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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
The ABA Rule of Law Initiative was established in 2007 by the American Bar Association to consolidate its five overseas rule of law programs, including the Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative (ABA CEELI), which was created in 1990 after the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Abai (Ibrahim) Qunanbaiuly (Абай (Ибраһим) Құнанбайұлы, Abaı (Ibrahım) Qunanbaıuly, اباي (ىيبراحىيم) قۇنانبايۇلى) (August 10, 1845 – July 6, 1904) was a Kazakh poet, composer and philosopher.
Wali-ullah Abul-Mansur Khan better known as Ablai Khan (Абылай (Әбілмансұр) хан, Abylaı (Ábilmansur) han) (1711 — May 23, 1781) was a Kazakh khan of the Middle jüz of Kazakhstan.
Abulhair Khan, Abul Khair Khan (Әбілқайыр хан, Äbilqayır xan) (1693–1748) was leader of the Kazakh Little jüz in present-day western Kazakhstan.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.
The Agrarian Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Agrarlyq Parti'i'asy) is a political party in Kazakhstan.
Agriculture in Kazakhstan remains a small scale sector of Kazakhstan's economy.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Air Astana (Эйр Астана) is the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Akmol (formerly Malīnovka until 2007) (Ақмол) is a rural locality (selo) and the administrative center of Tselinograd District, Akmola Region, Kazakhstan, roughly west of Astana.
Aktobe (Ақтөбе, Aqtóbe) is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan.
Akzhayik Sports Club (Aqjаi'yq spоrt kly'by) is a bandy team in Kazakhstan, which is the only professional team in the country and plays in the second highest division of Russia, the Russian Bandy Supreme League.
Alash Autonomy (Алаш аутономиясы Alash aýtonomııasy; Алашская автономия Alashskaya avtonomiya) was a Kazakh state that existed between December 13, 1917, and August 26, 1920, on, approximately, the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.
Alatau or Ala-Too (Alatay', Алатау; Аladağ; Ала-Тоо; Алатау) is a generic name for a number of mountain ranges in Central Asia, characterized by interleaving areas of vegetation, scattered rocks and snows.
Aleksandr Viktorovich Zatayevich (Алекса́ндр Ви́кторович Затае́вич; 6 December 1936) was a Russian music ethnographer and exponent of Central Asian folk music.
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives.
Allium karataviense is an Asian species of onion in the Amaryllis family.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Almaty Metro (Алматы метрополитені.; Алматинский метрополитен) is a rapid transit/metro system in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Alpamysh, also spelled as Alpamish or Alpamis (Alpomish/Алпомиш, Алпамыс/Alpamıs, Alpamış, Алпамыша, Алпамыш, Alpamış, Kazan Tatar: Алпамша, Altay: Алып Манаш), is an ancient Turkic epic or dastan, an ornate oral history, generally set in verse, and one of the most important examples of the Turkic oral literature of Central Asia.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Alzhan Musurbekovich Zharmukhamedov (alternate spelling: Alzan Zarmuhamedov) (Әлжан Мүсірбекұлы Жармұхамедов, Алжан Мусурбекович Жармухамедов; born 2 October 1944 is a retired Kazakh professional basketball player and coach. He was considered to be the first ethnic Kazakh to become an Olympic champion.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The anti-nuclear movement in Kazakhstan, "Nevada Semipalatinsk", was formed in 1989 and was one of the first major anti-nuclear movements in the former Soviet Union.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Akyns or aqyns (ақын,, акын,; both transcribed as aqın or اقىن) are improvising poets and singers in the Kazakh and Kyrgyz cultures.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
The argali, or the mountain sheep (species Ovis ammon) is a wild sheep that roams the highlands of Central Asia (Himalaya, Tibet, Altay).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстанның Қарулы күштері, Qazaqstannyń qarýly kúshteri), is the name of the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Asar (All Together) was a political party in Kazakhstan.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
The Astana Metro is a planned light rail rapid transit system located in Astana, Kazakhstan, which is the capital of the country with a population of about 750,000.
Astana Nurly Zhol (Астана Нұрлы жол, Astana Nurly Jol; Астана Нурлы Жол) is the main railway station in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astragalus is a large genus of about 3,000 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae.
Atyrau (Атырау,, اتىراۋ,; Атырау), known as Guryev (Гурьев) until 1991, is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Region.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Ay Qap (آی قاپ; Айқап in modern script) was a Kazakh journal of opinion and debate published in Troitsk from January 1911 until September 1915 under the editorship of Muxametžan Seralin.
Ayran (from ayran, ayran, دوغ "doogh", dew) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Bakhtiyar Karipullauly Artayev (Бақтияр Ғарифоллаұлы Артаев; born 14 March 1983) is a Kazakh boxer who won the gold medal for Kazakhstan at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Bakhytzhan Abdiruly Sagintayev (Бақытжан Әбдірұлы Сағынтаев, Baqytjan Ábdiruly Saǵyntaev, born 13 October 1963) is a Kazakh politician.
