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Index Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. [1]

208 relations: Abhinavabharati, Abhinavagupta, Adhan, Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Aesthetics, Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Akbar, Aksai Chin, All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference, Ancient Greece, Ashoka, Asparagus, Avantivarman (Utpala dynasty), Azad Kashmir, Baltistan, Banihal, BBC, Bharata Muni, Brahmin, British Raj, Buddhism, Burton Stein, Cambridge University Press, Cashmere, Cashmere wool, Cedrus deodara, Chinese Communist Revolution, Christopher Snedden, Contents and stories of the Yoga Vasistha, Dardic people, Desert, Dominion of India, Dominion of Pakistan, Durrani dynasty, Durrani Empire, Exegesis, Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus, First Anglo-Sikh War, George Trebeck, Gilgit, Gilgit Agency, Gilgit-Baltistan, Governor-General of India, Great Himalayas, Gulab Singh, Guru, Hans Köchler, ..., Hari Singh, Harsha, Hecataeus of Miletus, Henry Montgomery Lawrence, Herodotus, Himalayas, Hindu, Hindu Kush, Hindu philosophy, Hindu temple, Hinduism, History of Poonch District, Human rights abuses in Kashmir, Hyderabad State, India, Indian logic, Indian philosophy, Indian poetry, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, Jagir, Jamia Masjid, Srinagar, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), Jammu district, Jammu Division, Jammu–Baramulla line, Jhelum River, Jonaraja, Karakoram, Kargil, Kargil district, Kargil War, Karkoṭa Empire, Kashmir conflict, Kashmir Shaivism, Kashmir Valley, Kashmiri language, Kashmiri Muslims, Kashmiri Pandit, Kashmiris, Kashyapa, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, Kaula, Khatri, Kishtwar district, Knitting, Kota Rani, Kshatriya, Kucha, Kumārajīva, Kunlun Mountains, Kurta, Kutte Kol, Ladakh, Lakh, Leh, Leh district, Line of Control, List of Jammu and Kashmir-related articles, List of Kashmiri people, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Madhyamaka, Manoj Joshi, Maurya Empire, Mīmāṃsā, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Mokshopaya, Monk, Mughal Empire, Music of India, Muslim, Mysticism, Natya Shastra, Nilamata Purana, Oxford University Press, Padishah, Pakistan, Pamir Mountains, Pan-Islamism, Papier-mâché, Partition of India, Pashmina, Pashto, Pashtuns, Peach, People's Liberation Army, Pine, Pir Panjal Range, Platanus orientalis, Polymath, Princely state, Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, Ptolemy, Punjab, Rajouri district, Rajput, Rama, Ramayana, Ranjit Singh, Referendum, Rinchan, Saffron, Saltoro Mountains, Sanskrit, Sarvastivada, Sayyid, Shah Jahan, Shah Mir, Shah Mir dynasty, Shaivism, Sharada Peeth, Shawl, Sheikh Abdullah, Shia Islam, Shloka, Siachen conflict, Siachen Glacier, Sikandar Butshikan, Sikh Empire, Sino-Indian War, Srinagar, Stephanus of Byzantium, Subah, Sunni Islam, Suzerainty, Swat District, Syncretism, Tantraloka, The Crown, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, The New Cambridge History of India, Theatre of India, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan people, Tibetan Plateau, Trans-Karakoram Tract, Treaty of Amritsar (1846), Trika, Ulama, Utpala dynasty, Vasishtha, Vedanta, Venkatesananda Saraswati, Walnut, William Moorcroft (explorer), Xinjiang, Yoga Vasistha, Yogachara, Zorawar Singh Kahluria, 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Expand index (158 more) »


Abhinavabharati is a commentary on ancient Indian author Bharata Muni's work of dramatic theory, the Natyasastra.

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Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 AD) was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.

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The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.

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Adi Shankara

Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.

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Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahmad Shah Bahadur

Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Mirza Ahmad Shah, Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi (23 December 1725 – 1 January 1775) was born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.

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Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.

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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

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Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin (ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India.

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All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference

The All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference is a major political party of Azad Kashmir founded by Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.

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Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.

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Avantivarman (Utpala dynasty)

Avantivarman was a king who founded the Utpala dynasty.

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Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.

