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Aloysius Vincent (14 June 1928 – 25 February 2015) was an Indian cinematographer and director of Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Hindi films.
Abey Kuruvilla (born 8 August 1968) is a former Indian pace bowler of the mid-1990s, notable for his height and broad frame.
Achankovil is a river in Kerala, India, created towards the southern tip of the peninsula by the confluence of the Rishimala, Pasukidamettu, and Ramakkalteri Rivers.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Adoor Gopalakrishnan is an Indian film director, script writer, and producer.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Affiliated Computer Services Inc.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Air India Express is an Indian low-cost carrier headquartered in Kochi.
AirAsia India is an Indian low cost carrier headquartered in Bengaluru, India.
Aircel Ltd. is a defunct Indian mobile network operator headquartered in Gurgaon that offered voice and 2G and 3G data services.
The Airports Authority of India or AAI under the Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India.
Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India.
Alappuzha railway station (also known as Alleppey railway station, code: ALLP) is located at Alappuzha, Alappuzha District, in Kerala, India.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Ambalavasi is a generic name for a group of castes among Hindus in Kerala who render temple services.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amrita TV(അമൃത ടി.വി.), was launched in 2005, as a 24-hour Malayalam, general entertainment satellite channel.
Anamalai Tiger Reserve, earlier known as Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (IGWLS&NP) and previously as Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area located in the Anaimalai Hills of Pollachi, Valparai and Udumalpet taluks of Coimbatore District and Tiruppur District, Tamil Nadu state, South India.
Anamudi (ആനമുടി) is a mountain located in the Indian state of Kerala.
Anas Edathodika (born 15 February 1987) is an Indian professional footballer who plays as a centre back for Kerala Blasters in the Indian Super League.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Anju Bobby George (born 19 April 1977) is an Indian athlete.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Appam is a type of pancake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary is the northernmost wildlife sanctuary of Kerala, southwest India.
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.
The Arjuna Awards are given by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India to recognize outstanding achievement in sports.
Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author best known for her novel The God of Small Things (1997), which won the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1997 and became the biggest-selling book by a non-expatriate Indian author.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal), in the Kollam District of the Indian state of Kerala, is the most visited backwater and lake in the state.
The Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) is a small viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia.
Asianet (Star Asianet) is an Indian general channel broadcasting in Malayalam language.
Star Asianet Movies is a 24-hour Malayalam TV channel from the Asianet Communications Limited launched on 15 July 2012.
Asianet News (formerly Asianet Global) is a Malayalam news channel which is owned by Jupiter Capital, a company founded by Rajeev Chandrasekhar who is Bharatiya Janata Party’s member of parliament. The channel is not a part of the STAR India owned Asianet Communications Limited, but comes under the Asianet News Network (ANN), one of the portfolio companies of Jupiter Capital. Amit Gupta is the current CEO of Asianet News Media and Entertainment Pvt. Ltd. The channel is based in Thiruvananthapuram. In June 2001, Asianet Communications started a second channel "Asianet Global" targeting the huge expatriate Malayalee population in the Middle East region. The company was toying with the idea of a news channel for a long time. It was with this intention that Asianet Global was launched, however there were very few news-based programmes which later gave way to film-based entertainment ones. But with Asianet Global not fetching returns, the management decided to go in for an entertainment channel called "Asianet Plus" and wind up Asianet Global. Midway through the process, there was a rethink and the concept of a news channel was revived. The channel was re-branded as Asianet News on 1 May 2003. The Asianet channel company and a cable company bearing the same name were promoted by Sashi Kumar with seed capital provided by Reji Menon. When the companies faced a financial crunch, the real estate firm of Rahejas helped, and it was given 50% stake in the cable operations. As business prospered, the Rahejas wanted a stake in the channel operations too. While Sashi Kumar, who held half the shares, resisted their overtures, Reji Menon, who held the remaining half, struck a deal with them. Under the deal, the Rahejas got full control over the cable company. An attempt by Zee Group to acquire Asianet from Menon fell through apparently because the severance agreement with the cable company prohibits the channel's takeover by a company with interest in cable operations. Rajeev Chandrasekhar (BJP MP) acquired a 51% stake in Asianet (Asianet News, Asianet and Asianet Plus) through Jupiter Entertainment Ventures in 2006. While there was no official word on the size of the investment, the figure is thought to range between Rs 120-150-crore. The remaining 49% stake was held by Reji Menon and Asianet MD K Madhavan with Zee Group holding a small 3% stake. Mr Madhavan continued as the Managing Director of Asianet, while Rajeev Chandrasekhar assumed chairmanship of the company. STAR India bought a majority stake in Asianet Communications Limited (Asianet and Asianet Plus, excluding Asianet News) and formed joint venture with Rajeev Chandrasekhar in 2008. Rajeev Chandrasekhar completely exited his general entertainment channels to STAR India in 2013, which included Vijay TV in Tamil, and Asianet and Asianet Plus.
Asif Ali (born 4 February 1986) is an Indian film actor and producer who works in Malayalam cinema.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Asuras (असुर) are a class of divine beings or power-seeking deities related to the more benevolent Devas (also known as Suras) in Hindu mythology.
The scheme was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in June 2015 with the focus to establish infrastructure that could ensure adequate robust sewage networks and water supply for urban transformation by implementing urban revival projects.
Athirappilly Falls, is situated in Athirappilly Panchayat, Chalakudy Taluk, Thrissur District of Kerala, India on the Chalakudy River, which originates from the upper reaches of the Western Ghats at the entrance to the Sholayar ranges.It is the largest waterfall in Kerala, which stands tall at 80 feet.
Attappadi Reserve Forest is a protected area comprising 249 km² of land covering the westernmost part of the 745 km² Attappadi block of Mannarghat Taluk in Palakkad district of Kerala, south India.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Ay dynasty (later known as Venad and subsequently Travancore) ruled parts of southern India from the early Sangam age, which spanned from c. 3rd century BCE to c. 1200 CE.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Lord Ayya Vaikundar (c.1809–c.1851; அய்யா வைகுண்டர்), also known as tenth avatar or incarnation of Lord Vishnu, also called as Sriman Narayana Vaikundasamy or Narayana Pandaram, was a 19th-century social reformer and iconoclast who worked for the upliftment of downtrodden people in the Kingdom of Travancore.
Ayyankali (also Ayyan Kali) (28 August 1863 – 1941) was a social reformer who worked for the advancement of those people in the princely state of Travancore, British India, who were treated as untouchables.
The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), also known as Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI), is a worldwide programme of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, launched in 1991UNICEF.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Basil Thampi (born 11 September 1993) is an Indian cricketer.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Colachel (or Battle of Kulachal) was fought on between the Indian kingdom of Travancore and the Dutch East India Company, during the Travancore-Dutch War.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Bekal is a small town in the Kasaragod district on the West coast of the state of Kerala, India.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Beypore or Beypur is an ancient port town and a locality town in Kozhikode district in the state of Kerala, India.
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.
Gopynathan Velayudhan Nair, popularly known by the stage name Bharat Gopy (2 November 1937 – 29 January 2008), was an Indian film actor, producer, and director.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi.
Bharathan (14 November 1946 – 30 July 1998) was an Indian film director, artist, and art director.
Bharathappuzha ("River of Bhārata"), also known as the River Nila, is a river in India in the state of Kerala.
Bharti Airtel Limited (commonly shortened to Airtel and stylised airtel) is an Indian global telecommunications services company based in New Delhi, India.
Bhashaposhini is an Indian monthly magazine.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The black-rumped flameback (Dinopium benghalense), also known as the lesser golden-backed woodpecker or lesser goldenback, is a woodpecker found widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
The brahminy kite (Haliastur indus), also known as the red-backed sea-eagle in Australia, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Business process outsourcing (BPO) is defined as a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider.
Chekiyot Kizhakkeveettill Vineeth (born 20 May 1988), commonly known as C.K. Vineeth, is an Indian professional footballer who last played as a midfielder for the Kerala Blasters in the Indian Super League and the India national team.