Bandy at the 2011 Asian Winter Games was held at Medeu in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Barys Hockey Club (Barys Hokkej Kluby), commonly referred to as Barys Astana or simply Barys, is a professional ice hockey team based in Astana, Kazakhstan.
Men's basketball at the 2002 Asian Games was held in Geumjeong Gymnasium and Sajik Gymnasium, Busan from September 28 to October 14, 2002.
Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bekzat Sattarkhanov (Бекзат Саттарханов; April 4, 1980 in Turkistan — December 31, 2000 in Shymkent) was a Kazakh boxer who competed in the men's featherweight division (57 kg) at the 2000 Summer Olympics and won the gold medal.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Festive beshbarmak served with kazy sausage Beshbarmak (бешбармак, бишбармаҡ, бишбармак — "five finger") is the national dish among nomadic Turkic peoples in Central Asia and Russia.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bigach (from қиғаш - curved) is an impact crater in Kazakhstan.
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner that was designed and built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The Book of Dede Korkut or Book of Korkut Ata (Dede Korkut or Korkut Ata; Dədə Qorqud, دده قورقود; Gorkut Ata) is the most famous among the epic stories of the Oghuz Turks.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
BTA Bank (БТА) (BTA Bank Joint-Stock Company in full) is a Kazakhstan bank with headquarters in Almaty.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulat Zhumadilov (Болат Жумадилов; born April 22, 1973) is a Kazakh boxer who competed in the Men's Flyweight (– 51 kg) at the 2000 Summer Olympics and won the silver medal.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.
Kandidat nauk (Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The Day of the Capital City of Kazakhstan is an official Public holiday in Kazakhstan.
Carex is a vast genus of more than 2,000 species of grassy plants in the family Cyperaceae, commonly known as sedges (or seg, in older books).
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Asian Survey is an academic journal first published in 1982 concerning Caucasus and Central Asian studies.
Chal, or shubat (шұбат), is a Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
Charyn Canyon (also known as Sharyn Canyon) is a canyon on the Sharyn River in Kazakhstan (east of Almaty, close to the Chinese border).
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Kazakhstan is the second most practiced religion after Islam.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Chuvash people (чăваш,; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.
Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constitution Day of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасының Конституция күні) is the main national holiday in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциясы, Qazaqstan Respy'bli'kasynyn' Konsti'ty'ci'i'asy; Конституция Республики Казахстан, Konstitutsuya Respubliki Kazakhstan) is the highest law of Kazakhstan, as stated in Article 4.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The corsac fox (Vulpes corsac), also known simply as a corsac, is a medium-sized fox found in steppes, semi-deserts and deserts in Central Asia, ranging into Mongolia and northeastern China.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Defender of the Fatherland Day (Kazakh:Отан Қорғаушы күні) is a national holiday celebrated annually on May 7, commemorating the founding of the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Deportation of Koreans in the Soviet Union, originally conceived in 1926, initiated in 1930, and carried through in 1937, was the first mass transfer of an entire nationality in the Soviet Union.
The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Tatars from Crimea in May 1944.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.
Dinmukhamed (Dimash) Akhmetuly Kunaev (Дінмұхаммед (Димаш) Ахметұлы Қонаев, Dіnmuhammed (Dımash) Ahmetuly Qonaev; Динмухаммед Ахмедович Кунаев; – 22 August 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The provinces of Kazakhstan are divided into 170 districts (pl. аудандар, audandar).
Dmitriy Vasilyevich Karpov (Дмитрий Васильевич Карпов; born July 23, 1981 in Karaganda) is an athlete from Kazakhstan who competes in decathlon and heptathlon (the latter during the winter season).
A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
East Kazakhstan Region (Восточно-Казахстанская область, Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast; Шығыс Қазақстан облысы, S’yg’ys Qazaqstan oblysy) is a region of Kazakhstan.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies, the Majilis (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House).
The adjective elegiac has two possible meanings.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
An epic is traditionally a genre of poetry, known as epic poetry.
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned.
Ernst & Young (doing business as EY) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, England.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Eurasia International Film Festival is an international film festival held in Kazakhstan.
The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Cup is an annual bandy club competition between teams from Europe.
Yevgeni Viktorovich Nabokov (Евге́ний Ви́кторович Набо́ков; born July 25, 1975), usually transliterated as Evgeni Nabokov, is a Kazakhstani-Russian retired professional ice hockey goaltender who played for the San Jose Sharks, New York Islanders, and Tampa Bay Lightning of National Hockey League (NHL) and for Torpedo Ust-Kamenogorsk, HC Dynamo Moscow, Metallurg Magnitogorsk and SKA St. Petersburg of the Russian Super League (RSL) and Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) from 1991 to 2015.
Expo 2017 Astana was an International Exposition which took place from June 10 to September 10, 2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan.
The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.
