284 relations: Administrative divisions of the Republic of Tatarstan, Airplane, Ak Bars Kazan, Aktobe, Alexander Burmistrov, Alexander Butlerov, Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, Alexander I of Russia, Alexandre Fadeev, Alliance Française, Almaty, Ankara, Antalya, Arkhangelsk, Arms industry, Association football, Astana, Astrakhan, Ataman, Azerbaijanis, Äcem Mosque, İske Qazan, Şihabetdin Märcani, Baghdad, Bahá'í Faith, Baku, Bandy, Bandy World Championship, Basket-Hall Kazan, Basketball, Battle of Kazan (1774), Bauman Street, Kazan, BC UNICS, Belarus, Bilär, Bishkek, Bolaq, Bolghar, Bolsheviks, Borisoglebskoye Airfield, Bornay Mosque, Braunschweig, Bulgar language, Bulgars, Buzuluk, Orenburg Oblast, Capital city, Caspian Flotilla, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Central Stadium (Kazan), ..., Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Chengdu, Chuvash people, City of federal subject significance, College Station, Texas, Confluence, Czechoslovak Legion, Dayana Kirillova, Denis Arkhipov, Dinara Safina, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Don Cossacks, Donetsk, Duchy, Dynamo Kazan Bandy Club, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eskişehir, European route E22, European Russia, European Union, FC Rubin Kazan, FIFA World Cup, Finswimming, Gavrila Derzhavin, Ghazan, Ghiyath-ud-din Khan, Golden Dragon (company), Golden Horde, Governor, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Gross regional product, Grozny, Guangzhou, Gwangju, Hangzhou, Harare, Higer Bus, Horsecar, Hovercraft, Humid continental climate, Hungary, Hyundai Motor Company, Ice hockey, Idel-Ural State, Ilkhanate, Ilsur Metshin, Iran, Iske Tash Mosque, Istanbul, Ivan the Terrible, Ivanovo, Jūrmala, Jews, Judaism, Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2013, Junior Hockey League (Russia), Kaban Lakes, Kabul, Kama tank school, Karl Ernst Claus, Kazakhstan, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan Air Enterprise, Kazan Aircraft Production Association, Kazan Ansat, Kazan Arena, Kazan Art School, Kazan Conservatory, Kazan Governorate, Kazan Helicopters, Kazan International Airport, Kazan Kremlin, Kazan Metro, Kazan metropolitan area, Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev, Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan Operation, Kazan railway station, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan Volleyball Centre, Kazanka River, Köppen climate classification, Khan (title), Khanate of Kazan, Kipchaks, Konstantin Thon, Kontinental Hockey League, Krasnoyarsk, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kryashens, Kuzma Minin, List of cities and towns in Russia by population, Marat Safin, Mari people, Märcani Mosque, Medal "In Commemoration of the 1000th Anniversary of Kazan", Mercer (consulting firm), Middle Ages, Mil Mi-14, Mil Mi-17, Millennium Bridge (Kazan), Minsk Automobile Plant, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, Mongols, Monufia Governorate, Moscow, Moscow State University, Mosque, National Junior Hockey League, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nationalities Papers, Neftekamsk Automotive Plant, Nikolai Lobachevsky, Nizhny Novgorod, Nurulla Mosque, October Revolution, Orenburg, Organization of World Heritage Cities, Oriental studies, Oryol, Our Lady of Kazan, Peter the Great, President, Protestantism, Pugachev's Rebellion, Pushkin Street, Kazan, Qalyubia Governorate, Qolşärif Mosque, Quran, Raketa Stadium, Rashid Nezhmetdinov, Ruslan Nigmatullin, Russia, Russia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Bandy Super League, Russian Chess Championship, Russian language, Russian Premier League, Russian Professional Basketball League, Russian Volleyball Super League, Russians, Ruthenium, Saint Petersburg State University, Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral (Kazan), Samara, Saratov, Söyembikä Tower, Scandinavia, Science park, Serving Tatars, Shenzhen, Shumen Province, Siege of Kazan, Sintez Kazan, Sister city, Sofya Gulyak, Soltan Mosque, Sovetsky City District, Kazan, Soviet Union, Sterlitamak, Sunni Islam, Svetlana Demina, Tabriz, Tank, Tashkent, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Tatars, Tatarstan, Tatarstan