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Ketamine (INN) is a medication used mainly for starting and maintaining anesthesia. [1]

269 relations: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Addiction (journal), Addiction Biology, Adrenergic receptor, Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Agonist, Alcohol, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Allosteric modulator, American Family Physician, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Amitriptyline, Amnesia, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anesthesiology (journal), Anesthetic, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Anterograde amnesia, Antibiotics, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Arketamine, Arylcyclohexylamine, Asthma, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Baclofen, Ball-and-stick model, Barbiturate, BBC News, Benzodiazepine, Bile, Bioavailability, Biotransformation, Bipolar disorder, Blood pressure, Bovinae, Bradycardia, British Journal of Anaesthesia, British Journal of Pharmacology, Bronchodilator, Bronchospasm, Buccal administration, Canada, Canada Gazette, Cardiac arrhythmia, Catecholamine, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Channel blocker, ..., Chirality (chemistry), Cholinergic, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic pain, Circulatory system, Clonidine, Clonus, Club drug, Cochrane Collaboration, Cochrane Library, Complex regional pain syndrome, Compounding, Controlled Substances Act, Current Opinion, Cyclobenzaprine, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, D. M. Turner, Date rape, Dehydronorketamine, Depersonalization, Derealization, Detomidine, Detrusor urinae muscle, Dextromethorphan, Diazepam, Diplopia, Dissociation (psychology), Dissociative, Dizocilpine, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Drug and Alcohol Dependence (journal), Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Drug Testing and Analysis, Emergency department, Emergency medicine, Enantiomer, Enantiopure drug, Entheogen, Enzyme inhibitor, Epidural administration, Erowid, Erythema, Esketamine, Euphoria, Experimentation on prisoners, Federal government of the United States, Federal Register, First pass effect, Free Association Books, Frontiers Media, GABAergic, Gabapentin, Glutamic acid, Government of Canada, Government of Hong Kong, Government of India, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guaifenesin, Hallucinogen, HCN1, Health and Social Care Directorates, Health system, Hematuria, Hong Kong, Human gastrointestinal tract, Hyaluronic acid, Hydronephrosis, Hydroxylation, Hydroxynorketamine, Hyperalgesia, Hypertension, Hypodermoclysis, Hypotension, Inflammation, Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, Insufflation (medicine), Intensive care medicine, International Nonproprietary Name, Intracranial pressure, Intramuscular injection, Intraocular pressure, Intravenous therapy, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, JAMA Psychiatry, JAMA Surgery, John C. Lilly, John Olney, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, K-hole, L-type calcium channel, Lanicemine, Laryngospasm, Major depressive disorder, Marcia Moore, MDMA, Mechanical ventilation, Medical guideline, Memantine, Mepivacaine, Methoxetamine, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Monoamine transporter, Morbilliform, Morphine, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscle relaxant, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Neuron, NHS Lothian, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, Nitrous oxide, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nociception, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Norepinephrine, Norketamine, Norman Baker, NRX-1074, Nystagmus, Open Government Licence, Opioid, Opioid receptor, Oral administration, Pain (journal), Pain wind-up, Parke-Davis, Pathogenesis, Pentosan polysulfate, Pharmaceutical drug, Phencyclidine, Posterior grey column, Prefrontal cortex, Procaine, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychonautics, Psychosis, Psychotomimetic, Rabbit, Racemic mixture, Rapastinel, Rat, Rave, Recreational use of ketamine, Renal papillary necrosis, Respiratory system, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Rhesus macaque, Risperidone, Rodent cocktail, Ronin Publishing, Science (journal), Sedation, Sedative, Sensitization, Serotonin, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sigma receptor, Skeletal formula, Sodium channel, Sodium thiopental, Spinal anaesthesia, Statutes of Canada, Stereoisomerism, Steroid, Sublingual administration, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, Synapse (journal), Systematic review, Tachycardia, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Tetracaine, The BMJ, The Daily Telegraph, The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, The Journal of Neuroscience, The Lancet, The Times of India, Thomas R. Insel, Tiletamine, Tonic (physiology), Topical medication, Toxicological Sciences, Toxicology (journal), Toxicology Letters, Tracheal intubation, Tramadol, Trance, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services, University of Maryland, College Park, Urinary bladder, Urinary incontinence, Veterinary anesthesia, Vietnam War, Wayne State University, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, 3-HO-PCP, 3-MeO-PCE, 3-MeO-PCP, 4-Chlorokynurenine, 4-MeO-PCP. Expand index (219 more) »

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in the field of anaesthesia, intensive care, pain, and emergency medicine.

