biology and human medicine, gravidity and parity are the number of times a female is or has been pregnant (gravidity) and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age (parity).
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A guyot (pronounced), also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount), with a flat top over below the surface of the sea.
Hampton Lawrence Carson (November 5, 1914 – December 19, 2004) was an eminent American biologist best known for his work on the chromosomes of new species of the fruit fly Drosophila and his contributions to our understanding of their evolution.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
The Hawaiian tropical high shrublands are a tropical savanna ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands.
The Hawaiian tropical rainforests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands.
The Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain is a mostly undersea mountain range in the Pacific Ocean that reaches above sea level in Hawaii.
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (6 October 1836 – 23 January 1921) was a German anatomist, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome.
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), also called red muntjac and barking deer, is a common muntjac deer species in South and Southeast Asia.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
The Myrmecia pilosula, commonly known as the jack jumper, jumping jack, hopper ant, or jumper ant, is a species of venomous ant native to Australia.
Joe Hin Tjio (2 November 1919 – 27 November 2001), was an Indonesian-born American cytogeneticist.
The Journal of Human Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of evolution, specializing in human and primate evolution.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
(Mokupāpapa) or Ocean Island is an atoll in the Pacific Ocean beyond Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands at.
Kurt Benirschke (born May 26, 1924) is a German-born American pathologist, geneticist and expert on the placenta and reproduction in humans and myriad mammalian species.
The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lotus tenuis is a flowering plant of the pea family Fabaceae, native to western and southern Europe and southwest Asia.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Mantidae is the largest family of the order Mantodea, commonly known as praying mantises; most are tropical or subtropical.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mepacrine (INN), also called quinacrine (USAN) or by the trade name Atabrine, is a drug with several medical applications.
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).
Michael James Denham White FRS (London, 20 August 1910 – Canberra, 16 December 1983) was a zoologist and cytologist.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus.
Necker Island (Hawaiian: Mokumanamana) is a small island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neotropical Ichtyhology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on all aspects of neotropical ichthyology.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
Nucleolus organiser regions (NORs) are chromosomal regions crucial for the formation of the nucleolus.
An oogonium (plural oogonia) is a small diploid cell which upon maturation forms a primordial follicle in a female fetus or the female (haploid or diploid) gametangium of certain thallophytes.
Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.
The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
Paleopolyploidy is the result of genome duplications which occurred at least several million years ago (MYA).
Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
The Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation (Ph) is a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukemia cancer cells (particularly chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells).
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.
Prometaphase is the phase of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psilotaceae is a family of Pteridophyta (in order Psilotales) consisting of two genera, Psilotum and Tmesipteris with a dozen species.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Reeves's muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), also known as Chinese muntjac, is a muntjac species found widely in southeastern China (from Gansu to Yunnan) and Taiwan.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
The Sciaridae are a family of flies, commonly known as dark-winged fungus gnats.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a small North American sturgeon, which can be found in 16 to 19 large river and estuary systems along the Atlantic seaboard from the Saint John River in New Brunswick, Canada, to the St. Johns River in Florida, United States.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Theodor Heinrich Boveri (12 October 1862 – 15 October 1915) was a German biologist.
Theophilus Shickel Painter (August 22, 1889 – October 5, 1969) was an American zoologist best-known for his work on the structure and function of chromosomes, especially the sex-determination genes X and Y in humans.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
Full trisomy 9 is a lethal chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome number 9.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
The issue of what exactly defines a vacant niche, also known as empty niche, and whether they exist in ecosystems is controversial.
Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.
Virtual karyotype is the digital information reflecting a karyotype, resulting from the analysis of short sequences of DNA from specific loci all over the genome, which are isolated and enumerated.
The visual appearance of objects is given by the way in which they reflect and transmit light.
Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
1p36 deletion syndrome (also known as monosomy 1p36) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, delayed growth, hypotonia, seizures, limited speech ability, malformations, hearing and vision impairment, and distinct facial features.
46 XX, 46,XX, 46,XY, C-banding, Caryotype, Chromosome band, Chromosome banding, Chromosome map, Chromosome morphology, Cytogenetic map, Cytotype, Diploid Arm Number, Diploid arm number, Flow karyotyping, Fundamental number, Harlequin chromosome, Human karyotype, Idiogram, Idiotypic variation, Karotype, Karyogram, Karyology, Karyotype analysis, Karyotypes, Karyotypic, Karyotyping, Keryotyping, Molecular karyotyping, Spectral karyotype, Spectral karyotyping.