Calamus is a genus of the palm family Arecaceae.
Calicut International Airport, also known as Karipur Airport, is an international airport serving the cities of Kozhikode and Malappuram in Kerala, India.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Capgemini SE is a French multinational professional services and business consulting corporation headquartered in Paris, France.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
Cassia fistula, known as the golden rain tree, canafistula and by other names, is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae.
The caste system in Kerala differed from that found in the rest of India.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India.
Central Division, sometimes referred to as the Quilon Division was one of three (or four) administrative subdivisions of the princely state of Travancore in what is now Kerala.
A chakara (also Chaakara & in Malayalam ചാകര) is a peculiar marine phenomenon in which a large number of fish and prawns throng together during a particular season as a result of mud bank formations.
Chalakudy River or Chalakudy Puzha is the fifth longest river in Kerala, India.
Chaliyar is the fourth longest river in Kerala at 169 km in length.
Chandrika is a Malayalam newspaper run by the printing and publishing company, Kerala.
Changanasserry is a municipal town in Kottayam district in the state of Kerala, India.
Chavittu Nadakam (Malayalam:ചവിട്ടുനാടകം) is a highly colorful Latin Christian classical art form originated in Ernakulam district, Kerala state in India.
The Chenda (ചെണ്ട) is a cylindrical percussion instrument used widely in the state of Kerala, Tulu Nadu of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.
Chengannur railway station is an 'A category' station located at Chengannur in Indian state of Kerala.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Cherai (ചെറായി) is a region in Kochi Taluk, a suburb of the city of Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India.
The Cheraman Juma Mosque is a mosque in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District in the Indian state of Kerala.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
The post of Chief Secretary (Mukhya Sachiv) is the senior-most position held in the civil services of the states and union territories of India.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
The Chinakkathoor Pooram is an elephant pageant which is held annually at the sacred Sree Chinakkathoor Bhagavathy Temple, at Palappuram in Palakkad district in north Kerala.
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) is located 18 km north of Marayoor on SH 17 in the Marayoor and Kanthalloor panchayats of Devikulam taluk in the Idukki district of Kerala state in South India.
Chithrabhumi is a film magazine in Malayalam published from Kozhikode, Kerala.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chundan vallam ('beaked boat'), known outside Kerala as Kerala snake boats, are one of the icons of Kerala culture used in the Vallamkali boat race.
The Church of South India (CSI) is the second largest Christian church in India based on the population of members, and claims to be the largest Protestant denomination in the country.
Cinnamomum cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan of China, Thailand, and Vietnam).
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
Cochin International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India.
Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews, are the oldest group of Jews in India, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Cognizant is a multinational corporation that provides IT services, including digital, technology, consulting, and operations services.
Coir, or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses.
Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent which was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers, during the Age of Discovery.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
The cursus publicus (Latin: "the public way"; δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmósios drómos) was the state-run courier and transportation service of the Roman Empire, later inherited by the Byzantine Empire.
Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is an Indian broadsheet newspaper launched in 2005 and published in English from Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Jaipur, Bengaluru and Indore in India. It is the first English broadsheet daily in India to introduce an all-colour page format. It targets a young readership and is owned and managed by Diligent Media Corporation.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
Dalbergia is a large genus of small to medium-size trees, shrubs and lianas in the pea family, Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
The darters or snakebirds are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae having a single genus Anhinga.
Dashavatara (दशावतार) refers to the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation.
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.
Deepika, a Malayalam language newspaper, is one of the oldest newspapers published in India.
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Kerala is a state in south-western India.
Deshabhimani is a Malayalam newspaper and the organ of the Kerala State Committee of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Gopalakrishnan Padmanabhan Pillai (born 27 October 1967), best known by his stage name Dileep, is an Indian film actor, mimicry artist, producer, assistant director, and businessman.
In India, the Director General of Police (DGP) is a three-star rank and the highest ranking police officer in Indian States and Union Territories.
A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.
Zila Panchayats are Panchayats at Apex or District Level in Panchayat Raj Institutions (or PRIs).
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
Duffmuttu (also: Dubhmuttu) is an art form prevalent in the Malabar region of the state of Kerala in south India.
Dulquer Salmaan (born 28 July 1984), is an Indian film actor who appears predominantly in Malayalam films.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Dwarka is an ancient city and a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwarka district in the state of Gujarat in northwestern India.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (13 June 1909 – 19 March 1998), popularly EMS, was an Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala state in 1957–59 and then again in 1967–69.
The United States federal earned income tax credit or earned income credit (EITC or EIC) is a refundable tax credit for low- to moderate-income working individuals and couples, particularly those with children.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Kerala has the eight largest economy in India.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Edakkal Caves (Malayalam: ഇടക്കൽ ഗുഹകൾ) are two natural caves at a remote location at Edakkal, from Kalpetta in the Wayanad district of Kerala in India's Western Ghats.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as common water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.
Elections in Kerala are regularly held to fill government officials at all levels of government in both Kerala and India as a whole.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eravikulam National Park is a 97 km2 national park located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala in India.
Ernakulam refers to the eastern, mainland portion of the city of Kochi in central Kerala, India.
Ernakulam Junction railway station (also known as Ernakulam South, code: ERS) is the biggest railway station in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India.
Ernakulam Town (also known as Ernakulam North, code: ERN) is one of the main railway stations in the city of Kochi, Kerala, India.
Ernst & Young (doing business as EY) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, England.
Erythrina is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Emirates Telecommunication Group Company PJSC, (مؤسسة الإمارات للاتصالات, Mu'asissat al-'Imārāt lil-'Ittiṣālāt, literally, "Emirates Institute for Communications"), branded trade name Etisalat (اتصالات, literally "communications"), is a multinational Emirati based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 16 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κυζικηνός, Eúdoxos ho Kyzikēnós; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
EXL Service is an operations management and analytics company.
The Ezhavas are a community with origins in the region of India presently known as Kerala.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Fahadh Faasil is an Indian film actor and producer, who works in the Malayalam film industry.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Flowers is a 24-hour Malayalam general entertainment television channel from Insight Media City, an international media campus headquartered at Kochi, Kerala, India.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans.
Fort Emmanuel (Fort Manuel) also known as Immanuel Fort is a ruined fort located at Fort Kochi beach in Kochi (Cochin), Kerala, India.
Fort Kochi is a region in the city of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India.
Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.
Govindan Aravindan (21 January 1935 – 15 March 1991), popularly known as G. Aravindan, was a film director, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist and painter from Kerala, India.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
God’s Own Country, is a phrase meaning an area, region or country supposedly favoured by God, that was first used to describe the Wicklow Mountains in Ireland, and has subsequently been used to refer to various places, including Australia, England (Cornwall, Surrey, Yorkshire), United States, New Zealand, Kerala state and Kanyakumari district (India), Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Gokarna is a small temple town on the western coast of India in the Kumta taluk of Uttara Kannada district of the state of Karnataka.
Gokulam Kerala Football Club is a professional football club based in Kozhikode, Kerala.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Kerala headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram is a democratically elected body that governs the Indian State of Kerala.
A gram panchayat (village council) is the only grassroots-level of panchayati raj formalised local self-governance system in India at the village or small-town level, and has a sarpanch as its elected head.
Grand Kerala Shopping Festival (GKSF) is an annual shopping event in Kerala.
A grant-in-aid is money coming from central government for a specific project.
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
The green chromide (Etroplus suratensis) is a species of cichlid fish from freshwater and brackish water in southern India and Sri Lanka.
The grey-breasted laughingthrush or Kerala laughingthrush has been split into the following species.
The grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura) is a large tree squirrel in the genus Ratufa found in the highlands of the Central and Uva provinces of Sri Lanka, and in patches of riparian forest along the Kaveri River and in the hill forests of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of southern India.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gruhalakshmi (English: Educated Wife) (Telugu: గృహలక్ష్మి, lit. House-Goddess of Wealth) is a 1938 Telugu film produced and directed by H. M. Reddy.