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Addiction (journal)

Addiction is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and other Drugs.

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Addiction Biology

Addiction Biology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on substance abuse.

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Adrenergic receptor

The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

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Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs

The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) is a British statutory and non-executive non-departmental public body, which was established under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly

The Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis.

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Allosteric modulator

In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of an agonist or inverse agonist at a target protein, for example a receptor.

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American Family Physician

American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

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American Journal of Emergency Medicine

The American Journal of Emergency Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal, covering emergency medicine.

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Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Levate, and many others) is the most widely used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).

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Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία from ἀ- meaning "without" and μνήμη memory), also known as amnesic syndrome, is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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In the practice of medicine, especially surgery, and dentistry, anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek ἀν-, an-, "without"; and αἴσθησις, aisthēsis, "sensation"; see American and British English spelling differences) is an induced, temporary state with one or more of the following characteristics: analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (extreme muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness.

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Anesthesia & Analgesia

Anesthesia & Analgesia is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative medicine that was established in 1922.

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Anesthesiology (journal)

Anesthesiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on anesthesiology.

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An anesthetic (anaesthetic or anæsthetic in British English) is a drug that causes anesthesia, which is a reversible loss of sensation.

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Annals of Emergency Medicine

The Annals of Emergency Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of emergency medicine care.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Arketamine, also (R)-ketamine or R(–)-ketamine, is the (R)-(–) enantiomer of ketamine.

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Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs.

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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.

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Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of aviation / aerospace medicine.

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Baclofen (original brand name Lioresal, generics are widely available) is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant.

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Ball-and-stick model

In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.

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Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder and manic-depressive illness, is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.

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The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.

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Bradycardia, also known as bradyarrhythmia, is a slow heart rate, namely, a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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British Journal of Anaesthesia

The British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA) is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, of which it is their joint official journal.

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British Journal of Pharmacology

The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.

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A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.

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Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.

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Buccal administration

Buccal administration refers to a enteral route of administration by which drugs diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Canada Gazette

The Canada Gazette (Gazette du Canada) is the official newspaper of the Government of Canada.

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Cardiac arrhythmia

Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine.

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Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) is a consortium of mental health clinics at several sites in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Channel blocker

A channel blocker (CB) or ion channel blocker (ICB) is a type of drug which binds inside the pore of a specific type of ion channel and blocks the flow of ions through it, resulting in an alteration of the electrochemical gradient of the cell membrane of neurons and therefore a change in neurotransmission.

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Chirality (chemistry)

A molecule is chiral if there is another molecule—in reality or in potential—that is of identical composition, but which is arranged in a non-superposable mirror image configuration.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow.

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Chronic pain

Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a sympatholytic medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.

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Club drug

Club drugs, also called Rave drugs, are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and dance clubs, parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2000s.

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Cochrane Collaboration

The Cochrane Collaboration is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization consisting of a group of more than 37,000 volunteers in more than 130 countries.

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Cochrane Library

The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and other organizations.

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Complex regional pain syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), "causalgia", or reflex neurovascular dystrophy (RND) is an amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS).

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Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute prescribing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Current Opinion

Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.

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Cyclobenzaprine, brand names Flexeril among others, is a muscle relaxer medication used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions.

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Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4), is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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D. M. Turner

D.M. Turner (born Joseph Vivian; 5 October 1962 – 31 December 1996) was an author, psychedelic researcher and psychonaut who wrote two books on psychoactives and entheogens.

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Date rape

Date rape is a form of acquaintance rape.

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Dehydronorketamine (DHNK), or 5,6-dehydronorketamine, is a minor metabolite of ketamine which is formed by dehydrogenation of its metabolite norketamine.

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Depersonalization (or depersonalisation) is an anomaly of self-awareness.

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Derealization or derealisation (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.

