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# Kernel (statistics)

The term kernel is a term in statistical analysis used to refer to a window function. 

## Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

## Bayesian statistics

Bayesian statistics, named for Thomas Bayes (1701–1761), is a theory in the field of statistics in which the evidence about the true state of the world is expressed in terms of degrees of belief known as Bayesian probabilities.

## Boxcar function

In mathematics, a boxcar function is any function which is zero over the entire real line except for a single interval where it is equal to a constant, A. The boxcar function can be expressed in terms of the uniform distribution as where f(a,b;x) is the uniform distribution of x for the interval and H(x) is the Heaviside step function.

## Cluster analysis

Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).

## Conditional expectation

In probability theory, the conditional expectation, conditional expected value, or conditional mean of a random variable is its expected value – the value it would take “on average” over an arbitrarily large number of occurrences – given that a certain set of "conditions" is known to occur.

## Conjugate prior

In Bayesian probability theory, if the posterior distributions p(θ|x) are in the same probability distribution family as the prior probability distribution p(θ), the prior and posterior are then called conjugate distributions, and the prior is called a conjugate prior for the likelihood function.

## Density estimation

In probability and statistics, density estimation is the construction of an estimate, based on observed data, of an unobservable underlying probability density function.

## Integrable system

In the context of differential equations to integrate an equation means to solve it from initial conditions.

## Kernel (statistics)

The term kernel is a term in statistical analysis used to refer to a window function.

## Kernel density estimation

In statistics, kernel density estimation (KDE) is a non-parametric way to estimate the probability density function of a random variable.

## Kernel method

In machine learning, kernel methods are a class of algorithms for pattern analysis, whose best known member is the support vector machine (SVM).

## Kernel regression

Kernel regression is a non-parametric technique in statistics to estimate the conditional expectation of a random variable.

## Kernel smoother

A kernel smoother is a statistical technique to estimate a real valued function f: \mathbb^p \to \mathbb as the weighted average of neighboring observed data.

## Logistic distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the logistic distribution is a continuous probability distribution.

## Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

## Markov kernel

In probability theory, a Markov kernel (also known as a stochastic kernel or probability kernel) is a map that plays the role, in the general theory of Markov processes, that the transition matrix does in the theory of Markov processes with a finite state space.

## Multivariate kernel density estimation

Kernel density estimation is a nonparametric technique for density estimation i.e., estimation of probability density functions, which is one of the fundamental questions in statistics.

## Nonparametric statistics

Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance).

## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

## Normalizing constant

The concept of a normalizing constant arises in probability theory and a variety of other areas of mathematics.

## Parameter

A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

## Periodogram

In signal processing, a periodogram is an estimate of the spectral density of a signal. The term was coined by Arthur Schuster in 1898.

## Point process

In statistics and probability theory, a point process or point field is a collection of mathematical points randomly located on some underlying mathematical space such as the real line, the Cartesian plane, or more abstract spaces.

## Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.

## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

## Probability mass function

In probability and statistics, a probability mass function (pmf) is a function that gives the probability that a discrete random variable is exactly equal to some value.

## Pseudo-random number sampling

Pseudo-random number sampling or non-uniform pseudo-random variate generation is the numerical practice of generating pseudo-random numbers that are distributed according to a given probability distribution.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.

## Real-valued function

In mathematics, a real-valued function is a function whose values are real numbers.

## Regression analysis

In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.

## Reproducing kernel Hilbert space

In functional analysis (a branch of mathematics), a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) is a Hilbert space of functions in which point evaluation is a continuous linear functional.

## Sigmoid function

A sigmoid function is a mathematical function having a characteristic "S"-shaped curve or sigmoid curve.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

## Statistical classification

In machine learning and statistics, classification is the problem of identifying to which of a set of categories (sub-populations) a new observation belongs, on the basis of a training set of data containing observations (or instances) whose category membership is known.

## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

## Support (mathematics)

In mathematics, the support of a real-valued function f is the subset of the domain containing those elements which are not mapped to zero.

## Time series

A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.

## Window function

In signal processing, a window function (also known as an apodization function or tapering function) is a mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval.

## References

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