The is a global standard for the good governance of oil, gas and mineral resources.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
The FIBA Asia Cup (formerly FIBA Asia Championship) is an international basketball tournament which takes place every four years between men's national teams of Asia and Oceania.
The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
The Football Federation of Kazakhstan (Қазақстанның Футбол Федерациясы; r) is the governing body of football in Kazakhstan.
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
The Constitution of Kazakhstan provides for freedom of religion, and the various religious communities worship largely without government interference.
A fret is a raised element on the neck of a stringed instrument.
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Gabit Makhmutuli Musirepov (Ғабит Махмұтұлы Мүсірепов; Габит Махмутович Мусрепов) (1902–1985) was a Soviet Kazakh writer, playwright and author of libretto to Kazakh opera Kyz-Zhibek.
Gagea is a large genus of spring flowers in the lily family.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gennady Gennadyevich Golovkin (Cyrillic: Геннадий Геннадьевич Головкин; born 8 April 1982), often known by his nickname "GGG" or "Triple G", is a Kazakhstani professional boxer who currently holds the unified WBA (Super), WBC, and IBO middleweight titles; previously he held the IBF middleweight title from 2015 to 2018.
Gennady Kolbin (Russian: Геннадий Колбин; 7 May 1927 in Nizhny Tagil – 15 January 1998) was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR from December 16, 1986 to June 22, 1989.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
GoEast is an International Film Festival which has been held annually in the Hessian state capital of Wiesbaden, Germany since its inception in 2001.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Greeks of Kazakhstan are mainly the descendants of Pontic Greek who were deported there by Joseph Stalin, from southern Russia and the Caucasus region, at first the Crimean Greeks on 1944, under the resolution 5984 of June 2, 1944.
Kazakhstan begun to take steps the steps to transition to a green economy.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.
Harmony Lessons (Асланның сабақтары, Уроки гармонии) is a 2013 Kazakh-German drama film directed by Emir Baigazin.
Hasim Sharif Rahman (born November 7, 1972) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1994 to 2014.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of Iraq from 2003 to 2011 is characterized by a large United States military deployment on Iraqi territory, beginning with the U.S.-led invasion of the country in March 2003 which overthrew the Ba'ath Party government of Saddam Hussein and ending with the departure of US troops from the country in 2011 (though the Iraq War that commenced in 2003 continued and subsequently intensified during 2013).
Kazakhstan, the largest country of the Eurasian Steppe, has been a historical "crossroads" and home to numerous different peoples, states and empires throughout history.
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Kazakhstan's human rights situation is uniformly described as poor by independent observers.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili River (Ile, ئله; Или;; Йили хә, Xiao'erjing: اِلِ حْ;, literally "Bareness") is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Below is the list of Kazakhstan related articles.
Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAP) are plans developed between NATO and different countries which outline the objectives and the communication framework for dialogue and cooperation between both parties.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
International Astana Action Film Festival (Международный кинофестиваль экшн-фильмов "Astana", translit. Mezhdunarodniy kinofestival action filmov «Astana») is significant as the only festival of the action film genre.
The International Boxing Organization (IBO) is a non-profit organization that sanctions professional boxing matches and awards world and regional championships.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Organization of Turkic Culture (Turkish: Uluslararası Türk Kültürü Teşkilatı, Türksoy) is an international cultural organization of countries with Turkic populations, speaking languages belonging to the Turkic language family.
International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iris willmottiana is a species in the genus Iris, in the subgenus ''Scorpiris''.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Almost 3% of Kazakhstan citizens can be identified as irreligious.
The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, هرتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.
Ishim River (Иши́м/Išim; Есіл/Esil) is a river running through Kazakhstan and Russia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the largest religion practiced in Kazakhstan, as 70.2% of the country's population is Muslim Ethnic Kazakhs are predominantly Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school.
Jambyl Jabayev (Жамбыл Жабаев) (28 February 1846 — 22 June 1945) was a Kazakh traditional folksinger (Kazakh: akyn).
The Jeltoqsan (Желтоқсан көтерілісі, Jeltoqsan kóterilisi) or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty), Kazakhstan, in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and his appointment of Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kalkaman is a village in Almaty Region, in south-eastern Kazakhstan.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
Kanysh Imantayuli Satbayev or Kanysh Imantaevich Satpaev (Қаныш Имантайұлы Сәтбаев; Каны́ш Иманта́евич Сатпа́ев) (April 11, 1899 – January 31, 1964) is one of the founders of Soviet metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences.
Karachaganak Field is a gas condensate field in Kazakhstan.
Karaganda or Qaraghandy (Qaraǵandy Қарағанды) is the capital of Karaganda Region in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan / Қарақалпақстан), officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы) is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan.
Kashagan Field is an offshore oil field in Kazakhstan's zone of the Caspian Sea.
The Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (Казакская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика; Qazaq Aptonom Sotsijalijstik Sobettik Respuvblijkasь), abbreviated as Kazak ASSR (Казакская АССР; Qazaq ASSR) and simply Kazakhstan (Казахстан; Qazaqstan), was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) existing from 1925 until 1936.
The Kazakh famine of 1930–1933, known in Kazakhstan as the Goloshchekin genocide (Goloshekındik genotsıd),Қазақстан тарихы: Аса маңызды кезеңдері мен ғылыми мәселелері.
The Kazakh Khanate (Қазақ Хандығы, Qazaq Handyǵy, قازاق حاندىعى) was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
The Kazakh Steppe (Qazaq dalasy, Қазақ даласы, also Uly dala, Ұлы дала "Great Steppe"), also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe.
Kazakh wine is wine made in Kazakhstan.
Kazakhfilm (Қазақфильм, Qazaqfilm, pronounced; Казахфильм) is a Kazakh film studio, located in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev announced the Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy (also called “2050 Strategy”) during his annual state of the nation address on December 15, 2012.
The Germans of Kazakhstan (Kasachstandeutsche) are a minority in Kazakhstan, and make up a small percentage of the population.
The Republic of Kazakhstan Open Ice Hockey Championship (Шайбалық хоккей бойынша Қазақстан Республикасының ашық чемпионаты, Открытый Чемпионат Республики Казахстан по хоккею с шайбой), commonly referred to as Kazakh Hockey Championship, is an annual ice hockey award and national title, bestowed to the winning ice hockey team in Kazakhstan, founded in 1992.
Kazakhstan Independence Day (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасының Тәуелсіздік күні) is the main national holiday in the Republic of Kazakhstan, celebrated annually the 16th of December.
The Kazakhstan men's national ice hockey team is controlled by Kazakhstan Ice Hockey Federation.
Kazakhstan national amateur boxing athletes represents Kazakhstan in regional, continental and world boxing tournaments and matches sanctioned by the International Boxing Association (AIBA).
The Kazakh national bandy team has been representing Kazakhstan in the Bandy World Championships since 1995.
The Kazakhstan national basketball team represents Kazakhstan in basketball international competitions.
The Kazakhstan national football team (Қазақстан Ұлттық футбол құрамасы, Qazaqstan ulttıq fwtbol quraması) represents Kazakhstan in international men's association football and is directed by Football Federation of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ; Qazaqstan Temir Joly (QTJ)), also National Company Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, is the national railway company of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan women's national football team represent Kazakhstan in international football.
Kazakh may refer to.
The tenge (Ten’ge; тенге) is the currency of Kazakhstan.
Torpedo Hockey Club («Торпедо» хоккей клубы; Хоккейный клуб «Торпедо»), commonly referred to as Torpedo Ust-Kamenogorsk, formerly known as Kazzinc-Torpedo (1999–2015), is a professional ice hockey team based in Oskemen, Kazakhstan.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
The Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic was an autonomous republic within the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic that existed from 26 August 1920 until 15 June 1925 on the territory of the Kazakh Khanate, when it took the name of Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic, based on the autonym Kazakh.
Kirghizia, officially the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы Qığız Sovettik Soţialisttik Respublikası; Киргизская Советская Социалистическая Республика Kirgizskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and the Republic of Kirghizia, also referred to as Soviet Kirghizia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1936 to 1991.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
Korgalzhyn (Қорғалжын) is a selo in the Akmola Region, Kazakhstan.
Koryo-saram (Корё сарам; 고려사람) or Koryoin (고려인) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves.
KQED, virtual channel 9 (UHF digital channel 30), is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to San Francisco, California, United States and serving the San Francisco Bay Area.
Kumis (also spelled kumiss or koumiss or kumys, see other transliterations and cognate words below under terminology and etymology - Қымыз, qımız) is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk.
Kurmangazy Sagyrbaev (Құрманғазы Сағырбайұлы; 1818–1889) was a Kazakh composer, instrumentalist, and folk artist.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyzylorda (Қызылорда, Qyzylorda, قىزىلوردا), formerly known as Kzyl-Orda (Кзыл-Орда), Ak-Mechet (Ак-Мечеть), Perovsk (Перовск), and Fort-Perovsky (Форт-Перовский), is a city in south-central Kazakhstan, capital of Kyzylorda Region and former capital of the Kazak ASSR from 1925 to 1929.
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.
Lake Balkhash (Балқаш көлі,; Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world.
Lake Zaysan (Zaısan kóli, زايسان كؤلئ,;, Zaisan nuur, en: Noble lake;, Ozero Zajsan;, Xiao'erjing: جَىْصْا پْ; Җэсонпә) is a freshwater lake, ca.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is a list of countries by literacy rate.
A comparison of tax rates by countries is difficult and somewhat subjective, as tax laws in most countries are extremely complex and the tax burden falls differently on different groups in each country and sub-national unit.
Champions were recognized by public acclamation.
This is a list of national nature parks in Kazakhstan.
This is a list of protected areas of Kazakhstan.
