99 relations: Advanced and retracted tongue root, Affricate consonant, Afghanistan, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Anatolia, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Auxiliary verb, Back vowel, Bayan-Ölgii Province, BBC News, BGN/PCGN romanization of Kazakh, Caspian Sea, Central Intelligence Agency, Central vowel, China, Close vowel, Common Turkic languages, Cyrillic script, Dental consonant, Diphthong, Dzungaria, Ethnologue, EurasiaNet, Fergana Valley, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Germany, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical mood, Grammatical tense, Greater Khorasan, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Inflection, Interfax, Iran, Japanese language, Karakalpak language, Kazakh alphabets, Kazakh Braille, Kazakh literature, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Kazinform, ..., Kipchak languages, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyzstan, Labial consonant, Languages of Kazakhstan, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lenition, List of leaders of Kazakhstan, Meniń Qazaqstanym, Mid vowel, Ministry of Justice (Russia), Mongolia, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Nogai language, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Old Turkic alphabet, Open vowel, Orthography, Politics of Kazakhstan, Postalveolar consonant, President of Kazakhstan, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Reuters, Rhotic consonant, Russia, Russian Census, Russian language, SIL International, Soviet Union, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, The Guardian, The World Factbook, Tian Shan, Turkestan, Turkey, Turkic languages, University of North Dakota, Uvular consonant, Uyghur language, Uzbekistan, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Vowel harmony, Xinjiang, Yegemen Qazaqstan. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bayan-Ölgii (Баян-Өлгий; Bai'-O'lke, Rich cradle/region, alternately spelled Olgiy, Ulgii, etc.) is the westernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BGN/PCGN romanization system for Kazakh is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Kazakh texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet as used in the English language.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Common Turkic or Shaz Turkic is a taxon in some of the classifications of the Turkic languages which includes all languages except the Oghur languages.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
EurasiaNet is a website providing news, information and analysis focused on countries in Central Asia, the Caucasus region, Russia and Southwest Asia.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan.
Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic script.
The braille alphabet used for the Kazakh language is based on Russian Braille, with several additional letters found in the print Kazakh alphabet.
Kazakh literature is defined as 'the body of literature, both oral and written, produced in the Kazakh language by the Kazakh people of Central Asia'.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazinform (QazAqparat) is a Kazakh international news agency and one of largest media in Kazakhstan.
The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by approximately 26–28 million people in much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, spanning from Ukraine to China.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The official languages of Kazakhstan are Kazakh with 5,290,000 speakers around the country and Russian which is spoken by 6,230,000 people.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
"My Kazakhstan" (Meniń Qazaqstanym) is the national anthem of Kazakhstan, adopted on January 7, 2006.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation (Министе́рство юсти́ции Росси́йской Федера́ции, Миню́ст Росси́и) is the central government body charged with leading the legal and penal system of Russia.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of state and nominates the head of government.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respy'bli'kasynyn' Prezi'denti, Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті) is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A Russian Census is a census of the population of Russia.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The University of North Dakota (also known as UND or North Dakota) is a public research university in Grand Forks, North Dakota.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yegemen Qazaqstan (Egemen Qazaqstan,, Sovereign Kazakhstan) is a government owned Kazakh language newspaper published from Kazakhstan.