Airlines, TatNeft Arena, Texas, Time of Troubles, Tlemcen, Tolyatti, Tram, Treaty of Rapallo (1922), Trolleybus, Trolza, Trudovye Rezervy Stadium (Kazan), Tsardom of Russia, Tupolev Tu-160, Tupolev Tu-204, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Tyumen, Udmurt people, Ufa, Ukrainians, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, United Cities and Local Governments, Urbino, VC Zenit-Kazan, Venera Gimadieva, Verona, Vietnamese people, Viktor Kolotov, Volga Bulgaria, Volga economic region, Volga Federal District, Volga River, Volga Tatars, Volga trade route, Volgograd, Volleyball, Vytautas, Water polo, World Heritage site, World War II, WorldSkills, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yemelyan Pugachev, Yevgeny Zavoisky, Yevpatoria, Yoshkar-Ola, Yutong, 1905 Russian Revolution, 2005 Bandy World Championship, 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves, 2011 Bandy World Championship, 2011 European Weightlifting Championships, 2013 Summer Universiade, 2014 European Badminton Championships, 2014 World Fencing Championships, 2015 World Aquatics Championships, 2016 European Judo Championships, 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2018 FIFA World Cup, 71-608. 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This is a list of units of administrative division of the Republic of Tatarstan, a federal subject of Russia.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
Hockey Club Ak Bars (Ак Барс, Snow Leopard), also known as Ak Bars Kazan, is a Russian professional ice hockey team based in Kazan.
Aktobe (Ақтөбе, Aqtóbe) is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan.
Alexander Olegovich Burmistrov (Russian: Александр Олегович Бурмистров,; born 21 October 1991) is a Russian professional ice hockey player, currently under contract to Ak Bars Kazan of the Kontinental Hockey League.
Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; 15 September 1828 – 17 August 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).
Prince Alexander Borisovich Gorbatyi-Shuisky (Александр Борисович Горбатый-Шуйский) was probably the most celebrated and popular general of Ivan the Terrible.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexandre Vladimirovich "Sasha" Fadeev (Алекса́ндр Влади́мирович Фаде́ев; born 4 January 1964) is a Russian former competitive figure skater who represented the Soviet Union.
L'Alliance Française (French Alliance), or AF, is an international organization that aims to promote French language and culture around the world.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Ataman (variants: otaman, wataman, vataman; Russian: атаман, отаман) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Äcem Mosque (Tatar Cyrillic and Latin respectively: Әҗем мәчете or Äcem mäçete); (Ази́мовская мече́ть, Azimovskaya mechet) is a prominent cathedral mosque in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
İske Qazan (literally: Old Kazan; Cyrillic: Иске Казан), was a Bolghar-Tatar city in the 13-16th centuries, situated on the banks of the Qazansu river in the Qazan artı or Zakazanye region, in what is today the Russian Federation republic of Tatarstan.
Şihabetdin Märcani (pronounced; Cyrillic Шиһабетдин Мәрҗани, Arabic شہاب الدین مرجانی, also spelled Shihabetdin Marjani; 1818–1889) was a Tatar Muslim theologian and historian.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
Basket-Hall Kazan is a basketball specialized indoor arena that is located in Kazan, Russia.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Kazan (1774) was a major battle during the Pugachev Rebellion.
Baumana Street (улица Баумана; Бауман урамы) is a pedestrian street in the heart of Kazan, the capital of the Tatarstan, Russia.
BC UNICS (БК УНИКС) is a professional basketball club in Kazan, Russia, that plays in the VTB United League and EuroCup.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bilär (Tatar: Биләр) was a medieval city in Volga Bulgaria and its second capital before the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
The Bolaq (بۇلاق; Булак, Bulak) is a canal that once flowed from the northern part of Birge Qaban to Kazanka (Qazansu).