Gudalur taluk is a taluk of Nilgiris district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Gurukula (gurukula) was a type of residential schooling system in ancient India with shishya (students) living near or with the guru, in the same house.
Guruvayur (ഗുരുവായൂര്) also written as Guruvayoor, is a municipal temple town in Thrissur District, of Kerala State in India.
Guruvayur–Thrissur section is a spur line functioning under Trivandrum railway division of Southern Railway Zone.
A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.
Hartal, also bandh, is a term in many South Asian languages for strike action, first used during the Indian Independence Movement (also known as the nationalist movement).
HCL Technologies Limited (Hindustan Computers Limited) is an Indian multinational next-generation technology company, headquartered in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hyder Ali Khan, Haidarālī (c. 1720 – 7 December 1782) was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India.
The I-League is a men's professional football league in India.
Inivalappil Mani Vijayan, (born 25 April 1969) popularly known as Kalo Harin, is a former professional Indian football player.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
Idiyappam (இடியப்பம், ഇടിയപ്പം, ಇಡಿಯಪ್ಪಂ) is a traditional South Asian cuisine, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of rice flour pressed into noodle form and then steamed.
Idli or idly are a type of savoury rice cake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, popular as breakfast foods throughout India and northern Sri Lanka.
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India, created on 26January 1972.
Illikkal Kallu is a major Indian tourist attraction spot in Moonnilavu village of Meenachil taluk in the eastern Kottayam district of the state of Kerala, India.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
This is an index of religious honorifics from various religions.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India.
The India State Hunger Index (ISHI) is a tool to calculate hunger and malnutrition at the regional level in India.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
The Indian Administrative Service (IAST), often abbreviated to I.A.S., or simply IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination, a private board of school education in India.
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia.
The Indian giant squirrel, or Malabar giant squirrel, (Ratufa indica) is a large tree squirrel species in the genus Ratufa native to India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Police Service (Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is an All India Service for policing.
The Indian Premier League (IPL), officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons, is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities and some states.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
This is a list of the States of India ranked in order of percentage of people exposed to the media.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indian Super League (ISL) is a men's professional football league in India.
Indiavision was a Malayalam language news channel based at Kochi, Kerala.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infopark, Kochi is an information technology park situated in the city of Kochi, Kerala, India.
Infosys Limited (formerly Infosys Technologies Limited) is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services.
Inland navigation is transport with ships via inland waterways (such as canals, rivers and lakes) between inland ports or quays and wharfs.
INS Garuda, is an Indian naval air station located in Kochi, in the state of Kerala.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam arrived in Kerala through Arab traders during the time of Prophet Muhammad(CE 570 - CE 632).
ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.
Sreekumar Achary, better known by his stage name Jagathy Sreekumar, and popularly known mononymously as Jagathy, is an Indian film actor who has starred in over 1,000 Malayalam films in a career spanning almost four decades.
Jai Hind (ಜೈಹಿಂದ್)is a Kannada patriotic film directed by Venugopal, starring Pooja Gandhi and Sandesh in the lead roles.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jainism has had a continued presence in Kerala since pre-Christian times.
Jamaat-e-Islami Hind (JIH) is an Islamic organisation in India, founded as an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, which split into separate independent organisations in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Jammu & Kashmir following the Partition of India in 1947.
Janam TV is an Indian television channel which broadcasts news and entertainment programmes in Malayalam.
Janayugom is the official organ of the Kerala State Committee of the Communist Party of India.
Janmabhumi is a Malayalam, pro Sangh Parivar daily newspaper founded in 1975, published in a broadsheet format and owned by Matruka Pracharanalayam Ltd.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jawaharlal Nehru International Stadium locally known as Kaloor Stadium is a multi-purpose international stadium situated in Kochi, Kerala.
Krishnan Nair (25 July 1939 – 16 November 1980), better known by his stage name Jayan, was an Indian film actor, naval officer, stunt performer and cultural icon of the 1970s.
Jayaram Subramaniam (born 10 December 1965), known mononymously as Jayaram, is an Indian film actor who predominantly appears in Malayalam and Tamil films.
Jeevan Television is a news and entertainment Malayalam television channel.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jimmy George (March 8, 1955 in Peravoor – November 30, 1987) is often considered one of the greatest volleyball players of all time and was a member of India men's national volleyball team.
Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited d/b/a Jio is an Indian mobile network operator.
The Jnanpith Award is an Indian literary award presented annually by the Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author for their "outstanding contribution towards literature".
Jo Paul Ancheri (born 2 August 1975) is a leading Indian football player and was the former Indian Football team Captain.
John Abraham (11 August 1937 – 31 May 1987) was a Malayali Indian filmmaker, short story writer and screenwriter.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
A junior college is a post-secondary educational institution designed to prepare students for either skilled trades or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material.
Jyotirmath, also known as Joshimath is a city and a municipal board in Chamoli District in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
Kulakkatil Geevarghese George (born 1946 in Thiruvalla, Travancore) is an Indian film director and screenwriter.
Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (born 10 January 1940) is an Indian musician and film playback singer.
Kalayathumkuzhi Mathews Beenamol, popularly known as K. M. Beenamol (born 15 August 1975), from Kombidinjal, Idukki district, Kerala is an international athlete from India.
Maheshwari Amma (born February 25, 1947), better known by her stage name K. P. A. C. Lalitha, is an Indian film and stage actress who works primarily in Malayalam theatre and Malayalam cinema.
Krishnan Nair Shantakumari Chithra, often credited as K. S. Chithra or simply Chithra, is an Indian playback singer from Kerala.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
Kadalundi River (Kadalundipuzha) is one of the four most important rivers flowing through Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala.
Kairali TV is an Indian television channel broadcasting in Malayalam language.
Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.
Kaliyakkavilai is a panchayat town in Kanniyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, close to the Tamil Nadu-Kerala border.
Kaliyattam (The Play of God) is a 1997 Indian Malayalam-language film directed by Jayaraaj.
Kamala Surayya (born Kamala; 31 March 1934 – 31 May 2009), popularly known by her one-time pen name Madhavikutty and Kamala Das, was an Indian English poet as well as a leading Malayalam author from Kerala, India.
Kaniyar is a caste from the Indian state of Kerala.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Kannur Beach is a group of five beaches on the western side of Kannur city in Kerala province of India.
Kannur International Airport is an under construction, international airport designed to serve the city of Kannur in the state of Kerala, India.
Kanyakumari is a City in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kappa TV is a Malayalam music channel from the Mathrubhumi group, the publisher of the widely circulated Mathrubhumi daily.
Kappad, or Kappakadavu locally, is a beach near Kozhikode, in the district of the same name, Kerala, India.
Kariavattom is a suburb of Thiruvananthapuram city in Kerala, India.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Karunagappalli, also written as Karunagappally, is a municipality in Kollam district of Kerala, India.
Kasaragod is a municipal town and the district headquarters of Kasaragod district of Kerala state in India.
Kasaragod District (Kasarkod District) is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India.
Kathakali (കഥകളി) is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance.
Kayamkulam is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, Indian state.
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India.
Kerala Blasters Football Club (Hindi: केरल ब्लास्टर्स फुटबॉल क्लब) is an Indian professional football club based in Kochi, Kerala.
The Kerala Government Secretariat in Thiruvananthapuram is the seat of administration of the Government of Kerala, housing important ministries and bureaucratic offices.
The Kerala Gulf diaspora refers to the people of Kerala living in the Middle Eastern Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
The High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board (KIIFB) is a government owned financial institution in the Indian state of Kerala to mobilize funds for infrastructure development from outside the state revenue.
Kerala Kaumudi is a well-established and prominent media house of Kerala.
The Kerala Legislative Assembly, popularly known as the Niyamasabha (literally Hall of laws), is the law making body of Kerala, one of the 29 States in India.
The Kerala model of development, is the style of development that has been practised in the southern Indian state of Kerala.
