79 relations: Alexey Lyapunov, Algebra, Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov, Astronautics, Astrophysics, Biology, Buran programme, Chain reaction, Computation, Computational biology, Computer, Computer programming, Computer vision, Computing, Cosmogony, Cybernetics, Differential equation, Dmitry Okhotsimsky, Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre, Finite difference method, Fobos-Grunt, Functional analysis, Fusion power, Global Positioning System, GLONASS, Grid computing, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, International Scientific Optical Network, Israel Gelfand, Mathematical model, Mathematics, Mechanical calculator, Mir, Missile, Moscow, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow State University, Mstislav Keldysh, MSU Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Neutron transport, Nikolai Nikolaevich Yanenko, Nonlinear system, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Observation, Operating system, ..., Plasma (physics), Pushchino, Robotics, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Space Research Institute, Salyut programme, Satellite navigation, Sergei K. Godunov, Sergei P. Kurdyumov, Sergey Yablonsky, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Space research, Spacecraft, Spaceflight, Spektr-R, Sputnik 1, Steklov Institute of Mathematics, Supercomputer, Synergetics (Haken), Thermonuclear fusion, Thermonuclear weapon, Tikhonov regularization, Timur Eneev, Topology, Well-posed problem, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Yuri Gagarin. Expand index (29 more) »

## Alexey Lyapunov

Alexey Andreevich Lyapunov (Алексе́й Андре́евич Ляпуно́в; 1911–1973) was a Soviet mathematician and an early pioneer of computer science.

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## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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## Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov

Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (Андре́й Никола́евич Ти́хонов; October 30, 1906 – October 7, 1993) was a Soviet and Russian mathematician and geophysicist known for important contributions to topology, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and ill-posed problems.

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## Astronautics

Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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## Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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## Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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## Buran programme

The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.

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## Chain reaction

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

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## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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## Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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## Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

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## Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.

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## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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## Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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## Computer vision

Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.

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## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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## Cosmogony

Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.

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## Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

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## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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## Dmitry Okhotsimsky

Dmitry Yevgenyevich Okhotsimsky (Дми́трий Евге́ньевич Охоци́мский) was a Soviet Russian aerospace engineer and scientist who was the pioneer of space ballistics in the USSR.

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## Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre

Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre (Вычислительный центр им.) was established in 1955 and became a leading research institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.

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## Finite difference method

In mathematics, finite-difference methods (FDM) are numerical methods for solving differential equations by approximating them with difference equations, in which finite differences approximate the derivatives.

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## Fobos-Grunt

Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.

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## Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

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## Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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## Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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## GLONASS

GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.

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## Grid computing

Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

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## Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology

The Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS (Институт математических проблем биологии) is a research institute specializing in computational biology and bioinformatics.

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## International Scientific Optical Network

The International Scientific Optical Network or ISON (Международная научная оптическая сеть, Пулковская кооперация оптических наблюдателей) is an international project, currently consisting of about 30 telescopes at about 20 observatories in about ten countries (Russia, Ukraine (Andrushivka), Georgia (Abastumani), Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Moldova, Spain (Teide), Switzerland (Zimmerwald), Bolivia (Tarija), USA (Mayhill), Italy (Collepardo)) which have organized to detect, monitor and track objects in space.

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## Israel Gelfand

Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician.

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## Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

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## Mir

Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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## Missile

In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).

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## Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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## Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Московский Физико-Технический институт), known informally as PhysTech (Физтех), is a Russian university, originally established in Soviet Union.

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## Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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## Mstislav Keldysh

Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh (Мстисла́в Все́володович Ке́лдыш; – 24 June 1978) was a Soviet scientist in the field of mathematics and mechanics, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1946), President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1961–1975), three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961, 1971), fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1968).

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## MSU Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics

MSU Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics (CMC) (Факультет вычислительной математики и кибернетики (ВМК)), founded in 1970 by Andrey Tikhonov, is a part of Moscow State University.

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## Neutron transport

Neutron transport is the study of the motions and interactions of neutrons with materials.

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## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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## Nikolai Nikolaevich Yanenko

Nikolai Nikolaevich Yanenko (Николай Николаевич Яненко) (22 May 1921 – 16 January 1984) was a Soviet mathematician and academician.

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## Nonlinear system

In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.

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## Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.

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## Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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## Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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## Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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## Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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## Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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## Observation

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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## Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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## Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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## Pushchino

Pushchino (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, an important scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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## Robotics

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

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## Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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## Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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## Russian Space Research Institute

The Russian Space Research Institute (Институт космических исследований Российской академии наук, Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian abbreviation: ИКИ РАН, IKI RAN) is the leading organization of the Russian Academy of Sciences on space exploration to benefit fundamental science.

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## Salyut programme

The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.

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## Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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## Sergei K. Godunov

Sergei Konstantinovich Godunov (Серге́й Константи́нович Годуно́в; born July 17, 1929) is professor at the Sobolev Institute of Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, Russia.

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## Sergei P. Kurdyumov

Sergey Pavlovich Kurdyumov (Russian: Серге́й Па́влович Курдю́мов; November 18, 1928 – December 2, 2004) was a specialist in mathematical physics, mathematical modeling, plasma physics, complexity studies and synergetics from Moscow, Russia.

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## Sergey Yablonsky

Sergey Vsevolodovich Yablonsky (Russian: Серге́й Все́володович Ябло́нский, 6 December 1924 – 26 May 1998) was a Soviet and Russian mathematician, one of the founders of the Soviet school of mathematical cybernetics and discrete mathematics.

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## Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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## Soyuz (spacecraft)

Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.

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## Space research

Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in outer space.

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## Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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## Spaceflight

Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.

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## Spektr-R

Spektr-R (or RadioAstron) is a Russian scientific satellite with a radio telescope on board.

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## Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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## Steklov Institute of Mathematics

Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute (Математический институт имени В.А.Стеклова) is a premier research institute based in Moscow, specialized in mathematics, and a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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## Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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## Synergetics (Haken)

Synergetics is an interdisciplinary science explaining the formation and self-organization of patterns and structures in open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Thermonuclear fusion

Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.

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## Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.

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## Tikhonov regularization

Tikhonov regularization, named for Andrey Tikhonov, is the most commonly used method of regularization of ill-posed problems.

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## Timur Eneev

Timur Magomedovich Eneev (born September 23, 1924) is a Russian mathematician specializing in mechanics and control processes.

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## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

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## Well-posed problem

The mathematical term well-posed problem stems from a definition given by Jacques Hadamard.

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## Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich

Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich (Я́каў Бары́савіч Зяльдо́віч, Я́ков Бори́сович Зельдо́вич; 8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987), also known as YaB, was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian Jewish ethnicity, who is known for his prolific contributions in cosmology and the physics of thermonuclear and hydrodynamical phenomena.

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## Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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## Redirects here:

Keldysh institute of applied mathematics.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keldysh_Institute_of_Applied_Mathematics