Russian bandy champion is a title held by the winners of the final of the highest Russian bandy league played each year, currently the Bandy Super League.
This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
The following is a list of universities in Kazakhstan by cities.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
In the U.S. education system, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula.
Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mangyshlak or Mangghyshlaq Peninsula (Mańǵystaý túbegi; Полуостров Мангышла́к) is a large peninsula located in western Kazakhstan.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
The Mausoleum of Khawaja Ahmed Yasawi (Qojа Аhmеt Iassаýı Kesеnеsi) is a mausoleum in the city of Turkestan, in southern Kazakhstan.
May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on 1 May.
The Mazhilis (Májilis, also transliterated as Majilis; "Assembly" in Kazakh) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Kazakhstan, known as the Parlamenti, in the Government of Kazakhstan.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
"My Kazakhstan" (Meniń Qazaqstanym) is the national anthem of Kazakhstan, adopted on January 7, 2006.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Meskhetian Turks also known as Ahiska Turks (მესხეთის თურქები Meskhetis t'urk'ebi) are an ethnic subgroup of Turks formerly inhabiting the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan MiG-31 (Микоян МиГ-31; NATO reporting name: Foxhound) is a supersonic interceptor aircraft developed for use by the Soviet Air Forces.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
Mukhtar Omarkhanuli Auezov (Muhtar Omarhanuly Áýezov, Мұхтар Омарханұлы Әуезов, مۇحتار ومارحانۇلى اۋەزوۆ,; Мухта́р Омарханович Ауэ́зов, Muchtar Omarchanovič Auezov) (September 28, 1897 — June 27, 1961) was a Kazakh writer, a social activist, a Doctor of Philology, a professor and honored academic of the Soviet Union (1946).
Mukhtar Shakhanov (Мухтар Шаханов) (born 2 July 1942 in Otrar, Kazakhstan) is a prominent Kazakh writer, lawmaker, and the Kazakh ambassador to Kyrgyzstan.
Mukhtarkhan Qabylanbekuly Dildabekov (Мұхтархан Қабыланбекұлы Ділдәбеков; born March 19, 1976 in Shymkent, Ontustik Qazaqstan) is a Kazakh boxer, best known to win the silver medal in the Super Heavyweight division (+91 kg) at the 2000 Summer Olympics.
The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Myn Bala (Жаужүрек мың бала) is a 2011 Kazakhstani historical dramatic film depicting the eighteenth century war fought between the Kazakhs and the Dzungar Khanate.
Natalia Yurievna Ragozina (Наталья Юрьевна Рагозина), better known as Natascha Ragosina, is an undefeated retired professional boxer who spent much of her career ranked as the top female super middleweight in the world.
The National Bank of Kazakhstan (translit) is the central bank of Kazakhstan.
The National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NSC) is an intelligence agency in Kazakhstan.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Antropov (Николай Александрович Антропов; born February 18, 1980) is a Kazakh-Canadian former professional ice hockey centre who played in the National Hockey League (NHL) with the Toronto Maple Leafs, New York Rangers, Atlanta Thrashers and Winnipeg Jets.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Novorossiya, Novorussia or New Russia (nəvɐˈrosʲɪjə; Novorosiya), also referred to as the Union of People's Republics (sɐˈjus nɐˈrodnɨx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk; Союз народних республік, Soyuz Narodnykh Respublik), is a proposed confederation of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) in eastern Ukraine, both of which share a border with Russia.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
The "Nur Otan" Democratic People's Party ("Нұр Отан" Халықтық Демократиялық Партиясы, "Nur Otan" Halyqtyq Demokratııalyq Partııasy; "Нур Отан" Народно-Демократическая Партия,"Nur Otan" Narodno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), called simply Nur Otan (Нұр Отан, "Radiant Fatherland"), is the ruling political party in Kazakhstan with over 762,000 members.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
Nurtai Abykayevich Abykayev (Нұртай Әбіқайұлы Әбіқаев, Nurtay Äbiqayulı Äbiqayev; Нуртай Абыкаевич Абыкаев, Nurtay Abykayevich Abykayev) is the current Chairman of the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oghuz Khagan or Oghuz Khan (Oğuz Kağan) was a legendary and semi-mythological khan of the Turks.
The oil & gas basins of Kazakhstan can be grouped into four revealed or prospective oil & gas provinces in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
Oleg Alexandrovich Maskayev (Олег Александрович Маскаев; born 2 March 1969) is a Russian-American former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2013, and held the WBC heavyweight title from 2006 to 2008.
Olga Rypakova (Ольга Сергеевна Рыпакова; née Alekseyeva; 30 November 1984) is a Kazakh track and field athlete.
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Oral (Орал), Ural'sk (Уральск) in Russian, formerly known as Yaitsk (Russian: Яицк, until 1775), is a city in northwestern Kazakhstan, at the confluence of the Ural and Chogan rivers close to the Russian border.