Bolghar (Болгар, Пăлхар) was intermittently capital of Volga Bulgaria from the 8th to the 15th centuries, along with Bilyar and Nur-Suvar.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Borisoglebskoye airfield (Аэродром Борисоглебское) is an experimental aviation airfield owned by Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
The Bornay Mosque (Cyrillic: Bornay məçete, Борнай мәчете; former The Third Cathedral Mosque), also spelled Burnayevskaya Mosque (Бурна́евская мечеть) is a mosque in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Buzuluk (Бузулу́к) is a town in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the Samara, Buzuluk, and Domashka Rivers northwest of Orenburg.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Caspian Flotilla (r) is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Stadium (Центральный стадион, Üzäk stadion) is a multi-purpose stadium in Kazan, Russia.
Cheboksary (p; Шупашкар, Šupaškar) is the capital city of Chuvashia, Russia and a port on the Volga River.
Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
The Chuvash people (чăваш,; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.
City of federal subject significance is an umbrella term used to refer to a type of an administrative division of a federal subject of Russia which is equal in status to a district but is organized around a large city; occasionally with surrounding rural territories.
College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in East-Central Texas in the heart of the Brazos Valley, in the center of the region known as Texas Triangle.
In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Dayana Jurjevna Kirillova (p; born 16 April 2002) is a Russian singer.
Denis Mikhailovich Arkhipov (Дени́с Миха́йлович Архи́пов; born May 19, 1979) is a Russian professional ice hockey player currently playing for Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
Dinara Mubinovna Safina (Динара Мубиновна Сафина; Динара Мөбин кызы Сафина, born April 27, 1986 in Moscow) is a former world No. 1 Russian tennis player.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
Dynamo-Kazan (Дина́мо-Каза́нь; formerly Raketa (Ракета) 1958–2008) is a professional bandy club from Kazan, Russia, established in 1958 and playing in the Russian Bandy League since 1996.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of.
The European route E 22 is one of the longest European routes.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
FC Rubin Kazan (Футбо́льный клуб Руби́н Каза́нь, Futbolny klub Rubin Kazan) is a Russian association football club based in the city of Kazan.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water's surface using a snorkel with either monofins or bifins or underwater with monofin either by holding one's breath or using open circuit scuba diving equipment.
Gavriil (Gavrila) Romanovich Derzhavin (a; 14 July 1743 – 20 July 1816) was one of the most highly esteemed Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman.
Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) (sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304.
Ghiyath-ud-din Khan (Urdu;Persian;Arabic:; Tatar: Ğiäsetdin, Russian: Ghiasetdin) (? –1438 or 1445) was initially the governor of Kazan province of the fragmenting Golden Horde during the reign of Edigu.
Xiamen Golden Dragon Bus Co.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Gwangju is the sixth largest city in South Korea.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
Higer Bus Company Limited, also known as Higer Bus, is a Chinese bus manufacturer based in Suzhou, Jiangsu province.
A horsecar, or horse-drawn tram, is an animal-powered (usually horse) tram or streetcar.
A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Hyundai Motor Company (modernity) is a South Korean multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Seoul, South Korea.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
The Idel-Ural State was a short-lived Tatar republic with its centre in Kazan that united Tatars, Bashkirs and the Chuvash in the turmoil of the Russian Civil War.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Ilsur Metshin (Ильсур Раисович Метшин, Илсур Рәис улы Метшин, born April 24, 1969) is a Tatarstan politician.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The İske Taş or Iske Tash Mosque, also the Old Stone Mosque (via İske Taş mäçet, Старокаменная мечеть, мечеть Иске-Таш, Starokamennaya, Iske-Tash) or the Mosque of the Old Stone (via İske Taş mäçete), formerly known as The Ninth Cathedral Mosque, The Big Stone Mosque, is a mosque in Kazan, Russia.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Ivanovo (p) is a city and the administrative center of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, located from Moscow and approximately from Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Kostroma.
Jūrmala ("seaside") is a city in Latvia, about west of Riga.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2013 was the 11th annual Junior Eurovision Song Contest.