Kerala mural paintings are the frescos depicting mythology and legends, which are drawn on the walls of temples and churches in South India, principally in Kerala.
Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen (KNM) is an Islamic organization in state of Kerala founded in 1950.
Kerala Natanam (കേരള നടനം) (Kerala Dance) is a new style of dance that is now recognised as a distinct art form evolved from Kathakali, a form of Indian dance-drama.
Kerala Public Works Department (KPWD) is a department under the government of the state of Kerala, India.
The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar.
The State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Kerala is a board of school education in India, conducted by the Government of the state of Kerala, India.
Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.
The Kerala State Planning Board is an advisory board under the Government of the State of Kerala, India.
The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC) is a public sector undertaking that conducts and regulates the tourism activities in the Indian state of Kerala.
Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran (കേരളവർമ്മ വലിയ കോയിത്തമ്പുരാൻ; 19 February 1845 – 22 September 1914) also spelt Kerala Varma Valiya Koilthampuran and known as Kerala Varma, was a Malayalam-language poet and translator who had an equal facility in writing in English and Sanskrit from the Indian state of Kerala.
The Keralolpathi (Malayalam: കേരളോല്പത്തി kēraḷōlpatti; literally 'Kerala's Origin') is a Malayalam work that deals with the origin of the land of Kerala.
Kheer or Kiru (Maldivian: ކިރު) is a rice pudding from the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, made by boiling rice, broken wheat, tapioca, or vermicelli with milk and sugar; it is flavoured with cardamom, raisins, saffron, cashews, pistachios or almonds.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.
Kingdom of Cochin (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Mada-rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Kocci or Perumpaṭappu) was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and later princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kochi Metro is a metro system serving the city of Kochi in Kerala, India.
The Kochi metropolitan area or Kochi urban agglomeration is an urban agglomeration centred around the city of Kochi, India.
Kochi Tuskers Kerala was a franchise cricket team that played in the Indian Premier League (IPL) representing the city of Kochi, Kerala.
Kochuveli railway station, is a satellite passenger rail terminal of Thiruvananthapuram city in the Indian state of Kerala.
Kodungallur (anglicised name: Cranganore), is a municipality in the South Western border of Thrissur district of Kerala, India.
Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.
Kollam Junction railway station (station code: QLN) is a junction station situated in the city of Kollam in Kerala, India.
The Kollam–Sengottai branch line (formerly known as Quilon–Shencottah or Quilon–Chenkotta line) is a railway line in South India which connects in Kerala state and (also spelled Shencottah, Shenkottai, Chengottai, Chenkottai, Senkottai) in Tamil Nadu.
Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram trunk line is a railway line in Southern Railway zone connecting the cities of Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram in the state of Kerala, India.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Koodalmanikyam Temple or Kudal Manikkam Temple / Koodalmanikkam Temple is a Hindu temple which is situated in Manavalassery village, Irinjalakuda, Trissur district, Kerala state, India.
Koodiyattam (കൂടിയാട്ടം), also transliterated as Kutiyattam, is a traditional performing artform in the state of Kerala, India.
Koothu or Therukoothu (கூத்து), is an ancient art, where artists play songs with dance and music in storytelling the epics, performed in Tamil; it is a folk art originated from the early Tamil country.
Kottapuram is a part of Kodungallur municipality.
Kottayam is a municipal town in the Indian state of Kerala.
Kovalam is a beach town by the Arabian Sea in Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area, of Trivandrum City Kerala, India, located around 18 km south of the city center.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
KPMG is a professional service company and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Krishnaattam (Malayalam: കൃഷ്ണാട്ടം, IAST: Kṛṣṇaāṭṭaṃ) is a temple art in Kerala, India.
Kulasekhara Alvar (born Sthanuravi, royal epithet Kulasekhara), seventh of the twelve Alvars, was the second known ruler of the Cera Perumal kingdom of Cranganore (c. 800—1124 AD). Modern historians assume that he ruled Kerala between 844 — 883 AD from Makotai, modern Cranganore.
Kumarakom is a popular tourism destination located near the city of Kottayam, in Kerala, India, famous for its backwater tourism.
The Kunhali Marakkar or Kunjali Marakkar was the title given to the Muslim naval chief of the Zamorin (Samoothiri), by Hindu king of Calicut, in present-day state of Kerala, India during the 16th century.
Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara, C.M.I. was an Indian Catholic priest and social reformer.
Kuttanad is a region covering the Alappuzha and Kottayam Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its vast paddy fields and geographical peculiarities.
The Laccadive Sea or Lakshadweep Sea is a body of water bordering India (including its Lakshadweep islands), the Maldives, and Sri Lanka.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The Later Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in 1279 C. E. This dynasty was the product of decades of alliances based on marriages between the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas based in Vengi and produced some of the greatest Chola emperors such as Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 C. E.). The extent of the Chola Empire during this period stretched from the island of Lanka to Kalinga in the northeast.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government.
Left Democratic Front (LDF) is a coalition of political parties in the state of Kerala, in India.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.
Lien Ying Chow, George, (2 August 1906 - 6 August 2004) was a Singaporean businessperson.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
, there have been 123 Amendment Bills and 101 Amendment acts to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950.
The state of Kerala, India has about 516 bird species within its boundary.
The ministries of the Government of India have come up with various useful schemes from time to time.
The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala.
The Kerala Legislative Assembly, popularly known as the Niyamasabha (literally Hall of laws), is the law making body of Kerala, one of the 29 States in India.
The following is a list of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other sources.
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
The Indian state of Kerala borders with the states of Tamil Nadu on the south and east, Karnataka on the north and the Lakshadweep Sea coastline on the west.
Kerala is a state in southern India.
There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.
Besides U.S. Route 66, the most well-known, numerous highways are numbered 66.
Rajyasamacharam was the first newspaper in Malayalam.
The following is a list of periodicals and online magazines published in the Malayalam language.
A multiple-system operator (MSO) is an operator of multiple cable or direct-broadcast satellite television systems.
There are 44 rivers in Kerala, all but three originating in the Western Ghats.
The state highways are arterial routes of a state, linking district headquarters and important towns within the state and connecting them with national highways or Highways of the neighbouring states.
India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74% (2011 Census figure) with recent reports of 80% literacy.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
Lokanath Behara is an Indian Police Service (I.P.S.) officer.
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.
Manathoor Devasia Valsamma (born 21 October 1960) is a retired Indian athlete.
Maniyambath Mukundan, commonly known as M. Mukundan (born 10 September 1942), is one of the pioneers of modernity in Malayalam literature, born in Mayyazhi (Mahé), a one-time French territory in India.
Madath Thekkepaattu Vasudevan Nair (born 9 August 1933), popularly known as MT, is an Indian author, screenplay writer and film director.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madhavan Nair, commonly known by his stage name Madhu, was an Indian actor who used to appear in Malayalam films.
Madhyamam (meaning Medium) is a Malayalam newspaper published from Kerala, India, since 1987.
Madhyamam Azhchappathippu or Madhyamam Weekly is a weekly Malayalam–language cultural magazine published by the Madhyamam Group from Kozhikode, India.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Madras State was a state in the Republic of India.
Mahabali (IAST: Mahābalī), or Great Bali, also known as Māveli, was a benevolent kshatriya varna King in ancient Hindu antiquity.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
Makaravilakku is an annual festival held on Makar Sankranti in Kerala, India at the shrine of Sabarimala.
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State.
The Malabar gliding frog or Malabar flying frog (Rhacophorus malabaricus) is a Rhacophorid tree frog species found in the Western Ghats of India.
The Malabar rebellion (also known as the Moplah rebellion and Māppila Lahaḷa in Malayalam) was a mass uprising to form an independent state of decolonised India.It was a lahala against British authority in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappilas and the culmination of a series of Mappila revolts that recurred throughout the 19th century and early 20th century.
Malabar region refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram and Palakkad Districts.
The Malabar trogon (Harpactes fasciatus) is a species of bird in the trogon family.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church centered in the Indian state of Kerala.