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Baltistan (بلتستان, script also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet (script), is a mountainous region on the border of Pakistan and India in the Karakoram mountains just south of K2 (the world's second-highest mountain). Baltistan borders Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang (China) in the north, Ladakh on the southeast and the Kashmir Valley on the southwest. Its average altitude is over. Prior to 1947, Baltistan was part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, having been conquered by Raja Gulab Singh's armies in 1840. Baltistan and Ladakh were administered jointly under one wazarat (district) of the state. Baltistan retained its identity in this set-up as the Skardu tehsil, with Kargil and Leh being the other two tehsils of the district. After the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, Gilgit Scouts overthrew the Maharaja's governor in Gilgit and (with Azad Kashmir's irregular forces) captured Baltistan. The Gilgit Agency and Baltistan have been governed by Pakistan ever since. The Kashmir Valley and the Kargil and Leh tehsils were retained by India. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, was incorporated into Ladakh after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The region is inhabited primarily by Balti people of Tibetan descent. Millennia-old Tibetan culture, customs, norms, language and script still exist, although the vast majority of the population follows Islam. Baltistan is strategically significant to Pakistan and India; the Kargil and Siachen Wars were fought there. The region is the setting for Greg Mortenson's book, Three Cups of Tea.

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Banihal "City of Mountains" is a town and a notified area committee in Ramban district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bharata Muni

Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist who wrote the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, especially Sanskrit theatre.

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Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Burton Stein

Burton Stein (1926 – April 26, 1996) was an American historian, whose area of specialization was India.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cashmere may refer to.

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Cashmere wool

Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a luxury fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat.

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Cedrus deodara

Cedrus deodara, the deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/devdar/devadar/devadaru, is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in Eastern Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and, Arunachal Pradesh states and the Darjeeling Region of West Bengal), Southwestern Tibet and Western Nepal, occurring at altitude.

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Chinese Communist Revolution

The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.

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Christopher Snedden

Christopher Snedden is an Australian political scientist, politico-strategic analyst, academic researcher and author.

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Contents and stories of the Yoga Vasistha

The below list gives an overview of the contents and stories in the Yoga Vasistha, as it appears in Swami Venkatesananda's translation.

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Dardic people

The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, north-western India, and eastern Afghanistan.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Dominion of India

Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.

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Dominion of Pakistan

Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.

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Durrani dynasty

The Durrani dynasty (د درانيانو کورنۍ) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotak dynasty. The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus

The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, a large majority of whom were Kashmiri Pandits, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley as a result of Islamic insurgency, on or after 20 January 1990.

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First Anglo-Sikh War

The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.

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George Trebeck

George Trebeck (1800-1825) was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800.

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Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.

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Gilgit Agency

The Gilgit Agency (ur), created in 1877 and overseen by a political agent of the Governor-General of British India, was a political unit of India, which managed the relations of the British with the princely states of Hunza and Nagar.

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Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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Governor-General of India

The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.

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Great Himalayas

The Great Himalayas or Greater Himalayas (Hindi: महान हिमालय or हिमाद्रि) is the highest mountain range of the Himalayan Range System.

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Gulab Singh

Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of royal Dogra dynasty and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War.

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Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.

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Hans Köchler

Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.

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Hari Singh

Hari Singh (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.

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Hecataeus of Miletus

Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.

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Henry Montgomery Lawrence

Brigadier-General Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence KCB (28 June 18064 July 1857) was a British military officer, surveyor, administrator and statesman in British India.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.

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Hindu temple

A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History of Poonch District

Poonch District was a district of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently divided between India and Pakistan.

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Human rights abuses in Kashmir

Kashmir has been a disputed and divided territory with human rights abuses in both the section administered by India (Jammu and Kashmir) and that administered by Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).

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Hyderabad State

Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian logic

The development of Indian logic dates back to the anviksiki of Medhatithi Gautama (c. 6th century BCE) the Sanskrit grammar rules of Pāṇini (c. 5th century BCE); the Vaisheshika school's analysis of atomism (c. 6th century BCE to 2nd century BCE); the analysis of inference by Gotama (c. 6th century BC to 2nd century CE), founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy; and the tetralemma of Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century CE).

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Indian philosophy

Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian poetry

Indian poetry and Indian literature in general, has a long history dating back to Vedic times.