The Junior Hockey League (MHL) (Molodezhnaya Hokkeinaya Liga), sometimes translated as the Minor or Youth Hockey League, is a major junior ice hockey league in Eurasia, founded in 2009.
The Kaban Lakes (قابان كولئ) are a system of lakes in Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia that includes Nizhny (Blizhny) Kaban, Verkhny Kaban, and Sredny Kaban.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kama tank school (Panzerschule Kama) was a secret training school for tank commanders operated by the German Reichswehr at Kazan, Soviet Union.
Karl Ernst Claus (also Karl Klaus or Carl Claus, Карл Ка́рлович Кла́ус, 23 January 1796 – 24 March 1864) was a Baltic German chemist and naturalist.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет, Kazanskiy (Privolzhskiy) federalnyy universitet; Казан (Идел Буе) федераль университеты) is located in Kazan, Russia.
Kazan Air Enterprise is an airline based in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO; Kazanskoye Aviatsionnoe Proizvodstvennoe Obyedinenie imeni S.P. Gorbunova) is an aircraft manufacturer based in Kazan, Russia.
The Kazan Ansat is a Russian light, multipurpose helicopter manufactured by Kazan Helicopters.
Kazan Arena («Казань Арена»; Казан Арена) is a stadium in Kazan, Russia.
The Kazan Art School is a state autonomous education institution in Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan.
The N.G. Zhiganov Kazan State Conservatory (Russian: Казанская государственная консерватория имени Н.Г. Жиганова) is a higher musical education institution in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
The Kazan Governorate (Каза́нская губе́рния; قازان عوبئرناسئ; Хусан кӗперниӗ, Husan kĕperniĕ), or the Government of Kazan, was a governorate (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR from 1708–1920, with its seat in the city of Kazan.
Kazan Helicopters, Joint Stock Company is a Russian helicopter manufacturing company based at Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan.
Kazan International Airport (Международный аэропорт Казань, Казан Халыкара Аэропорты; IATA: KZN, ICAO: UWKD) is an airport located in Russia, around 25 km southeast of Kazan.
The Kazan Kremlin (Казанский Кремль; Казан кирмәне) is the chief historic citadel of Tatarstan, situated in the city of Kazan.
Kazan Metro (Каза́нское метро́; Казан метросы Tatar Latin: Qazan metrosı) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. The metro system was the seventh opened in Russia, and the fifteenth in the former Soviet Union region. Opened on August 27, 2005, it is the newest system in Russia.
Kazan metropolitan area is one of the largest areas, located in Russia, which includes the cities and districts of Tatarstan and Mari El republics.
Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev) (KAI (KNRTU-KAI, full name in Russian: Казанский национальный исследовательский технический университет имени А. Н. Туполева) was established in 1932.
Kazan National Research Technological University, KNRTU is an innovational scientific educational complex.
Kazan Operation was the Red Army's offensive (5–10 September 1918) against the Czechoslovak Legion and the People Army of Komuch during the Russian Civil War.
Kazan-Passazhirskaya (Казань-Пассажирская) is a railway station in the capital of Tatarstan — Kazan in Russia.
Based primarily in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia, the Kazan State Medical University (KSMU) is a federal university made up of nine faculties.
The Volleyball Centre of Saint Petersburg (Центр волейбола "Санкт-Петербург"), also known as Kazan Volleyball Centre, is a sports complex in Kazan, Russia.
Kazanka (Каза́нка; Казансу) is a river in the Russia, a left tributary of the Volga.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Konstantin Andreyevich Thon, also spelled Ton (Константи́н Андре́евич Тон; October 26, 1794 – January 25, 1881) was an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas I. His major works include the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Krasnoyarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.
Kremlyovskaya Street (Кремлёвская улица; Kreml uramı/Кремль урамы) is the main street of the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kryashens (Kryashen: кряшенняр, керәшен(нәр),, кряшены; sometimes called Baptised Tatars (крещёные тата́ры)) are a sub-group of the Volga Tatars, frequently referred to as one of the minority ethnic groups in Russia.
Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.
This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures. The list excludes the city of Sevastopol and the cities/towns of the Republic of Crimea, as those were not a part of the 2010 Census, are a subject of an unresolved dispute between Russia and Ukraine, and are considered to be a part of Ukraine by the majority of the international community. The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities.
Marat Mubinovich Safin (p, Марат Мөбин улы Сафин; born 27 January 1980) is a Russian politician and retired professional tennis player.
The Mari (мари, марийцы) are a Finno-Ugric ethnic group, who have traditionally lived along the Volga and Kama rivers in Russia.
The Märcani Mosque (pronounced; Cyrillic: (әл-)Мәрҗани мәчете; formerly Äfände, i.e. Seigniorial, The First Cathedral Mosque, The Yunısovs' Mosque), also spelled al-Marjani, Mardjani and Mardzhani (Мечеть (аль-)Марджани́) is a mosque in Kazan, Russia, built in 1766-1770 by Catherine the Great's authority and on the city's population's donations.
The Medal "In Commemoration of the 1000th Anniversary of Kazan" (Медаль «В память 1000-летия Казани») is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation established on June 30, 2005 by Presidential Decree № 762 to denote the 1000th anniversary of the foundation of Kazan, the capital city of Tatarstan.
Mercer is the world's largest human resources consulting firm.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mil Mi-14 (Миль Ми-14, NATO reporting name: Haze) is a Soviet shore-based nuclear-capable amphibious anti-submarine helicopter derived from the earlier Mi-8.
The Mil Mi-17 (NATO reporting name: Hip) is a Russian helicopter in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude.
The Millennium Bridge (Millennium Küpere, Russian: Мост Милленниум) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans Kazanka River, in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
Minsk Automobile Plant (MAZ), (Адкрытaе Акцыянэрнaе Таварыства «Мінскі аўтамабільны завод», Open JSC Minski Autamabilny Zavod, Минский автомобильный завод Minskyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod) is a state-run automotive manufacturer association in Belarus, one of the largest in Eastern Europe.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Monufia Governorate (محافظة المنوفية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The National Junior Hockey League (NMHL) (formerly Junior Hockey League Division B) (Национальная молодежная хоккейная лига (НМХЛ)) is the second level of the Junior Hockey League, the KHL's junior ice hockey league.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nationalities Papers is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge for the Association for the Study of Nationalities.
Neftekamsk Automotive Plant (NEFAZ, Нефтекамский автозавод) is a Russian manufacturer of buses and machinery on KamAZ chassis located in Neftekamsk in Bashkortostan.
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; –) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry and also his fundamental study on Dirichlet integrals known as Lobachevsky integral formula.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The Nurulla Mosque (also spelled Nurullah; Cyrillic: Нурулла́; formerly The Seventh Cathedral Mosque, Hay Bazaar Mosque: Peçän Bazarı mäçete; Сенная мечеть/Sennaya, Bazaar Mosque, Yunıs Mosque, The Main Mosque, The White Mosque etc.) is a mosque in Kazan, Russia.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.
The Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization of 250 cities in which sites of the UNESCO World Heritage list are located.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Oryol or Orel (p, lit. eagle) is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately south-southwest of Moscow.
Our Lady of Kazan, also called Mother-of-God of Kazan (Казанская Богоматерь tr. Kazanskaya Bogomater), was a holy icon of the highest stature within the Russian Orthodox Church, representing the Virgin Mary as the protector and patroness of the city of Kazan, and a palladium of all of Russia, known as the Holy Protectress of Russia.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Pugachev's Rebellion (Peasants' War 1773-75, Cossack Rebellion) of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762.
Pushkin Street (улица Пушкина; Puşkin uramı) is the main street of Kazan, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Qalyubia Governorate (محافظة القليوبية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
The Qolşärif Mosque (pronounced, also spelled Qol Sharif, Qol Sherif and Kol Sharif via the Tatar Qol Şärif mäçete, Qolşärif mäçete, and Kul Sharif via the Russian мечеть Кул-Шариф, mechet Kul-Sharif) located in Kazan Kremlin, was reputed to be – at the time of its construction – one of the largest mosques in Russia, and in Europe outside of Istanbul.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raketa Stadium is a sports venue in Kazan.
