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Index Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. [1]

169 relations: Abraham Pineo Gesner, Absorption (chemistry), Africa, Albertite, Alembic, Alkane, Alkene, Alkylbenzenes, Amish, Ammonium chloride, Argentina, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Asia, Asphalt, ASTM International, Atom, Australia, Autoignition temperature, Aviation fuel, Backpacking (wilderness), Bathgate, Bed bug, Benzene, Bituminous coal, Black body, Boston, British thermal unit, Canada, Canadians, Carbon, Cerium, Charlottetown, Chemist, Chile, Clay, Coal gas, Combustibility and flammability, Cooking, Croatian language, Cutting fluid, Cycloalkane, Czech language, Danish language, Dehydration, Density, Developing country, Diesel fuel, Dodecane, Drake Well, Drinking, ..., Dutch language, Electric spark, Enthalpy, Estonian language, Ethanol, Filling station, Finnish language, Fire breathing, Fire performance, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flash point, Fractional distillation, Fuel, Gas mantle, Gasoline, Gasoline gallon equivalent, Generic trademark, Geologist, German language, Gorlice, Greenhouse gas, Harold F. Williamson, Head louse, Heat of combustion, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Hydrocarbon, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, Incandescence, India, Ingestion, James Young (chemist), Jasło, Jet engine, Jet fuel, Joule, JP-8, Kerosene heater, Kerosene lamp, Kilogram, Latvian language, Liquefied petroleum gas, Liquid oxygen, Liquid paraffin (drug), Long Island, Lviv, Main Line of Public Works, Melting point, Ming dynasty, Miscibility, Molecule, Mosquito, Motorcycle, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Naphtha, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural gas, New Brunswick, New York (state), New York City Transit Authority, New Zealand, Newtown Creek, Oil shale, Oil Springs, Ontario, Operating temperature, Outboard motor, Paraffin wax, Pennsylvania, Pesticide, Petroleum, Petroleum seep, Poi (performance art), Poland, Portable stove, Potassium, Pound (mass), Pour point, Primus stove, Prince Edward Island, PUREX, Rayburn range, Recommended exposure limit, Retort, Rocket engine, Rocketdyne F-1, RP-1, Rubidium, Saab 99, Salamander heater, Salt well, Samuel Kier, Saturn V, Saudi Aramco World, Scotland, Serbian language, Simca-Talbot Horizon, Slovak language, Slovene language, Smoke point, Smudge pot, Sodium, South Africa, Sperm whale, Spiracle, Static electricity, Thorium, Thorium dioxide, Torbanite, Tractor vaporising oil, Turpentine, Ultra-low-sulfur diesel, United Kingdom, United States, Vienna, Viscosity, Watt, Wax, Whale oil, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (119 more) »

Abraham Pineo Gesner

Abraham Pineo Gesner, ONB (May 2, 1797 – April 29, 1864) was a Canadian physician and geologist who invented kerosene.

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Absorption (chemistry)

In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Albertite is a type of asphalt in the Albert Formation found in Albert County, New Brunswick.

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An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals.

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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The alkylbenzenes are derivatives of benzene, in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups of different sizes.

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The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.

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Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Aviation fuel

Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.

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Backpacking (wilderness)

Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day.

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Bathgate (Bathket or italic, Both Chèit) is a town in West Lothian, Scotland, on the M8 motorway west of Livingston.

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Bed bug

Bed bugs are parasitic insects in the genus Cimex that feed exclusively on blood.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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British thermal unit

The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

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Charlottetown (Baile Sheàrlot) is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County.

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A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Coal gas

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Cutting fluid

Cutting fluid is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.

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In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.

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Drake Well

The Drake Well is a oil well in Cherrytree Township, Venango County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, the success of which sparked the first oil boom in the United States.

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Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Electric spark

An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.

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Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Filling station

A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Fire breathing

Fire breathing is the act of making a plume or stream of fire by creating a precise mist of fuel from the mouth over an open flame.

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Fire performance

Fire performance is a group of performance arts or skills that involve the manipulation of fire.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flash point

The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.

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Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.

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A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Gas mantle

An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Gasoline gallon equivalent

Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline.

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Generic trademark

A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder.

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A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gorlice is a city and an urban municipality ("gmina") in south eastern Poland with around 29,500 inhabitants (2008).