Oralman (Оралмандар), or "returnee", is an official term used by Kazakh authorities to describe ethnic Kazakhs who have immigrated to Kazakhstan since its independence in 1991.
The Order of the Badge of Honour (Орден «Знак Почёта») was a civilian award of the Soviet Union.
Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Orsk (Орск) is the second largest city in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the steppe about southeast of the southern tip of the Ural Mountains.
Ust-Kamenogorsk (Усть-Каменого́рск) or Oskemen (Өскемен/Öskemen) is the administrative center of East Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kazakhstan: The Republic of Kazakhstan is a landlocked sovereign country located across both Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Oxytropis is a genus of plants in the legume family.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul), also called the manul, is a small wild cat with a broad but fragmented distribution in the grasslands and montane steppes of Central Asia.
The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Республикасының Парламенті, Qazaqstan Respuwblïkasınıñ Parlamenti; Парламент Республики Казахстан, Parliament Respubliki Kazakhstan) is the bicameral legislature of Kazakhstan, according to the 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan. The lower house is the Majilis, with 107 seats, (98 seats are from party lists, 9 - from Assembly of People) which are elected to four year terms. The upper house is the Senate, which has 47 members. As of January 2007, 10% of the parliament's representatives are women and 19% of local and city council officials are women. RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty Its predecessor was the Supreme Soviet.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Pavlodar (Kazakh and Russian: Павлодар) is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and the capital of Pavlodar Region.
PBC CSKA Moscow (ПБК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian professional basketball team based in Moscow, Russia.
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petropavl (Petropavl) or Petropavlovsk (r), is a city on the Ishim River in northern Kazakhstan close to the border with Russia, about 261 km west of Omsk along the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The Philippines men's national basketball team (Pambansang koponan ng basketbol ng Pilipinas) is managed by the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (Basketball Federation of the Philippines or simply SBP).
Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution (in the Autumn of Nations), and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others.
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union, tens of millions of people suffered political repression, which was an instrument of the state since the October Revolution.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respy'bli'kasynyn' Prezi'denti, Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті) is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Kazakhstan, from the establishment of the office in 1920 to the present day.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Pugachev's Rebellion (Peasants' War 1773-75, Cossack Rebellion) of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
The RDS-1 (РДС-1), also known as Izdeliye 501 (device 501) and First Lightning, was the nuclear bomb used in the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
Kazakhstan is divided into 14 regions (облыстар./oblystar; singular: облыс/oblıs; области./oblasti; singular: область/oblast'). The regions are further subdivided into districts (аудандар./aýdandar; singular: аудан/aýdan; районы./rayoni; singular: район/rayon). Four cities, Baikonur, Shymkent, the largest city Almaty, and the capital Astana are not part of the regions they are surrounded by.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Soviet Union was established by the Bolsheviks in 1922, in place of the Russian Empire.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Respublika (Russian: Республика – деловое оброзение) or Golos Respubliki (Voice of the Republic) was a weekly Russian-language Kazakhstani newspaper.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russian traditional music specifically deals with the folk music traditions of the ethnic Russian people.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
There has been a substantial population of Russian Kazakhstani since the 19th century.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saken Seyfullin (Сәкен Сейфуллин) (15 October 1894 – 28 February 1939) was a pioneer of modern Kazakh literature, poet and writer, and national activist.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Hockey Club Saryarka («Сарыарқа» хоккей клубы; Хоккейный клуб «Сарыарка́»), commonly referred as Saryarka Karagandy, is a professional ice hockey team based in Karagandy, Kazakhstan.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
A security is a tradable financial asset.
Semey (Semeı, Семей), until 2007 known as Semipalatinsk (Semıpalatinsk, Семипалатинск) and in 1917–1920 as Alash-kala (Алаш-қала, Alash-qala), is a city in Kazakhstan, in East Kazakhstan Region, and in the Kazakhstani part of Siberia, near the border with Russia, around north of Almaty, and southeast of the Russian city of Omsk, along the Irtysh River.
The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS or Semipalatinsk-21), also known as "The Polygon", was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The Senate of Kazakhastan (Қазақстан Парламентінің Сенаты, Qazaqstan Parlamentiniñ Senatı) is the upper house of two chambers in Kazakhstan's legislature, known as the Parliament (Parlamenti).
