108 relations: Affricate consonant, Aleksander Majkowski, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Approximant consonant, Ł–l merger, Back vowel, Baltic languages, Baltic Sea, Balto-Slavic languages, Belarusian language, Berlin, Bernard Comrie, Bilingual communes in Poland, Brazil, Catholic liturgy, Central Statistical Office (Poland), Central vowel, Christianity, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Czech language, Dental consonant, Digraph (orthography), English language, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Finnish language, Florian Ceynowa, Franciscans, Fricative consonant, Friedrich Lorentz, Front vowel, Garcz, Gdańsk, Gdańsk Pomerania, Gdynia, German language, Gmina Żukowo, Gmina Linia, Gmina Luzino, Gmina Parchowo, Gmina Sierakowice, Hieronim Derdowski, High German languages, Jan Trepczyk, Jerzy Treder, Kartuzy, Kashubia, Kashubian alphabet, Kashubian diaspora, ..., Kashubian studies, Kashubian-Pomeranian Association, Kashubians, Kościerzyna, Kraków, Labial consonant, Latin script, Lechitic languages, Leipzig, Linguistics, Loanword, Lord's Prayer, Low German, Masurian dialect, Nasal consonant, New Testament, New York City, North America, Oder, Old Prussian language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Parliament of Poland, Pelplin, Polabian language, Poland, Poles, Polish language, Pomerania, Pomeranian language, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomeranians (Slavic tribe), Pomerelia, Puck County, Puck, Poland, Regional language, Renfrew County, Rewa, Poland, Silesian language, Slavic languages, Slovene language, Slovincian language, Stanisław Pestka, Stefan Ramułt, Stop consonant, The Life and Adventures of Remus, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Velar consonant, Vistula, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Wejherowo County, West Slavic languages, Winona, Minnesota. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Aleksander Majkowski (Aleksander Majkòwsczi; 17 July 1876 – 10 February 1938) was a Kashubian writer, poet, journalist, editor, activist, and physician.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Ł–l merger (bylaczenie) is a phonological change in northeastern dialects of Kashubian language, a merger of Ł into L. The Polish-language term is derived from the pronunciation of the words "béł", "bëła" (Polish: "był", "była", English: "was") as "bél", "bëla".
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernard S. Comrie, (born 23 May 1947) is a British-born linguist.
The bilingual status of gminas (communes) in Poland is regulated by the Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages, which permits certain gminas with significant linguistic minorities to introduce a second, auxiliary language to be used in official contexts alongside Polish.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
In the Catholic Church, liturgy is divine worship, the proclamation of the Gospel, and active charity.
The Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny; GUS) is Poland's chief government executive agency charged with collecting and publishing statistics related to the country's economy, population, and society, at the national and local levels.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Florian Ceynowa (Kashubian Florión Cenôwa) (May 4, 1817 – March 26, 1881) was a doctor, political activist, writer, and linguist.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friedrich Lorentz (18 December 1870, Güstrow – 29 March 1937) was a German historian.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Garcz (Cashubian Gôrcz) It lies approximately north of Chmielno, west of Kartuzy, and west of the regional capital Gdańsk.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
For the medieval duchy, see Pomeranian duchies and dukes Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie) or Eastern Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Wschodnie; Kashubian: Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô) is a geographical region in northern Poland covering the eastern part of Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gmina Żukowo (in Kashubian: Gmina Żukòwò) is an urban-rural gmina (administrative district) in Kartuzy County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Gmina Linia is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Wejherowo County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Gmina Luzino is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Wejherowo County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Gmina Parchowo is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Bytów County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Gmina Sierakowice is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Kartuzy County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Hieronim Derdowski (March 9, 1852, Wiele, Pomeranian Voivodeship, German Empire – August 13, 1902, Winona, Minnesota, America) (Kashubian Hieronim Derdowsczi or Jarosz Derdowsczi), Kashubian-Polish intellectual and activist, was born to Kashubian parents in the Pomeranian village of Wiele.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Jan Trepczyk (Kashubian: Jan Trepczik; 22 October 1907 in Strysza Buda, Kartuzy – 3 September 1989, in Wejherowo, Poland) was one of the most accomplished Kashubian poets, and also a songwriter, a Kashubian ideologist, lexicographer, and teacher.
Jerzy Treder (14 April 1942 – 2 April 2015) was a Polish philologist and linguist, focusing on Kashubian studies, among other interests.
Kartuzy) (Cashubian Kartuzë, Kartëzë, Kartuzé),(Karthaus) is a town in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland. Previously in Gdańsk Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998, Kartuzy since 1999 is the capital of Kartuzy County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999.
Kashubia or Cassubia (Kaszëbë, Kaszuby, Kaschubei, Kaschubien) is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland.
The Kashubian or Cassubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet.
The Kashubian diaspora resulted from the emigration of Kashubians, in two waves occurring in the second half of the 19th century.
Kashubian studies, a branch of Slavic studies, is a philological discipline researching the language, literature, culture, and history of the Kashubians.
The Kashubian-Pomeranian Association (Kashubian-Pomeranian: Kaszëbskò-Pòmòrsczé Zrzeszenié, Polish: Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie) is a regional non-governmental organization of Kashubians (Pomeranians), Kociewiacy and other people interested in the regional affairs of Kashubia and Pomerania in northern Poland.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
Kościerzyna (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Kòscérzëna, former) is a town in Kashubia in Gdańsk Pomerania region, northern Poland, with some 24,000 inhabitants.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
The Masurian ethnolect (Masurian: Mazurská gádka/Mazurská gádkia; Mazurski; Masurisch), according to some linguists, is a dialect group of the Polish language; others consider Masurian as a separate language, spoken by Masurians in a part of East Prussia that is now in Poland.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
Pelplin is a town in Tczew County, Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland.
The Polabian language is an extinct West Slavic language that was spoken by the Polabian Slavs (Wenden) in present-day northeastern Germany around the Elbe (Labe in Slavic) river, from which derives its name ("po Labe" - on the Elbe).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Pomeranian language (grupa pomorska języków lechickich, pomoranische Sprache) is a group of dialects from the Lechitic cluster of the West Slavic languages.
Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (in Polish województwo pomorskie, in Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland.
The Pomeranians (Pomoranen; Pòmòrzónie; Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia).
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
Puck County (powiat pucki, pùcczi pòwiat) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland, on the Baltic coast.
Puck (Pùckò, Pùck, Pëck, Putzig, Puckas, Pucka) is a town in northwestern Poland with 11,350 inhabitants.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Renfrew County is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Rewa is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kosakowo, within Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovincian is the language formerly spoken by the Slovincians (Słowińcë, Słowińcy, Slowinzen, Lebakaschuben), a West Slavic tribe living between lakes Gardno and Łebsko near Słupsk in Pomerania.
Stanisław Pestka (April 8, 1929 – April 2, 2015) was a Kashubian poet.
Stefan Ramułt (December 22, 1859 – December 24, 1913) was a Polish scholar who specialized in the language and the culture of the Kashubians.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Life and Adventures of Remus - the Kashubian Mirror (Kashubian title Żëce i przigodë Remusa - Zvjercadło kaszubskji) is a novel written in the Kashubian language by Dr.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Wejherowo County (powiat wejherowski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland, on the Baltic coast.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
Winona is a city in and the county seat of Winona County, in the state of Minnesota.