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Harold F. Williamson

Harold Francis Williamson Sr. (March 21, 1901 – October 25, 1989) was an American business historian, and Professor of American and European economic history at Northwestern University, most known for his 1963 work on the history of the American petroleum industry.

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Head louse

The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis).

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Heat of combustion

The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Ignacy Łukasiewicz

Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.

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Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.

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James Young (chemist)

James Young (13 July 1811 – 13 May 1883) was a Scottish chemist best known for his method of distilling paraffin from coal and oil shales.

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Jasło is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 36,641 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2012.

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

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Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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JP-8, or JP8 (for "Jet Propellant 8") is a jet fuel, specified and used widely by the US military.

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Kerosene heater

A kerosene heater, also known as a paraffin heater, is typically a portable, unvented, kerosene-fueled, space (i.e., convectional) heating device.

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Kerosene lamp

A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (paraffin) as a fuel.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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Liquid oxygen

Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.

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Liquid paraffin (drug)

Liquid paraffin, also known as paraffinum liquidum, is a very highly refined mineral oil used in cosmetics and for medical purposes.

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Long Island

Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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Main Line of Public Works

The Main Line of Public Works was a package of legislation supporting a vision passed in 1826 — a collection of various long proposed canal and road projects that became a canal system (1824 proposals and studies) and later added railroads (amendments in 1828) designed to cross the breadth of Pennsylvania (mainly, southern) with the visionary goal of providing the best commercial means of transportation between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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New Brunswick

New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New York City Transit Authority

The New York City Transit Authority (also known as NYCTA, The TA or simply Transit, and branded as MTA New York City Transit) is a public authority in the U.S. state of New York that operates public transportation in New York City.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Newtown Creek

Newtown Creek, a long tributary of the East River,Eldredge & Horenstein (2014), p.150 is an estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, in New York City.

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Oil shale

Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.

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Oil Springs, Ontario

Oil Springs is a village in Lambton County, Ontario, Canada, located along Former Provincial Highway 21 south of Oil City.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Outboard motor

An outboard motor is a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom.

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Paraffin wax

Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum seep

A petroleum seep is a place where natural liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons escape to the earth's atmosphere and surface, normally under low pressure or flow.

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Poi (performance art)

Poi refers to both a style of performing art and the equipment used for engaging in poi performance.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Portable stove

A portable stove is a cooking stove specially designed to be portable and lightweight, used in camping, picnicking, backpacking, or other use in remote locations where an easily transportable means of cooking or heating is needed.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Pound (mass)

The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.

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Pour point

The pour point of a liquid is the temperature below which the liquid loses its flow characteristics.

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Primus stove

The Primus stove, the first pressurized-burner kerosene (paraffin) stove, was developed in 1892 by Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, a factory mechanic in Stockholm.

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Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.

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PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.

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Rayburn range

The Rayburn is a type of stove similar in nature to the AGA and is manufactured in Telford in the United Kingdom, at the same factory as the AGA.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.

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Rocket engine

A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.

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Rocketdyne F-1

The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.

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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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Saab 99

The Saab 99 is a compact executive car which was produced by Saab from 1968 to 1984.

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Salamander heater

A salamander heater is any of a variety of portable forced-air or convection heaters, often kerosene-fueled, used in ventilated areas for worksite comfort.

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Salt well

A salt well (or brine well) is used to mine salt from subterranean caverns or deposits.

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Samuel Kier

Samuel Martin Kier (July 19, 1813 – October 6, 1874) was an American inventor and businessman who is credited with founding the American petroleum refining industry.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

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Saudi Aramco World

Aramco World (formerly Saudi Aramco World) is a bi-monthly magazine published by Aramco Services Company, U.S.-based subsidiary of Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Simca-Talbot Horizon

The Horizon is a family hatchback developed by Chrysler Europe and sold in Europe between 1978 and 1987 under the Chrysler, Simca, and Talbot nameplates.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Smoke point

The smoke point also known as burning point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, it begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible.

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Smudge pot

A smudge pot (also known as a choofa or orchard heater) is an oil-burning device used to prevent frost on fruit trees.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Sperm whale

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.

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Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.

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Static electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Thorium dioxide

Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.

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Torbanite, also known as boghead coal, is a variety of fine-grained black oil shale.

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Tractor vaporising oil

Tractor vaporising oil (or TVO) is a fuel for petrol-paraffin engines.

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Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.

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Ultra-low-sulfur diesel

Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur content.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Whale oil

Whale oil is oil obtained from the blubber of whales.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerosene

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