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Detomidine is an imidazole derivative and α2-adrenergic agonist, used as a large animal sedative, primarily used in horses.

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Detrusor urinae muscle

The detrusor urinae muscle, also detrusor muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.

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Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug of the morphinan class with sedative and dissociative properties.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medication of the benzodiazepine type that alters the function of the brain.

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Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.

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Dissociation (psychology)

In psychology, the term dissociation describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience.

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Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self.

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Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is an uncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.

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Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT).

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Drug and Alcohol Dependence (journal)

Drug and Alcohol Dependence is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on biomedical and psychosocial approaches to addiction.

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Drug Metabolism and Disposition

Drug Metabolism and Disposition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the fields of pharmacology and toxicology.

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Drug Testing and Analysis

Drug Testing and Analysis is a Monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 2009 and published by John Wiley & Sons.

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Emergency department

An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.

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Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine is a medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Enantiopure drug

An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form.

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An entheogen ("generating the divine within") is a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context that may be synthesized or obtained from natural species.

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Enzyme inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Epidural administration

Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord.

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Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation and lucid dreaming.

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia of superficial capillaries.

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Esketamine (also (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine) (brand name Ketanest S) is a general anaesthetic and a dissociative.

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Euphoria (from Ancient Greek εὐφορία, from εὖ eu, "well", and φέρω pherō, "to bear") (semantically opposite of dysphoria) is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement and joy.

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Experimentation on prisoners

Throughout history, prisoners have been frequent participants in scientific, medical and social human subject research.

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Federal government of the United States

The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.

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Federal Register

The Federal Register, abbreviated FR or sometimes Fed.

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First pass effect

The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

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Free Association Books

Free Association Books is an innovative project started in 1980s London.

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Frontiers Media

Frontiers Media S.A. is an academic publisher of peer-reviewed open access scientific journals currently active in science, technology, and medicine.

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A GABAergic agent (or drug) is a chemical that functions to directly modulate the GABA system in the body or brain.

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Gabapentin, marketed under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication used as an anticonvulsant and analgesic.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-23 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Government of Hong Kong

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.

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Government of India

The Government of India (GoI), officially known as the Union Government and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Guaifenesin INN or guaiphenesin (former BAN), also glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant drug sold over the counter and usually taken orally to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perception anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants.

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Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCN1 gene.

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Health and Social Care Directorates

Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates are a set of directorates of the Scottish Government.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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In medicine, hematuria, or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong, traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.

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Human gastrointestinal tract

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA) (also called hyaluronan, hyaluronate or) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

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Hydronephrosis — literally "water inside the kidney" — refers to distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Hydroxynorketamine, or 6-hydroxynorketamine, is a metabolite of ketamine which is formed by hydroxylation of its metabolite norketamine.

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Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypodermoclysis, which can also be called interstitial infusion or subcutaneous infusion, is the subcutaneous administration of fluids to the body.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.

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Inner Traditions – Bear & Company

Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, also known as Inner Traditions, is a book publisher founded by Ehud Sperling in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States.

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Insufflation (medicine)

Insufflation (Latin insufflatio "blowing on" or "into") is the act of inhaling something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.

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Intensive care medicine

Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions requiring sophisticated organ support and invasive monitoring.

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International Nonproprietary Name

An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and nonproprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or active ingredient.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle.

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Intraocular pressure

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein.

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Δ-opioid receptor

The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an opioid receptor that has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.

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Κ-opioid receptor

The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.

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Μ-opioid receptor

The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin but low affinity for dynorphins.

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JAMA Psychiatry

JAMA Psychiatry (until 2013: Archives of General Psychiatry) is a monthly, peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association.

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JAMA Surgery

JAMA Surgery is a monthly professional medical journal which aims to be "a sounding board and forum for all the changes that are occurring in surgery today".

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John C. Lilly

John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, neuroscientist, psychoanalyst, psychonaut, philosopher, writer and inventor.

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John Olney

John Olney (1932April 14, 2015) was a medical doctor and a professor of psychiatry, pathology, and immunology at the Washington University School of Medicine.

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Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

The Journal of Pain and Symptom Management is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1986.