Malappuram (also Malapuram; മലപ്പുറം) is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of.
Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India.
The Malaya Mountains were a range of mountains that were mentioned in the Hindu sacred texts like Matsya Purana, the Kurma Purana, the Vishnu Purana, and the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Malayala Manorama is a morning newspaper, in Malayalam language, published from Kottayam, Kerala, India by Malayala Manorama Company Limited, Headed by Mammen Mathew.It was first published as a weekly on 22 March 1890, and currently has a readership of over 20 million (with a circulation base of over 2.1 million copies).
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam calendar or Kollam Era, also known as Kollavarsham, is a solar and sidereal Hindu calendar used in Kerala, India.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
Malayalam literature (മലയാള സാഹിത്യം) comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala.
The ancient triumvirate poets (Pracheena kavithrayam) of Malayalam poetry are Ezhuthachan, Cherusseri Namboothiri and Kunchan Nambiar.The ancient triumvirate poets was chosen in the basis of Bhakthi Maargam (Religious Way).
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Muhammad Kutty Paniparambil Ismail (born 7 September 1951), better known by his stage name Mammootty is an Indian film actor and producer who works in Malayalam cinema.
Mangalam is a census town in Coimbatore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Manju Warrier (pronounced: Manju Vāryar; born 10 September 1978) is an Indian film actress and dancer in the name.
Manorama News (also known as MM TV) is a Malayalam language news channel owned and operated by Malayala Manorama.
Manu (मनु) is a term found with various meanings in Hinduism.
Mappila, also known as a Mappila Muslim, formerly romanized as Moplah and historically as Jonaka Mappila, in general, is a member of the Muslim community of the same nameMiller, E. Roland.
Mappila Paattu or Mappila Songs are a folklore Muslim song genre rendered to lyrics, within a melodic framework (Ishal), in colloquial Mappila dialect of Malayalam laced with Arabic, by the Mappilas of the Malabar region in Kerala, India.
The Mar Thoma Syrian Church, often shortened to Malankara Mar Thoma Church, is a Syriac Christian Church based in Kerala, India.
Marayur or Marayoor is a town in Idukki district of Kerala, India.
Margamkali is an Indian group dance originating from Kerala, practiced by the Saint Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Marthanda Varma (born Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma; 1705 – 7 July 1758) was ruler of the southern Indian state of Travancore from 1729 until his death in 1758.
Marumakkathayam was a system of matrilineal inheritance prevalent in what is now Kerala, India.
A matha (मठ, IAST) or mutt is a Sanskrit word that means "cloister, institute or college", and it also refers to a monastery in Hinduism.
Mathrubhumi is a Malayalam newspaper that is published from Kerala, India.
Mathrubhumi News (Malayalam: മാതൃഭൂമി ന്യൂസ്) is a Malayalam-language television news channel owned by Mathrubhumi daily.
Matsya (मत्स्य, lit. fish), is the fish avatar in the ten primary avatars of Hindu god Vishnu.
The Matsya Purana (IAST: Matsya Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen major Puranas (Mahapurana), and among the oldest and better preserved in the Puranic genre of Sanskrit literature in Hinduism.
The Mattancherry Palace is a Portuguese palace popularly known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, in the Indian state of Kerala which features Kerala murals depicting portraits and exhibits of the Rajas of Kochi.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mazhavil Manorama is a Malayalam general entertainment television channel from the Malayala Manorama group, the publisher of the widely circulated Malayalam Manorama daily, and the Malayalam women's magazine Vanitha.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri (മേല്പത്തൂർ നാരായണ ഭട്ടതിരി; 1560–1646/1666), third student of Achyuta Pisharati, was a member of Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.
Mercy Kuttan (born 1 January 1960) is a former Indian track and field athlete.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Migrant labourers in Kerala, India's southern most state, are a significant economic force in the state; there were around 2.5 million internal migrants in Kerala according to a 2013 study by the Gulati Institute of Finance and Taxation.
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to the housing and urban development in India.
Miss Kumari (1932–1969) was a Malayalam film actress of the early years of 1940–1960s.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mohanlal Viswanathan (born 21 May 1960), known mononymously as Mohanlal, is an Indian actor, producer and playback singer who predominantly works in Malayalam cinema.
Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam (മോഹിനിയാട്ടം), is one of two classical dances of India that developed and remain popular in the state of Kerala.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Sistema Shyam TeleServices Limited (SSTL), doing business as Mobile TeleSystems India (MTS India), was the Indian subsidiary of the Russian mobile operator MTS.
The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris.
Muhamma is a census town in Cherthala Taluk in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash, or moong Sanskrit मुद्ग / mŪgd, is a plant species in the legume family.
Munnar is a town and hill station located in the Idukki district of the southwestern Indian state of Kerala.
Muraleedharan Pillai, popularly known as Murali (മുരളി, 25 May 1954 – 6 August 2009) was an Indian film, stage and television actor and author.
The Mushika Kingdom (Mushaka Rajya, also called Ezhimalai Rajya, Puzhinadu, Kolathunadu, Chirakkal Rajya among the more common names) was an ancient kingdom of the Tamil Sangam period in present-day Kerala, India, ruled by a royal dynasty of the same name.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muzhappilangad Drive-in Beach (മുഴപ്പിലങ്ങാട് ബീച്ച്) (5.5 km length) is a beach in the state of Kerala in southwestern India.
Muziris (Muchiri, Muyirikode, Makotai, Mahodayapuram) was an ancient seaport and urban center on the Malabar Coast (modern-day Indian state of Kerala) that dates from at least the 1st century BC, if not before it.
Naduvazhi refers to landlords, chieftains and descendants of royal households in the region now known as Kerala, India.
Nagar Kovil or Nagerkovil or Nakarkovil or Nagarcoil (நாகர்கோயில்) is a small town in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
The Nair Service Society (NSS) is an organisation created for the social advancement and welfare of the Nair community that is found primarily in the state of Kerala in South India.
Narayana Guru (ca. 1854 – 20 September 1928), was a social reformer of India.
Narayaniyam is a medieval Sanskrit text, comprising a summary study in poetic form of the Bhagavata Purana.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States.
National Highway 544, commonly referred to as NH 544, (old number NH 47) is a highway connecting the city of Salem to Kochi city in southern India.
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.
The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), formerly National Open School, (name changed in 2002) is the board of education under the Union Government of India.
The West Coast Canal or National Waterway No 3 is a 168-km stretch of this inland navigational route located in Kerala, India and runs from Kollam to Kottapuram and was declared a National Waterway in 1993.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Kesavan Venugopal Nair (born 22 May 1948), known popularly by his stage name Nedumudi Venu, is an Indian film actor from Kerala.
Nelcynda is a place in ancient Kerala.
Nelliyampathy (also spelled Nelliampathi) is a hill station from Palakkad, state of Kerala, India.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A nest is a structure built by certain animals to hold eggs, offspring, and, occasionally, the animal itself.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nielsen Audio (formerly Arbitron) is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences.
Nilambur is a municipality and a taluk in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala.
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills ranges of South India.
The Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) known locally as the Nilgiri ibex or simply ibex, is an ungulate that is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India.
The Niranam poets, also known as the Kannassan poets, were three poets from the same family, Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar, and Rama Panikkar who hailed from Niranam, a small village in southern Kerala, India, near the town of Thiruvalla.Their work(s) mainly consisted of translation and adaptation of Sanskrit epics and Puranic works and were aimed for devotional purposes.
Nivin Pauly (born 11 October 1984) is an Indian film actor and producer, who predominantly works in Malayalam cinema.
Nokku kooli is an euphimism for extortion by organized labour unions in Kerala under which wages are paid to trade union activists for allowing common householders/ investors/builders to unload belongings/materials using machines or their own labour.
Non-tax revenue or non-tax receipts are government revenue not generated from taxes.
North Malabar refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District, the taluks of Koyilandy and Vatakara in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry.