Rashid Gibiatovich Nezhmetdinov (Räşit Hibät ulı Näcmetdinov, Рашид Гибятович Нежметдинов; December 15, 1912 – June 3, 1974) was an eminent Soviet chess player, chess writer, and checkers player.
Ruslan Karimovich Nigmatullin (p, Ruslan Kərim ulı Niğmətullin; born 7 October 1974 in Kazan, Tatarstan, Soviet Union) is a retired association footballer of Volga Tatar ethnicity who played goalkeeper and is currently working as a DJ.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russia first competed in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest in 2005.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Bandy Super League (Чемпионат России по хоккею с мячом — Суперлига), is a professional bandy league in Russia, the top division of Russian bandy.
The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Football Championship (Чемпионат России по футболу, Chempionat Rossii po Futbolu), or Russian Football Premier League (Российская футбольная премьер-лига), is the top division professional association football league in Russia.
The Professional Basketball League (Профессиональная баскетбольная лига (ПБЛ), Professionalʼnaya basketbolʼnaya liga), often abbreviated to the PBL, was the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in Russia, and the successor to the Russian Super League 1, which is now the second-tier division of the Russian basketball league system.
The Russian Volleyball Super League (Волейбольная суперлига.) is the top league of Russian volleyball.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral (Petropavlovsky Cathedral, Петропавловский собор) is a Russian Orthodox church in Kazan (Tatarstan).
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
Saratov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, Russia, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream (north) of Volgograd.
Söyembikä Tower (Сөембикә манарасы; Ба́шня Сююмбикэ́), also called the Khan's Mosque, is probably the most familiar landmark and architectural symbol of Kazan.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A science park (also called a "university research park", or a "science and technology park") is defined as being a property-based development that accommodates and fosters the growth of tenant firms and that are affiliated with a university (or a government and private research bodies) based on proximity, ownership, and/or governance.
Serving Tatars (Yomışlı Tatarlar; Служилые татары) were a class of ethnically Tatars state servants in Muscovy and Russia in 14th-18th centuries.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Shumen Province (Област Шумен, transliterated Oblast Shumen, former name Shumen okrug) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria named after its main city Shumen.
The Siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of the Russo-Kazan Wars and led to the fall of the Khanate of Kazan.
Sintez is a Russian professional water polo club from Kazan, Tatarstan.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Sofya Gulyak (born in Kazan, 1979) is a Russian classical pianist.
The Soltan Mosque (Cyrillic: Солтан мәчете; formerly Cihanşa bay Mosque, The Red Mosque, Ğosman Mosque, The Eighth Mosque, also spelled Sultan or Sultanovskaya via Russian Султановская мечеть) is a mosque in Kazan, Russia.
Sovetsky City District (Сове́тский район; Sowet rayonı) is a city district of Kazan, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sterlitamak (p; Стәрлетамаҡ, Stärletamaq) is the second largest city in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Belaya River (Kama's tributary), from Ufa.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Svetlana Aleksandrovna Demina (Светлана Александровна Демина, born April 18, 1961 in Vologda Oblast) is a Russian sport shooter, specializing in the skeet shootings event.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Татарская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика; Татарстан Автономияле Совет Социалистик Республикасы), abbreviated as Tatar ASSR (Татарская АССР; Татарстан АССР) or TASSR (ТАССР; ТАССР) (1920–1990) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Tatarstan Airlines (r; Татарстан Һава Юллары) was the regional airline of the Republic of Tatarstan, part of the Russian Federation.
TatNeft Arena (ru: Татнефть-Арена) is an indoor sporting arena located in Kazan, Russia.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Tolyatti (p), also known in English as Togliatti, is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement signed on 16 April 1922 between Germany and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. The two governments also agreed to normalise their diplomatic relations and to "co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries".