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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs is a peer-reviewed medical journal on psychoactive drugs.

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"K-hole" is a slang term for the subjective state of dissociation from the body commonly experienced after sufficiently high doses of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine.

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L-type calcium channel

The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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Lanicemine (AZD6765) is a low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, which was being studied for the management of severe and treatment-resistant depression.

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In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the vocal folds.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

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Marcia Moore

Marcia Moore (May 22, 1928 – January 14, 1979) was an American astrologer and yoga teacher brought to national attention through Yoga, Youth, and Reincarnation by Jess Stearn in 1965.

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MDMA (contracted from) is a psychoactive drug of the substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine and substituted amphetamine classes of drugs that is consumed primarily for its euphoric and empathogenic effects.

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Mechanical ventilation

In medicine, mechanical ventilation is a method to mechanically assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by a registered nurse, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating through the mouth (such as an endotracheal tube) or the skin (such as a tracheostomy tube). There are two main modes of mechanical ventilation within the two divisions: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs.

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Medical guideline

A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline, clinical protocol or clinical practice guideline) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.

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Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968. Memantine is marketed under the brands Axura and Akatinol by Merz, Namenda by Forest, Ebixa and Abixa by Lundbeck and Mimetix by Abbott in Latin America, as well as in various generic formulations. Memantine has been shown to have a modest effect in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease and in dementia with Lewy bodies. Despite years of research, there is little evidence of effect on mild Alzheimer's disease.

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Mepivacaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.

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Methoxetamine (MXE), or 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE is a dissociative drug that has been sold as a designer drug.

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Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Monoamine transporter

Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.

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The term morbilliform refers to a rash that looks like measles.

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Morphine, sold under many trade names, is a pain medication of the opiate type.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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National Institute of Mental Health

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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NHS Lothian

NHS Lothian is one of the fourteen regions of NHS Scotland.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are neuron receptor proteins that signal for muscular contractions upon a chemical stimulus.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide) is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical formula of NO that is a colorless gas under standard conditions.

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Nitric oxide synthase

Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS is a chemical compound with the formula.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception) is the encoding and processing of harmful stimuli in the nervous system, and, therefore, the ability of a body to sense potential harm.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), also called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs), are a class of drugs that provides analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.

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Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4.

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Norman Baker

Norman John Baker PC (born 26 July 1957) is a Liberal Democrat politician in the United Kingdom who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Lewes in East Sussex from 1997 to until he lost his seat in 2015.

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NRX-1074 is an orally-active experimental pharmaceutical and selective partial agonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor which is under investigation as a novel antidepressant drug.

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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.

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Open Government Licence

The Open Government Licence is a copyright licence for Crown Copyright works published by the UK government.

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An "opioid" is any synthetic narcotic not derived from opium.

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Opioid receptor

Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.

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Oral administration

Oral administration (per os) is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth.

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Pain (journal)

Pain is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

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Pain wind-up

Pain wind-up is the perceived increase in pain intensity over time when a given stimulus is delivered repeatedly above a critical rate.

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Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state.

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Pentosan polysulfate

Pentosan polysulfate (PPS, (1->4)-β-Xylan 2,3-bis(hydrogen sulfate) with a 4 O-methyl-α-D-glucuronate) is a semi-synthetic polysulfated xylan sold for the relief of various medical conditions including thrombi and interstitial cystitis in humans and osteoarthritis in dogs and horses.

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Pharmaceutical drug

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenyl cyclohexyl)piperidine), commonly initialized as PCP and known colloquially as Angel Dust, pharmaceutically as Sernyl, and by many other names, is a dissociative drug.

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Posterior grey column

The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness.

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Psychonautics (from the Greek ψυχή psychē and ναύτης naútēs — "a sailor of the soul") refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, including those induced by meditation or mind-altering substances, and to a research paradigm in which the researcher voluntarily immerses himself or herself into an altered mental state in order to explore the accompanying experiences.

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Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".

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A drug with psychotomimetic (also known as psychotogenic) actions mimics the symptoms of psychosis, including delusions and/or delirium, as opposed to just hallucinations.

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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.

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Racemic mixture

In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.