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Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".

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Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

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Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency (also known as Kashmir Intifada) is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India.

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A jagir (IAST: Jāgīr), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal land grant in South Asia at the foundation of its Jagirdar system.

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Jamia Masjid, Srinagar

Jamia Masjid (جامع مسجد سرینگر) is a mosque in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

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Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Jammu & Kashmir National Conference

The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.

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Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.

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Jammu district

Jammu is the most populous district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and is home to the winter capital (Jammu) of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu Division

Jammu is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.

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Jammu–Baramulla line

The Jammu–Baramulla line is a railway line under construction to connect the Kashmir Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country.

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Jhelum River

The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.

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Jonaraja (died A.D. 1459) was a Kashmiri historian and Sanskrit poet.

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The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

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Kargil is a city in the Kargil district of Ladakh region, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kargil district

Kargil is a district of Ladakh division in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kargil War

The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).

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Karkoṭa Empire

Karkota Empire (c. 625 - 885 CE) was a major power from the Indian subcontinent; which originated in the region of Kashmir.

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Kashmir conflict

The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.

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Kashmir Shaivism

Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric Shaiva exegetical traditions from Kashmir that originated after 850 CE.

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Kashmir Valley

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India.

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Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kashmiri Muslims

Kashmiri Muslims are ethnic Kashmiris who practice Islam and are native to the Kashmir Valley.

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Kashmiri Pandit

The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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The Kashmiris (کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language.

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Kashyapa (IAST: Kaśyapa) is a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.

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Katra, Jammu and Kashmir

Katra or Katra Vaishno Devi, as it is popularly known, is a small town in Reasi district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, situated in the foothills of the Trikuta Mountains, where the holy shrine of Vaishno Devi is located.

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Kaula, also known as Kula, ("the Kula practice") and ("the Kaula conduct"), is a religious tradition in Shaktism and tantric Shaivism characterised by distinctive rituals and symbolism connected with the worship of Shakti.

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Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.

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Kishtwar district

Kishtwar District is a district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India.

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Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric for use in many types of garments.

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Kota Rani

Kota Rani was the Hindu ruler of Kashmir in Medieval Kashmir, ruling until 1339.

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Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.

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Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.

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Kumārajīva (कुमारजीव,, 344–413 CE) was a Buddhist monk, scholar, and translator from the Kingdom of Kucha.

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Kunlun Mountains

The Kunlun Mountains (Хөндлөн Уулс, Khöndlön Uuls) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than.

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A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.

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Kutte Kol

Kutte Kol (Kashmiri: / kuʈɨ kɔl /) is a navigational canal running through the Srinagar city of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

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A lakh (abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105).

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Leh is a town in the Leh district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Leh district

Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Line of Control

The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.

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List of Jammu and Kashmir-related articles

This is the list of topics related to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on Wikipedia.

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List of Kashmiri people

This is an incomplete list of notable persons of Kashmiri origin.

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Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.

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Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).

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Manoj Joshi

Manoj Joshi is an Indian journalist and author.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".

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Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (میر سید علی ہمدانی‎; 1314–1384) was a Persian Sūfī of the Kubrawiya order, a poet and a prominent Shafi'i Muslim scholar.

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The Mokṣopāya or Mokṣopāyaśāstra is a Sanskrit philosophical text on salvation for non-ascetics (mokṣa-upāya: 'means to liberation'), written on the Pradyumna hill in Śrīnagar in the 10th century AD.

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A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Music of India

The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock and Indian pop.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Natya Shastra

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.

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Nilamata Purana

The NIlamata Purana (नीलमत पुराण) is an ancient text (6th to 8th century AD) from Kashmir which contains information on its history, geography, religion, and folklore.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.

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Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.

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Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Pashmina is a fine type of Kashmiri wool.

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Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.

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People's Liberation Army

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Pir Panjal Range

The Pir Panjal Range is a group of mountains in the Inner Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir where the average elevation varies from to.

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Platanus orientalis

Platanus orientalis, the Old World sycamore, or Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to or more, and known for its longevity and spreading crown.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Princely state

A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.

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Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai

Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai (1910–2007) was a Kashmiri scholar and historian who wrote several books on the history of Kashmir and related topics.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Rajouri district

Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

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Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

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Sadruddin Shah, also known as Rinchan, was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir.