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Trolza (ZАО "Троллейбусный завод" (Тролза)), formerly known as the Uritsky factory or simply Uritsky,Bushell, Chris; and Stonham, Peter (eds.) (1987).
Trudovye Rezervy Stadium is a sports arena in Kazan, Russia, used for association football and bandy.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Tupolev Tu-160 (White Swan; NATO reporting name: Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-204 (Туполев Ту-204) is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.
Tyumen (a) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow.
The Udmurts (Удмуртъёс, Udmurt’jos) are a people who speak the Udmurt language.
Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ulan-Ude (p; Улаан Үдэ, Ulaan Üde) is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia; it is located about southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga.
Ulyanovsk is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River east of Moscow.
United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG); French: Cités et Gouvernements Locaux Unis (CGLU); Spanish: Ciudades y Gobiernos Locales Unidos (CGLU); is an umbrella organisation for cities, local and regional governments, and municipal associations throughout the world.
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
VC Zenit-Kazan (Зенит-Казань), until 2008 known as Dinamo Tattransgaz Kazan (Динамо-Таттрансгаз), is a professional men's volleyball team based in Kazan, Russia.
Venera Gimadieva (Russian: Венера Гимадиева, born 28 May 1984) is a Russian operatic soprano.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Viktor Mikhailovich Kolotov (Виктор Михайлович Колотов) (born 3 July 1949, Yudino, Tatar ASSR – 3 January 2000, Kiev) was the Soviet footballer who spent the most and the best of his years in Ukraine.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
Volga (Povolzhsky) economic region (Пово́лжский экономи́ческий райо́н; tr.: Povolzhsky ekonomichesky rayon) is one of 12 economic regions of Russia.
Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг, Privolzhsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volga Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group, native to the Volga-Ural region, Russia.
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
WorldSkills organises the world championships of vocational skills, and is held every two years in different parts of the world.
Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Емелья́н Ива́нович Пугачёв) (c. 1742 –) was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great popular insurrection during the reign of Catherine II.
Yevgeny Konstantinovich Zavoisky (Евгений Константинович Завойский; September 28, 1907 – October 9, 1976) was a Soviet physicist known for discovery of electron paramagnetic resonance in 1944.
Yevpatoriya is a city of regional significance in Crimea, Ukraine (as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).
Yoshkar-Ola (Йошка́р-Ола́; Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia.
Yutong (officially Zhengzhou Yutong Group Co., Ltd.) is a conglomerate with its headquarters in the Yutong Industrial Park (宇通工业园) in Guancheng Hui District, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 2005 Bandy World Championship was played between 11 men's national bandy teams in Russia on 30 January-6 February 2005.
The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves included severe heat waves that impacted most of the United States, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, North Africa and the European continent as a whole, along with parts of Canada, Russia, Indochina, South Korea and Japan during May, June, July, and August 2010.
The 2011 Bandy World Championship was an edition of the top annual event in international men's bandy, held between January 23 and January 30, 2011, in Kazan, Russia.
The 2011 European Weightlifting Championships was held in Kazan, Russia from 11 April to 17 April 2011.
The 2013 Summer Universiade, officially known as the XXVII Summer Universiade, was held in the city of Kazan (Russia), the most northerly city ever to host a Summer Universiade.
The 2014 European Badminton Championships were the 24th tournament of the European Badminton Championships.
The 2014 World Fencing Championships were held in Kazan, Russia, from 15–23 July.
The 16th FINA World Championships (Чемпионат мира по водным видам спорта 2015, 2015 елгы Су спорт төрләре буенча дөнья чемпионаты), also Aquatics 2015, were held in Kazan, Russia from 24 July to 9 August 2015.
The 2016 European Judo Championships were the 27th edition of the European Judo Championships, organized by the European Judo Union, and were held in Kazan, Russia, between 21–24 April 2016.
The 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup was the 10th FIFA Confederations Cup, a quadrennial international men's football tournament organised by FIFA.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
The 71-608 (in colloquial language KTM-8) is the Russian motor four-axle high-floor tramcar.