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serik Sapiyev (Серік Жұманғалиұлы Сәпиев, born November 16, 1983) is an amateur boxer from Kazakhstan who won the world title in the light welterweight (-64 kg) division in 2005 and 2007 and Olympic Gold 2012 at welterweight.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shal (شال) (Tati: چال, Čâl) is a city and capital of Shal District, in Buin Zahra County, Qazvin Province, Iran.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Shymkent (Shymkent, شىمكەنت, known until 1993 as Chimkent (Чимкент, چىمكېنت; Чимкент, Čimkent), is a city in the Republic of Kazakhstan; one of the three cities which have the status equal to that of a region (the city of republican significance). It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with an estimated population of 669,326 in 2012. After joining adjacent areas to the city the population has sharply risen to 858,147 in the beginning of 2015; as by 1 st May of 2018, Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics estimated the city population to be equal to 988 894. According to the region and city officials, millionth resident of Shymkent was born on 17th May, 2018. Shymkent is a major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the city is also a notable cultural centre, with an international airport. Shymkent is situated west of Almaty and to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which covers the Chang'an-Tianshan portion of the ancient Silk Road and historical sites along the route.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet atomic bomb project (Russian: Советский проект атомной бомбы, Sovetskiy proyekt atomnoy bomby) was the classified research and development program that was authorized by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union to develop nuclear weapons during World War II.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet national basketball team was the basketball side that represented the Soviet Union in international competitions.
The square is an Imperial unit of area that is used in the construction industry in the United States and Canada, and was historically used in Australia.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The Steppe Route was an ancient overland route through the Eurasian Steppe that was an active precursor of the Silk Road.
A string is the vibrating element that produces sound in string instruments such as the guitar, harp, piano (piano wire), and members of the violin family.
The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union.
The Sukhoi Su-27 (Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.
Sir Suma Chakrabarti (born 1959) was elected as the President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) on 18 May 2012 for a period of four years starting from 3 July 2012.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Hockey League (Высшая хоккейная лига (ВХЛ), Vysshaya hokkeinaya liga (VHL)), also known as the Major Hockey League or Higher Hockey League (HHL), is a professional ice hockey league in Eurasia, and the second highest level of Russian hockey.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tamgaly is a petroglyph site in the Zhetysu of Kazakhstan.
Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government and is usually undertaken to improve tax administration or to provide economic or social benefits.
In the United States, a technical school is a two-year college that covers fields such as business, finance, hospitality, tourism, construction, engineering, visual arts, information technology and community work.
Tengiz field (Tengiz is Turkic for "sea") is an oil field located in northwestern Kazakhstan's low-lying wetlands along the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea.
The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-Eye View of the World is a 2001 nonfiction book by journalist Michael Pollan.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Timatic is the database containing cross border passenger documentation requirements.
Standard time in Kazakhstan is either UTC+05:00 or UTC+06:00.
Timur Nuruakhitovich Bekmambetov (born June 25, 1961) is a Russian-Kazakh director, producer and screenwriter who has worked on films, music videos and commercials.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Trade Act of 2002 (U.S. Trade Promotion Authority Act) granted the President of the United States the authority to negotiate trade deals with other countries and gives Congress the approval to only vote up or down on the agreement, not to amend it.
The broad gauge Trans-Aral Railway (also known as the Tashkent Railway) was built in 1906 connecting Orenburg and Tashkent, then both in the Russian Empire.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).
Turan Ensemble (also named Тұран, or Turan Ethno Folk Band) is a Kazakh folk music band, which was created in 2008 by several students of Kazakh National Conservatory named after Kurmangazy.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Turkestan Military District (Туркестанский военный округ (ТуркВО), Turkestansky voyenyi okrug (TurkVO)) was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic Council (Türk Şurası; Түрік кеңесі; Түрк кеңеш; Türk Keneşi; Turkiy Kengash, Туркий Кенгаш; or, in full, the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS; Turkish: Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), is an international organization comprising some of the Turkic countries. It was founded on 3 October 2009 in Nakhchivan. The General Secretariat is in İstanbul, Turkey. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council due to their neutral stance; however, they are possible future members of the council. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkistan (Түркістан, Túrkistan, تٷركئستان), formerly known as Turkestan (Туркестан; Turkiston, Туркистон, توركىستان), is a city and the admiistrative center of Turkistan Region of Kazakhstan, near the Syr Darya river.
Turkistan Region (Túrkistan oblysy, Туркестанская область, previously South Kazakhstan Region Ońtústik Qazaqstan oblysy, Оңтүстік Қазақстан облысы; Южно-Казахстанская область) is the southernmost region of Kazakhstan.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A prolonged crisis in Ukraine began on 21 November 2013 when then-president Viktor Yanukovych suspended preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Ulytau (Ұлытау), literally meaning "the great mountain", is a popular Turkic neopagan instrumental folk metal trio from Kazakhstan.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UniCredit S.p.A. is an Italian global banking and financial services company.
Unified Sports Classification System of the USSR (Единая Всесоюзная спортивная классификация) is a document which provided general Soviet physical education system requirements for both athletes and coaches.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
United Nations Security Council resolution 732, adopted without a vote on 23 January 1992, after examining the application of the Republic of Kazakhstan for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Kazakhstan be admitted.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urker (Үркер, Уркер) is a Kazakh pop-folk group established in 1994.
UTC+05:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +05:00.
UTC+06:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +06:00.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Val Barker Trophy is presented every four years to the most "outstanding boxer" at the Olympic Games.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Vassiliy Valeryevich Jirov (born 4 April 1974), sometimes known as Vasily Zhirov, is a Kazakhstani former professional boxer who competed from 1997 to 2009, and held the IBF cruiserweight title from 1999 to 2003.