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Rapastinel (INN) (code name GLYX-13) is an intravenously-administered, selective, weak partial agonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor (IA ≈ 25%) which is under development by Naurex as an adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant depression.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

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A rave (from the verb: to rave) is a large dance party featuring performances by DJs and occasionally live performers playing electronic music, particularly EDM.

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Recreational use of ketamine

Ketamine is a potentially lethal prescription anesthetic that is federally regulated (e.g., U.S. Schedule III, U.K. Class B) that functions as a dissociative anesthetic, and so has seen use as a recreational drug.

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Renal papillary necrosis

Renal papillary necrosis is a form of nephropathy involving the necrosis of the renal papilla, which is supplied by the vasa recta.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.

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Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.

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Reuptake inhibitor

A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of reuptake modulator which inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter and therefore an increase in neurotransmission.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Risperidone (trade name Risperdal and generics) is an antipsychotic drug mainly used to treat schizophrenia (including adolescent schizophrenia), schizoaffective disorder, the mixed and manic states of bipolar disorder, and irritability in people with autism.

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Rodent cocktail

Rodent cocktail is an anesthetic mixture that is often used for rodents in research.

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Ronin Publishing

Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

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A sedative or tranquilizer (or tranquilliser, see American and British English spelling differences) is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Serotonin reuptake inhibitor

A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).

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Sigma receptor

Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP, SA 4503, ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine and siramesine.

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Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, sometimes called line-angle formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of its bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Sodium thiopental

Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.

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Spinal anaesthesia

Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).

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Statutes of Canada

The Statutes of Canada (S.C.) consists of the compilation of all the federal laws of Canada passed by the Parliament of Canada since Confederation in 1867.

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Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains four cycloalkane rings arranged in a characteristic configuration.

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Sublingual administration

Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which drugs diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Synapse (journal)

Synapse is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of neuroscience published in New York by Wiley-Liss to address basic science topics on synaptic function and structure.

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Systematic review

A systematic review (also systematic literature review or structured literature review, SLR) is a literature review focused on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Taipei Times

The Taipei Times is now one of only two daily English-language printed newspapers in Taiwan, its competitor being The China Post.

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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tetracaine (INN, also known as amethocaine; trade name Pontocaine. Ametop and Dicaine) is a potent local anesthetic of the ester group.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers

The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers are a trio of underground comic strip characters created by the United States artist Gilbert Shelton.

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The Journal of Neuroscience

The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.

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Thomas R. Insel

Thomas Roland Insel (born October 19, 1951) is an American neuroscientist and psychiatrist who has led the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) since 2002.

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Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.

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Tonic (physiology)

Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded.

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Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.

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Toxicological Sciences

Toxicological Sciences is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of research on toxicology.

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Toxicology (journal)

Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the adverse effects of xenobiotics on the health of humans and other animals.

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Toxicology Letters

Toxicology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for the rapid publication of short reports on all aspects of toxicology, especially mechanisms of toxicity.

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Tracheal intubation

Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs.

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Tramadol (marketed as Ultram, and as generics) is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.

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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland, Maryland, UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the University of Maryland is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any leakage of urine.

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Veterinary anesthesia

Veterinary anesthesia is anesthesia performed on animals (excluding humans) by a veterinarian.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Wayne State University

Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan, United States, in the city's Midtown Cultural Center Historic District and Wayne State University Buildings Historic District.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is published by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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3-Hydroxyphencyclidine (3-HO-PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold online as a designer drug.

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3-Methoxyeticyclidine (3-MeO-PCE) is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been sold online as a research chemical.

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3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been sold online as a research chemical.

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L-4-Chlorokynurenine (4-Cl-KYN, developmental code name AV-101) is an orally active small molecule prodrug candidate that in vivo produces a glycine binding site NMDA receptor antagonist.

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4-Methoxyphencyclidine (methoxydine, 4-MeO-PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been sold online as a research chemical.

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Redirects here:

ATC code N01AX03, ATCvet code QN01AX03, CLSTA 20, Cat tranquilizer, Cat valium, K (drug), KETAMINE, Ketaject, Ketalar, Ketalar base, Ketamin, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Ketamine hydrochloride, Ketanest, Ketaset, Ketolar.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketamine

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