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Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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Saltoro Mountains

The Saltoro Mountains (سلسلہ کوہ سالتورو) are a subrange of the Karakoram Range.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit) were an early school of Buddhism that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".

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Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).

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Shah Jahan

Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.

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Shah Mir

Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir (reigned 1339–42) was a ruler of Kashmir region of the Indian subcontinent; and the founder of the Shah Miri dynasty, which is named after him.

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Shah Mir dynasty

The Shah Mir Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, which ruled the region of Kashmir.

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Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.

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Sharada Peeth

Sharada Peeth (شاردا پیٹھ) is an abandoned Hindu temple located in the village of Sharda, along the Neelam River in Azad Kashmir.

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A shawl (from lang-Urdu شال shāl, which may be from दुशाला duśālā, ultimately from Sanskrit: शाटी śāṭī) is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head.

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Sheikh Abdullah

Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah (5 December 1905 – 8 September 1982) was a Kashmiri politician who played a central role in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost Indian state.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक śloka; meaning "song", from the root śru, "hear"Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students, Appendix II, p. 232 (Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927).) is a category of verse line developed from the Vedic Anustubh poetic meter.

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Siachen conflict

The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.

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Siachen Glacier

The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.

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Sikandar Butshikan

Sikandar Shah Miri better known as Sikandar Butshikan ("Sikandar the Iconoclast"), was the sixth sultan of the Shah Miri dynasty of Kashmir.

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Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.

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Sino-Indian War

The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.

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Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Stephanus of Byzantium

Stephen of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus (Greek: Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά).

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A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).

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Swat District

Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tantrāloka (Sanskrit तन्त्रालोक) is the masterwork of Abhinavagupta on Kashmir Shaivism, who was in turn the most revered Kashmir Shaivism master.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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The Imperial Gazetteer of India

The Imperial Gazetteer of India was a gazetteer of the British Indian Empire, and is now a historical reference work.

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The New Cambridge History of India

The New Cambridge History of India is a major multi-volume work of historical scholarship published by Cambridge University Press.

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Theatre of India

The earliest form of classical theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre which came into existence only after the development of Greek and Roman theatres in the west.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Trans-Karakoram Tract

The Trans-Karakoram Tract (शक्सगाम, شکسگام‎); also known as Shaksgam or the Shaksgam Tract, is an area of more than along both sides of the Shaksgam River and extending from the Karakoram to the Kunlun range.

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Treaty of Amritsar (1846)

The Treaty of Amritsar, signed on 16 March 1846, formalised the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Gulab Singh Dogra after the First Anglo-Sikh War.

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Trika, a concept of Kashmir Shaivism, refers to the 3 goddesses Parā, Parāparā and Aparā which are named in the Mālinivijayottata-tantra. This gives Kashmir Shaivism its other name, Trika.

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The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Utpala dynasty

Utpala dynasty was a Hindu kingdom which ruled over the Kashmir region from 8th to 10th century CE.

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Vasishtha (वसिष्ठ, IAST) is a revered Vedic sage in Hinduism.

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Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

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Venkatesananda Saraswati

Venkatesananda Saraswati (29 December 1921 in Tanjore, South India–2 December 1982 in Johannesburg, South Africa), known previously as Parthsarathy, was a disciple of Sivananda Saraswati.

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A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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William Moorcroft (explorer)

William Moorcroft (1767 – 27 August 1825) was an English explorer employed by the East India Company.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yoga Vasistha

Yoga Vasistha (योग-वासिष्ठ, IAST) is a philosophical text attributed to Valmiki, but the real author is unknown.

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Yogachara (IAST:; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices.

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Zorawar Singh Kahluria

Zorawar Singh Kahluria (1786-1841) was a general of the Sikh Empire in South Asia.

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2005 Kashmir earthquake

The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at on 8 October in Pakistan administered areas of Kashmir.

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Redirects here:

Jammu and Kashmir (region), Jammu and Kashmir Area, Jammu and Kashmir area, Kaashmir, Kashir, Kashmeer, Kashmir Region, Kashmir region, Kasmir region, Sultanate of Kashmir, कश्मीर.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmir

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