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Kemal Reis

Index Kemal Reis

Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral. [1]

115 relations: Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Alexandria, Algeria, Almería, Anatolia, Andalusia, Antonio Grimani, Atlantic Ocean, Balearic Islands, Battle of Modon (1500), Battle of Zonchio, Bayezid II, Canary Islands, Cape Zonchio, Cephalonia, Cesare Borgia, Chios, Christopher Columbus, Constantinople, Corfu, Corsica, Crete, Dardanelles, Djerba, Dodecanese, Doge of Venice, Duchy of the Archipelago, Egypt, Elche, Euboea, Europe, France, Gallipoli, Golden Horn, Granada, Greece, Gulf of Taranto, Iberian Peninsula, Indian Ocean, Ionian Sea, Istanbul, Italy, Janissaries, Jews, Karaman, Knights Hospitaller, Koroni, Kos, ..., Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis, Kythira, Lebanon, Lefkada, Lemnos, Leros, Lesbos, Levant, Libya, Liguria, List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, Mallorca, Malta, Mamluk, Málaga, Mecca, Medina, Mediterranean Sea, Methoni, Messenia, Monemvasia, Morea, Morocco, Muslim, Mytilene, Nafpaktos, Nafplio, Nisyros, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Navy, Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503), Papal States, Paphos, Paros, Pianosa, Piombino, Piri Reis, Piri Reis map, Pisa, Portugal, Privateer, Pylos, Red Sea, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Ragusa, Republic of Venice, Rhodes, Rhodes (city), Rosetta, Santorini, Sapientza, Sardinia, Savona, Sicily, Sitia, Spain, Strait of Gibraltar, Tenedos, Tilos, Tinos, Trapani, Tripoli, Turkish Naval Forces, Tyrrhenian Sea, Valencian Community, Vlorë. Expand index (65 more) »

Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aegina

Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Almería

Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Antonio Grimani

Antonio Grimani (28 December 1434 – 7 May 1523) was the Doge of Venice from 1521 to 1523.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Battle of Modon (1500)

The Battle of Modon took place in August 1500 during the war of 1499–1503 between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice.

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Battle of Zonchio

The naval Battle of Zonchio (Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22 and 25 August 1499.

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Bayezid II

Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cape Zonchio

Cape Zonchio is the name given by the Venetian cartographers to the cape north of Pylos (Navarino) (called Zonklon or Zonchio in Venetian) on the western coast of Messenia on the Ionian Sea, in present-day Greece.

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Cephalonia

Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th larger island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios.

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Cesare Borgia

Cesare Borgia (Catalan:; César Borja,; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507), Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal with Aragonese origin, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli.

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Chios

Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Corfu

Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.

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Corsica

Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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Djerba

Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.

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Dodecanese

The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.

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Doge of Venice

The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).

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Duchy of the Archipelago

The Duchy of the Archipelago (Ducato dell'arcipelago, Δουκάτο του Αρχιπελάγους), or also Duchy of Naxos (Ducato di Nasso, Δουκάτο της Νάξου) or Duchy of the Aegean (Ducato dell'Egeo, Δουκάτο του Αιγαίου), was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elche

Elche, or Elx, is a town located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, Spain.

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Euboea

Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Golden Horn

The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Granada

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Greece

No description.

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Gulf of Taranto

The Gulf of Taranto (Italian: Golfo di Taranto, Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea, in Southern Italy.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Ionian Sea

The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Janissaries

The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Karaman

Karaman is a city in south central Turkey, located in Central Anatolia, north of the Taurus Mountains, about south of Konya.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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Koroni

Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Kos

Kos or Cos (Κως) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.

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Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis

Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487 – c. 1535) was a privateer and admiral of the Ottoman Empire, as well as the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor) of Rhodes.

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Kythira

Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Lefkada

Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.

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Lemnos

Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.

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Leros

Leros (Λέρος) is a Greek island and municipality in the Dodecanese in the southern Aegean Sea.

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Lesbos

Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Liguria

Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire

These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers (script or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet.

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Mallorca

Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Mamluk

Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Málaga

Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Mecca

Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medina

Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Methoni, Messenia

Methoni (Μεθώνη, Modone, Modon) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Monemvasia

Monemvasia (Μονεμβασία) is a town and a municipality in Laconia, Greece.

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Morea

The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mytilene

Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.

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Nafpaktos

Nafpaktos (Ναύπακτος) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, west of the mouth of the river Mornos.

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Nafplio

Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.

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Nisyros

Nisyros (Νίσυρος) is a volcanic Greek island and municipality located in the Aegean Sea.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Navy

The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.

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Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503)

The Second Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice for control of the lands that were contested between the two parties in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Paphos

Paphos (Πάφος; Baf) is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus and the capital of Paphos District.

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Paros

Paros (Πάρος; Venetian: Paro) is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea.

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Pianosa

The small island of Pianosa, about in area, has a coastal perimeter of and forms part of Italy's Tuscan Archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Piombino

Piombino is an Italian town and comune of about 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany).

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Piri Reis

Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer.

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Piri Reis map

The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis.

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Pisa

Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Privateer

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

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Pylos

Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Ragusa

The Republic of Ragusa was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Rhodes

Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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Rhodes (city)

Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the principal city and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes in the Dodecanese, Greece.

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Rosetta

Rosetta (رشيد; Rosette; ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate.

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Santorini

Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.

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Sapientza

Sapientza or Sapienza (Σαπιέντζα) is a Greek island off the southern coast of the Peloponnese, near the city of Methóni.

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Sardinia

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Savona

Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sitia

Sitia (Σητεία) is a port town and a municipality in Lasithi, Crete, Greece.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Strait of Gibraltar

The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.

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Tenedos

Tenedos (Tenedhos) or Bozcaada (Bozcaada) is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea.

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Tilos

Tílos (Τήλος; ancient form: Telos) is a small Greek island and municipality located in the Aegean Sea.

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Tinos

Tinos (Τήνος) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea.

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Trapani

Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.

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Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Turkish Naval Forces

The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Tyrrhenian Sea

The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.

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Valencian Community

The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.

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Vlorë

Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemal_Reis

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