The Northern Division or Kottayam Division was one of the three (or four) administrative subdivisions of the princely state of Travancore in British India.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Ottaplakkal Neelakandan Velu Kurup (27 May 1931 – 13 February 2016), popularly known as O. N. V. Kurup or simply and endearingly O. N. V., was a Malayalam poet and lyricist from Kerala, India, who won the Jnanpith Award, the highest literary award in India for the year 2007.
Ottupulackal Velukkuty Vijayan (2 July 1930 – 30 March 2005), commonly known as O. V. Vijayan, was an Indian author and cartoonist, who was an important figure in modern Malayalam language literature.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Oduvil Unnikrishnan (13 February 1943 – 27 May 2006) was an Indian film actor.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Onam is an annual Hindu festival with origins in the state of Kerala in India.
An onavillu is a simple, short, bow-shaped musical instrument.
Oppana (ഒപ്പന) is a popular form of social entertainment among the Mappila (Kerala Muslims) community of Kerala, South India, prevalent throughout Kerala, especially in Malappuram.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
The orange chromide (Pseudetroplus maculatus, syn. Etroplus maculatus) is a species of cichlid fish that is endemic to freshwater and brackish streams, lagoons and estuaries in southern India and Sri Lanka.
Ottan Thullal (or Ottamthullal, Malayalam:ഓട്ടന് തുള്ളല്) is a dance and poetic performance form of Kerala, India.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kerala: Kerala – 21st biggest, 12th most populous, 13th highest and most literate of the 29 states of the democratic Republic of India.
Outlook is a weekly general interest English news magazine published in India.
Parattu Raveendran Sreejesh is an Indian field hockey player.He is currently the Captain and Goalkeeper of the Indian national team.
Palanisamy Sathasivam (born 27 April 1949) is the current Governor of Kerala, in office since 2014.
Pilavullakandi Thekkeparambil Usha (born 27 June 1964), popularly known as P. T. Usha, is a retired Indian track and field athlete.
Padayani, also called Padeni, (from the Malayalam word for military formations) is a traditional folk dance and a ritual art from the central portion of the Indian state of Kerala.
Padma Shri (also Padma Shree) is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan.
Padmanabhapuram Palace (Tamil: பத்மநாபபுரம் அரண்மனை) (Malayalam: പത്മനാഭപുരം കൊട്ടാരം) is a Travancore era palace located in Padmanabhapuram, Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu.
Padmarajan (23 May 1945 – 24 January 1991) was an Indian author, screenwriter, and film director who was known for his landmark works in Malayalam literature and Malayalam cinema.
The Padroado ("patronage") was an arrangement between the Holy See and the kingdom (and later republic) of Portugal, affirmed by a series of concordats, by which the Vatican delegated to the kings of Portugal the administration of the local Churches.
Vaithalmala (വൈതൽമല) or Paithalmala is a hill station in the Kannur district of Kerala in India.
Palakkad, also known as Palghat, is a city and municipality in the state of Kerala in southern India, spread over an area of 26.60 km2 and is the administrative headquarters of the Palakkad District.
Palakkad District is one of the 14 districts of the Indian state of Kerala.
Palakkad Gap or Palghat Gap is a low mountain pass in the Western Ghats between Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and Palakkad in Kerala.
Palakkad Junction (formerly known as Olavakkod Junction, STN CODE:PGT) is a railway station in Kerala state, India situated in the city of Palakkad.
Palakkad railway division (formerly Olavakkod railway division) is one of the six administrative divisions of the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways, headquartered at Palakkad in Kerala.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Pamba River (also called Pampa river) is the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala after Periyar and Bharathappuzha and the longest river in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore.
Panchari Melam is a percussion ensemble, performed during temple festivals in Kerala, India.
Panchavadyam(Malayalam: പഞ്ചവാദ്യം), literally meaning an orchestra of five instruments, is basically a temple art form that has evolved in Kerala.
Mandals, taluka panchayats, block panchayats, or panchayat samiti are rural local governments (panchayats) at the intermediate level in panchayat raj institutions (PRI).
The Panchayat raj is a South Asian political system found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, and Nepal.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
A papadum is a thin, crisp, disc-shaped food from the Indian subcontinent; typically based on a seasoned dough usually made from peeled black gram flour (urad flour), either fried or cooked with dry heat (usually flipping it over an open flame).
Naduparambil Pappachen Pradeep (born 28 April 1983) is an Indian footballer.
The Paradesi Synagogue is the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations,.
Parallel cinema is a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal in the 1950s as an alternative to the mainstream commercial Indian cinema, represented especially by popular Hindi cinema, known today as Bollywood.
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, which also includes the erstwhile Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area in Chittur taluk in Palakkad district of Kerala state, South India.
Parashurama (Sanskrit: परशुराम, IAST: Paraśurāma, lit. Rama with an axe) is the sixth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism.
Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar (1736–1799) is the author of Varthamanappusthakam (1790), the first ever travelogue in an Indian language.
Parichamuttukali is a martial dance form of Kerala practiced by Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syrian Christians or Nasrani) who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle among Jews and natives in the 1st century.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Parvathy Thiruvoth Kottuvata (born 7 April 1988) is an Indian film actress, who appears in South Indian films.
In Indian religions, Patala (Sanskrit: पाताल, IAST: pātāla, lit. that which is below the feet) denotes the subterranean realms of the universe – which are located under the earth.
Pathiramanal (പാതിരാമണൽ) is a small island inMuhamma panchayat of Alappuzha district.
Peermade, also spelt Peerumedu is a hill station in the state of Kerala, India.
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs.
Pentecostalism is a renewal movement within Protestant Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit.
People TV is an Indian television channel based in Trivandrum.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala.
Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is a protected area near Thekkady in the districts of Idukki, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta in Kerala, India.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pinarayi Vijayan (born 24 May 1945) is an Indian politician who is the current Chief Minister of Kerala, in office since 25 May 2016.
The Planning Commission (Hindi: योजना आयोग, Yojana Āyog) was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India's Five-Year Plans, among other functions.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Ponmudi (the Golden Peak) is a hill station in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala in India.
Poorakkali,Which means in English (Festival Performance), is a traditional dance ritual performed by men during the nine-day Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples across North Malabar in Kerala State of south India.
Kerala has two major port and 13 minor ports and 2 intermediate ports.Kerala has a coastline of around 590 km.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Poverty is a significant issue in India, despite having one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 7.6% in 2015, and a sizable consumer economy.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Prem Nazir (born Abdul Khader; 7 April 1926 – 16 January 1989) was an Indian film actor, known as one of Malayalam cinema's definitive leading men of his generation.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Prithviraj Sukumaran (born 16 October 1982) is an Indian film actor, producer, and playback singer, who primarily works in the Malayalam film industry.
Priyadarshan (born Priyadarshan Soman Nair; 30 January 1957) is an Indian film director, producer, and screenwriter.
Pro tempore, abbreviated pro tem or p.t., is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India.
Puttu pronounced, (Malayalam: പുട്ട്), (Tamil: புட்டு), (Kannada: ಪುಟ್ಟು), (Sinhala පිට්ටු) is a breakfast dish from the Indian subcontinent, eaten in Kerala, some parts of Tamil Nadu, Coorg and canara region of Karnataka, and Sri Lanka.
The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quilon Aerodrome or Kollam Airport was an aerodrome in the city of Kollam in the former state of Travancore, now in Kerala, India.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Raja Ravi Varma (29 April 1848 – 2 October 1906) was a celebrated Malayali Indian painter and artist.
The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, officially known as Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in Sports and Games, is the highest sporting honour of the Republic of India.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ramesh Chennithala (born 25 May 1956) is an Indian politician, affiliated to the Indian National Congress, and the Leader of the Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly since 2016.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
Ramu Kariat (alternatively Ramu Karyat) (1 February 1927 – 10 February 1979) was a legendary Malayali Indian film director for almost three decades from the 1950s to the 1970s.
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional and state cricket associations.