Vassily Vassilievich Balabanov (January 30, 1873 in Bakhmut, Yekaterinoslav Governorate – January 27, 1947 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) was an administrator and Provincial Governor of Imperial Russia.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.
The Virgin Lands Campaign (Освое́ние целины́, Osvoyeniye tseliny; Tyn' i'gery') was Nikita Khrushchev’s 1953 plan to dramatically boost the Soviet Union’s agricultural production in order to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Soviet populace.
Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran.
Vladimir Ivanovich Kozlov (Russian and Kazakh: Владимир Иванович Козлов) is a Kazakh journalist and politician who has been a leader of the democratic opposition in Kazakhstan and a candidate for his country's presidency.
A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.
The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья; Autonome Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen), abbreviated as Volga German ASSR (АССР Немцев Поволжья; ASSR der Wolgadeutschen) or VGASSR (АССРНП; ASSRWD), was an autonomous republic established in Soviet Russia.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
West Kazakhstan Region (Батыс Қазақстан облысы, Batys Qazaqstan oblysy) (tr. Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast; West Kazakhstan Region) is a region of Kazakhstan.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Boxing Association (WBA) is the oldest and one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC, and WBO.
The World Boxing Council (WBC) is one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the International Boxing Federation (IBF), World Boxing Association (WBA) and World Boxing Organization (WBO) and one of the two original sanctioning bodies (along with the WBA).
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an American independent, multidisciplinary organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yermakhan Ibraimov (born 1 January 1972 in Jambyl Region) is a Kazakh boxer who competed in the Light Middleweight (71 kg) at the 2000 Summer Olympics and won the gold medal.
Zhetysu or Semirechye (Jetisu', Жетісу, pronounced meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed Zhetisu, Jetisuw, Jetysu, Jeti-su, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу etc. and Yedi-su in Turkish, هفتآب Haft-āb in Persian) is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan.
Zhibek Zholy (Жібек Жолы: Silk Road; Жибек Жолы) is a station of Line 1 of the Almaty Metro.
A zhuz (ju’z, ٴجۇز, also translated as "horde" or "hundred") is one of the three main territorial and tribal divisions in the Kypchak Plain area that covers much of the contemporary Kazakhstan, and represents the main tribal division within the ethnic group of the Kazakhs.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
.kz and.қаз (abbreviation of Қазақстан, tr. Qazaqstan) are the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Kazakhstan.
.қаз (abbreviation of Қазақстан, tr. Qazaqstan) are the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Kazakhstan,.қаз ("qaz") for Kazakhstan is now active.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 9th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held from 23 August to 31 August 2003 in the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, France.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships was the 70th such event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games (Les XXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as Turin 2006 or italic, was a winter multi-sport event which was held in Turin, Piedmont, Italy from February 10 to 26, 2006.
The 11th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), were held at Nagai Stadium in Osaka, Japan from 24 August to 2 September 2007.
The 2011 Asian Winter Games was a multi sporting event that was held in Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan and that began on January 30, 2011 and ended on February 6, 2011.
The 2011 Bandy World Championship was an edition of the top annual event in international men's bandy, held between January 23 and January 30, 2011, in Kazan, Russia.
The 13th IAAF World Championships in Athletics was an international athletics competition that was held in Daegu, South Korea.
The 2012 Bandy World Championship was an edition of the top annual event in international bandy, held between January 29 and February 5, 2012, in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIVème Jeux olympiques d'hiver), and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighbouring Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
The 40th Army of the Soviet Union's Soviet Army was an army-level command that participated in World War II from 1941 to 1945 and was reformed specifically for the Soviet War in Afghanistan from 1979 to circa 1990.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 46° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 56th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 88° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of Kazakhstan, Corruption in Kazakhstan, Day of the Capital, Etymology of Kazakhstan, First President Day, ISO 3166-1:KZ, KA3AKCTAH, KA3AXCTAH, KAZAKHSTAN, Kazachstan, Kazacstan, Kazahastan, Kazahkstan, Kazahstan, Kazajastan, Kazakh Eli, Kazakh Republic, Kazakh Yeli, Kazakhia, Kazakhistan, Kazakistan, Kazakstan, Kazastan, Kazhakstan, Khazahstan, Khazakastan, Khazakhstan, Khazakstan, Khazakstani, Name of Kazakhstan, Natural resources of Kazakhstan, Public holidays in Kazakhstan, Qazaqstan, Qazaqstan Respublïkası, Qazaqstan Respwblïkası, Republic of Kazakhstan, Respublika Kazakhstan, The Republic of Kazakhstan, Казакстан, Казахстан, Республика Казахстан, ҚР, Қазақстан, Қазақстан Республикасы, قازاقستان, قازاقستان رەسپۋبلىيكاسى.