Rasam, chaaru, saaru or kabir is a South Indian soup, traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of tomato, chili pepper, pepper, cumin and other spices as seasonings.
Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for roughly 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae (from the Greek 'kálamos'.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
Reliance Communications Ltd. (stylised as RCom) is a telecommunications company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India.
Religions in Kerala are a mixture of different faiths, most significantly Hinduism, Islam and Christianity.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Rice and curry is a popular dish in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rino Anto (born 3 January 1988) is an Indian professional footballer who plays as a right back for the Bengaluru FC in the Indian Super League.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosa Kutty (born 1964) is a former Indian woman athlete who participated in 1996 and 2000 Olympics in 4x 400 relay race.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Sankaran Kutty Pottekkatt (14 March 1913 – 6 August 1982), popularly known as S. K. Pottekkatt, is a famous Malayalam writer from Kerala state, South India.
Shanthakumaran Sreesanth (born 6 February 1983) is a former Indian cricketer, who played all forms of the game.
Sadhya (സദ്യ) is a feast consisting of a variety of traditional vegetarian dishes usually served on a banana leaf in Kerala, India.
The Saint Thomas Christian denominations are traditional Christian denominations from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
The Sait Nagjee All India Football tournament is one of the most prestigious Tournaments held in Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
Samantan Nair or more commonly Samantan (Sama + anta means equal distance or difference, rather risen from the common masses) was a generic term applied to dignify a collection of sub-clans among the ruling elite and feudal estate owners of Kerala belonging to the Nair community.
Sambar, also spelled sambhar or sambaar, and pronounced saambaar, is a lentil-based vegetable stew or chowder cooked with a tamarind broth originating from the present-day Tamil Nadu, India.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Sanju Viswanath Samson (born 11 November 1994) is an Indian cricketer who represents Rajasthan Royals in the Indian Premier League (IPL).
Chandrasekhara Menon, better known by his stage (and ancestor house) name Sankaradi (1924–2001), was an Indian actor.
The Santosh Trophy is an association football knock-out competition contested by the regional state associations and government institutions under the All India Football Federation (AIFF), the sport's governing body in India.
Sasthamcotta Lake or Sasthamkotta Lake, also categorized as a wetland, is the largest fresh water lake in Kerala, a state of India on the south of the West Coast.
Sathyan (born Cheruvilakathu Veettil Manuel Sathyaneshan Nadar on 9 November 1912 – 15 June 1971), was an Indian film actor, noted for his natural style and versatility.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Seema (born 22 May 1957) is an Indian film actress.
In mathematics, a series expansion is a method for calculating a function that cannot be expressed by just elementary operators (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division).
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shaji Neelakantan Karun (born 1 January 1952) is a National Award-winning Indian film director and cinematographer.
Shalom Television (ശലോം) is an Indian Catholic Christian television channel based in Kerala.
Sharada (born Saraswati Devi 25 June 1945) is a three-time National Award winning Indian actress and politician from Andhra Pradesh.
Sheela Devi, known by her stage name Sheela is an Indian film actress who works predominantly in Malayalam cinema.
Shiny Wilson (nee Abraham) (born 8 May 1965) is a retired Indian athlete.
Shobana Chandrakumar, known mononymously as Shobana, is an Indian film actress and bharatanatyam dancer from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
Shoranur is a town and a municipality located in the Palakkad district, in the Indian state of Kerala, located on the banks of the Bharathapuzha River.
Shoranur Junction is the railway station in Kerala, located at Shoranur, Palakkad District.
Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section is a high density railway corridor in Kerala state, India, running from Shoranur Junction in Palakkad district through Thrissur district to Cochin in Ernakulam district.
Siddha (Tamil "great thinker/wise man"; Sanskrit, "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture.
Silent Valley National Park (Malayalam: സൈലന്റ് വാലീ നാഷണല് പാര്ക്ക്), is a national park with a core zone of (making it the second largest national park in Kerala).
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinimole Paulose alias Sini Ajith Markose(born 24 June 1983) is an Indian middle distance runner.
Siraj (Malayalamസിറാജ് ദിനപത്രം, Arabic:سراج اليومية, is a daily newspaper in Malayalam language. It was established in 1984. The newspaper belongs to Thoufeeque Publications. It is published from Calicut, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Kannur, Bangaluru, Dubai, Oman and Qatar. The head office of the newspaper is at Calicut. The editor is VPM Faisy Villyapalli. It has eight editions. Category:Daily newspapers published in India Category:Malayalam-language newspapers Category:1984 establishments in India Category:Publications established in 1984 Category:Media in Kerala.
The Skanda Purana (IAST: Skanda Purāṇa) is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts.
Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is a development financial institution in India, headquartered at Lucknow and having its offices all over the country.
SmartCity Kochi is an Information Technology Special Economic Zone in Kochi, Kerala, India.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Sopana Sangeetham is a form of Indian classical music that developed in the temples of Kerala in south India in the wake of the increasing popularity of Jayadeva's Gita Govinda or Ashtapadis.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
South Indian culture refers to the culture of the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana.
The Southern Division, or Padmanabhapuram Division till 1921 and Trivandrum Division from 1921 to 1949, was one of the administrative subdivisions of the princely state of Travancore.
The southern hill myna (Gracula indica) is a member of the starling family.
The Southern Railway (abbreviated SR), headquartered at Chennai, is one of the 17 zones of Indian Railways.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Sree Narayana Trust, also known as the SN Trust, has been an educational organisation in the Indian state of Kerala since 1952.
Sreenivasan (born 6 April 1956) is an Indian film actor, screenwriter, director and producer who works in Malayalam films.
Sringeri also called Sri Kshetra Shringeri is a hill town and Taluk headquarters located in Chikkamagaluru district in the state of Karnataka, It is the site of the first maṭha (Sringeri Sharada Peetham) established by Adi Shankara, Hindu theologian and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy, in the 8th century CE It is located on the banks of the river Tungā.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sunandini is a composite breed of cattle developed in India by crossing nondescript cattle with Brown Swiss, Jersey cattle and Holstein Friesian cattle.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suresh Babu (സുരേഷ് ബാബു) (10 February 1953 – 19 February 2011) was an Indian long jumper from Kerala who had held the national titles in the long, triple, and high jump events, in addition to the decathlon.
Suresh Gopinathan (born 26 June 1959), commonly known as Suresh Gopi, is an Indian film actor, politician, and singer who has starred in over 200 Malayalam films.
Surya Movies is a full-time Malayalam and Tamil movie channel from Sun TV Network which is based in Trivandrum / Chennai, Kerala, India.
Surya TV is a Malayalam-language television channel in India, established in 1993.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
(സ്വാതി തിരുനാള് രാമവർമ്മ) (16 April 1813 – 26 December 1846) was the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Travancore, British India.
The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church (Aramaic/Syriac: ܥܸܕܬܵܐ ܩܵܬܘܿܠܝܼܩܝܼ ܕܡܲܠܲܒܵܪ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ Edta Qatholiqi D'Malabar Suryaya); (Malayalam: സുറിയാനി മലബാര് കത്തോലിക്ക സഭ Suriyani Malabar Katholika Sabha) or Church of Malabar Syrian Catholics is an Eastern Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church based in Kerala, India.
The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church also known as the Malankara Syrian Catholic Church (മലങ്കര സുറിയാനി കത്തോലിക്കാ സഭ) is an Eastern Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.
Thadathuvila Chandapillai Yohannan (born 19 May 1947), better known as T. C. Yohannan, is a former Indian long jumper who held the national record in long jump for nearly 3 decades and represented India in the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
Talapady is a village in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka state in India.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).
Tata Communications formerly called VSNL is a global provider of telecommunications solutions and services.
Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) is an Indian multinational information technology (IT) service, consulting and business solutions company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Tata Docomo Ltd is an Indian mobile network operator, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Teleservices, founded on November 2008.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Technopark is a technology park in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India established on 1990 November 18 by Government of Kerala under chief minister E K Nayanar.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is a statutory body set up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
Telephone density or teledensity is the number of telephone connections for every hundred individuals living within an area.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Temple Entry Proclamation was issued by Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma in 1936 and abolished the ban on the so called 'low caste people' or avarnas from entering Hindu temples in the Princely State of Travancore, now part of Kerala, India.
The Thachudaya Kaimals were a lineage of ruling chiefs in Travancore, now in the Indian state of Kerala.
Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai (17 April 1912 – 10 April 1999) was an Indian novelist and short story writer in the Malayalam language.
The Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary, covering an area of barely 25 km2, and located about 12 km from Kothamangalam (Kerala state, India), was the first bird sanctuary in Kerala.
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd..
Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The New Indian Express is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper published by the Chennai-based Express Publications.
The Nilgiris District is in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Thejas is a Malayalam news daily run by Intermedia Publishing Ltd., a public limited company based in Kozhikode.
Theyyam (Teyyam,Theyam, Theyyattam) is a popular ritual form of worship of North Malabar in Kerala, India, predominant in the Kolathunadu area (consisting of present-day Kasargod, Kannur Districts, Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad and Vatakara and Koyilandy Taluks of Kozhikode of Kerala) and also in South Canara and Kodagu of Karnataka as a living cult with several thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs.
Surendranatha Thilakan (8 December 1933 – 24 September 2012) was an Indian film and stage actor who appeared in over 200 Malayalam films.
Thirayattam is a ritual performing ethnic art form of the South Malabar region in Kerala state, India.
Thiruvalla is a town in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state of India.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala.
Thiruvananthapuram Central is the main railway station in the city of Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum) in the Indian state of Kerala.
Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation (തിരുവനന്തപുരം നഗരസഭ) is the largest city corporation in the state of Kerala in India by area and population.
Thiruvananthapuram railway division (TVC) is one of the six administrative divisions of the Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
Thrissur (originally Thiru Siva Peroor and previously known by its anglicised form as Trichur), is the fourth largest city, the third largest urban agglomeration in Kerala (Pop. 1,854,783) and the 20th largest in India.
Thrissur Pooram is an annual Hindu temple festival held in Kerala, India.
Thrissur railway station (Code: TCR) is a railway station in Kerala, India.
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan (തുഞ്ചത്ത് രാമാനുജൻ എഴുത്തച്ഛൻ) was a Malayalam devotional poet and linguist from around the 16th century.
Tinu Yohannan (born 18 February 1979) is a former Indian cricketer.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tirur is a Town and municipality in Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala spread over an area of.
Tirur railway station (Code:TIR) is a railway station serving the town of Tirur in Malappuram District of Kerala.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Kerala, a state situated on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country.
Tovino Thomas (born 21 January 1989) is an Indian film actor and model who appears predominantly in Malayalam films.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
The Travancore Royal Family was the ruling house of the Indian princely state of Travancore.They lost their ruling rights in 1949 when Travancore merged with the Indian Union and their privileges were abolished by the Indian Union in 1971 by a constitutional amendment.The Travancore Royalty could also considered descendants of the ancient Cheras, Ay/Venad, Pandya and Chola dynasties, due to consistent intermarriages with these lines over the centuries.
Travancore-Cochin or Thiru-Kochi was a short-lived state of India (1949–1956).
Travel + Leisure is a travel magazine based in New York City, New York.
Trivandrum International Airport is an international airport which primarily serve the cities of Trivandrum, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari, Pathanamthitta and Kollam.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tulu Nadu or Tulunad is a Tulu speaking region spread over parts of the Karnataka and Kerala states of India.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer (18 June 1877 – 15 June 1949) (commonly known as Ulloor) was a Malayalam poet and historian.
Underemployment is the under-use of a worker due to a job that does not use the worker's skills, or is part time, or leaves the worker idle.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Democratic Front (UDF) is an alliance of political parties in Kerala state, India, created by the prominent Indian National Congress (INC) party leader Shri.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
Kavitha Ranjini, known by the stage name Urvashi (born January 25, 1970), is an Indian film actress, Television host and producer.
UST Global is an American multinational provider of Digital, IT services and solutions, headquartered in Aliso Viejo, California, United States.
Uthiyan Cheralatan (Perum Chorru Udiyan Cheralathan, Athan I), or Udiyanjeral (AD c. 130) is the first recorded Chera ruler of the Sangam period in ancient South India.
Uthsava or Utsava or Utsav is derived from the Sanskrit word, Utsava.
Vatta Parambath Sathyan (29 April 1965 – 18 July 2006), popularly known as V. P. Sathyan, was a former Indian professional footballer who played the centre back position.
Vada is a savoury fried snack from India.
Vadakkan Pattukal (Ballads of North Malabar or Songs of the North) is a collection of Malayalam Ballads of medieval origin.
Vagamon, also spelt Wagamon, is a hill station located in Meenachil taluk and Kanjirappally taluk of Kottayam district and Peerumade taluk of Idukki district of the state of Kerala, India.
Vaikom Muhammad Basheer (19 January 1908 – 5 July 1994) was a Malayalam fiction writer from the state of Kerala in India.
Valapattanam River is the largest river in the Kannur district, located in the South Indian state of Kerala.
Vallam Kali (vaḷḷaṃ kaḷi, literally: boat game) is a traditional boat race in Kerala, India.
Vallathol Narayana Menon (16 October 1878 – 13 March 1958) was a poet in the Malayalam language, which is spoken in the south Indian state of Kerala.
Vamana (Sanskrit: वामन, IAST: Vāmana, lit. dwarf), is the fifth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vanitha is an Indian magazine published fortnightly by the Malayala Manorama group.
Varkala is a coastal city and municipality in Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area of Thiruvananthapuram district situated in the Indian state of Kerala.City is located 29 kilometres north-west of Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) and 37 km south-west of Kollam.
Varkala Beach, also known as Papanasham Beach is a beach in Varkala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, along the Arabian Sea, part of the Indian Ocean.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Vasuki is a nāgarāja, one of the King serpents of Hindu and Buddhist mythology.
Vayalar Ramavarma (25 March 1928 – 27 October 1975), often known as Vayalar, was a Malayalam language poet and lyricist from the southern Indian state of Kerala.
The Velir were a royal house of minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamilakam in the early historic period of South India.
Vembanad (Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is the longest lake in India, and the largest lake in the state of Kerala.
Venad (Malayalam: Vēnāṭu) or the Kingdom of Quilon was one of the three prominent late medieval Hindu feudal kingdoms on the Malabar Coast, South India, along with the Kingdom of Calicut and Kolathunadu.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
Walayar (Malayalam:വാളയാർ) is a border town, located in the Palakkad district of Kerala, India.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
Wayanad is a district in the north-east of Kerala state, India with headquarters at the town of Kalpetta.
Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is an animal sanctuary in Wayanad, Kerala, India.
We TV is an American cable and satellite television network that is owned by AMC Networks.
Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wipro Limited (Western India Palm Refined Oils Limited or more recently, Western India Products Limited) is an Indian Information Technology Services corporation headquartered in Bengaluru, India.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the English East India Company, had an important effect on spreading English learning and female education in India.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yahoo! Finance is a media property that is part of Yahoo!'s network.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
The 2011 Indian Premier League season, abbreviated as IPL 4 or the IPL 2011, was the fourth season of the Indian Premier League, the top Twenty20 cricket league in India.
The 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup was the 17th FIFA U-17 World Cup, a biennial international football tournament contested by men's under-17 national teams.
Healthcare in Kerala, IN-KL, KERALA, Kazhimbram, Kerala (India), Kerala (State), Kerala (state), Kerala Hills, Kerala India, Kerala State, Kerala state, Kerala, India, Kerala,India, Keralam, Keralayathra, Keralese, Keralla, Kshetram - The Hindu temple of Kerala, Kēraḷa, Kēraḷaṁ, Languages of Kerala, Malayala Nadu, Malluland, State of Kerala, Unified State of Kerala, കേരളം.