386 relations: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Active metabolite, Addiction (journal), Addiction Biology, Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Agonist, Alcoholism, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Allosteric modulator, Allosteric regulation, Alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, American Family Physician, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Amnesia, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anesthesiology (journal), Anesthetic, Angina, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Anterograde amnesia, Antibiotic, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Apimostinel, Apnea, Arketamine, Arylcyclohexylamine, Asthma, Australia, Aversion therapy, Ball-and-stick model, Barbiturate, BBC News, Benzodiazepine, Bile, Binding selectivity, Biological activity, Biotransformation, Bipolar disorder, Blood pressure, Boshe, Bovinae, Bradycardia, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, British Journal of Anaesthesia, ..., Bromocriptine, Bronchodilator, Bronchus, Buccal administration, Calvin L. Stevens, Canada, Canada Gazette, Carbamazepine, Case report, Cell signaling, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Channel blocker, Chirality (chemistry), Cholinesterase, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic pain, Circulatory system, Clinical trial, Clonidine, Clonus, Club drug, Cocaine, Cochrane (organisation), Cochrane Library, Cognitive deficit, Complex regional pain syndrome, Conditioned place preference, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Crab-eating macaque, Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, Cyclohexane conformation, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, D. M. Turner, Date rape, Dehydronorketamine, Delirium, Demethylation, Depersonalization, Depression (mood), Derealization, Detomidine, Detrusor muscle, Developing country, Dextromethorphan, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diazepam, Diplopia, Dissociation (psychology), Dissociative, Dizocilpine, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D2, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug and Alcohol Dependence (journal), Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Drug Testing and Analysis, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945, Drugs.com, E for Ecstasy, EEF2, Emergency department, Emergency medicine, Enantiomer, Enantiopure drug, English language, Entheogen, Enzyme inhibitor, Ephedrine, Epidural administration, Erowid, Erythema, Esketamine, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Ethanol, Eticyclidine, Euphoria, Exanthem, Experimentation on prisoners, Feces, Federal Register, First pass effect, Free Association Books, Free base, French language, Frontiers Media, GABAergic, Gaseous signaling molecules, Gastrointestinal tract, General anaesthetic, Generic drug, German language, Government of Canada, Government of Hong Kong, Government of India, Greenwood Publishing Group, GSK-3, Guaifenesin, Habenula, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, HCN1, Health and Social Care Directorates, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, HEK 293 cells, Hematuria, Hepatotoxicity, Hong Kong, Hyaluronic acid, Hydrochloride, Hydronephrosis, Hydroxylation, Hydroxynorketamine, Hypertension, Hypertensive crisis, Hypodermoclysis, Hypotension, Hypoventilation, IC50, Illegal drug trade, Inflammation, Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, Insufflation (medicine), Intensive care medicine, Intracranial pressure, Intramuscular injection, Intraocular pressure, Intraosseous infusion, Intravenous therapy, Ionotropic glutamate receptor, Italian language, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, JAMA Psychiatry, JAMA Surgery, John C. Lilly, John Olney, Johnson & Johnson, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Ketamine, Kinase, Laryngospasm, Latin, Ligand (biochemistry), Limbic system, Liver, Major depressive disorder, Marcia Moore, MDMA, Mechanical ventilation, Mechanism of action, Medical guideline, Medical imaging, Medication, Medicine, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolite, Methoxetamine, Mexico, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine reuptake inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Morbilliform, Morphine, MTOR, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, Muscle relaxant, Nasal administration, Nasal spray, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter receptor, Neurotransmitter transporter, NHS Lothian, Nicholas Saunders (activist), Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Norepinephrine, Norketamine, Norman Baker, Nystagmus, Off-label use, Olney's lesions, Open Government Licence, Operant conditioning, Operation TKO, Opioid, Optical rotation, Oral administration, Orphenadrine, Out-of-pocket expense, Pain (journal), Pain wind-up, Parke-Davis, Partial agonist, Pathogenesis, PCP site 2, Pentosan polysulfate, Pharmacodynamics, Phencyclidine, Phenobarbital, Phenothiazine, Phenytoin, Phosphorylation, Plasma protein binding, Porphyria, Posterior grey column, Pre-clinical development, Prefrontal cortex, Prolactin, Psychedelic therapy, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychomotor agitation, Psychonautics, Psychosis, Quinazolinone, Rabbit, Racemic mixture, Raclopride, Rapastinel, Rat, Rave, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Rectal administration, Renal papillary necrosis, Respiratory system, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Rhesus macaque, Rifampicin, Risperidone, Rodent, Rodent cocktail, Ronin Publishing, Salt (chemistry), Schedule X, Science (journal), Secretion, Security Bureau (Hong Kong), Sedation, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selegiline, Self-administration, Sensitization, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, Skeletal formula, Sodium channel, Sodium thiopental, Somnolence, Spanish language, Spinal anaesthesia, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Stereoisomerism, Steroid, Striatum, Stroke, Structural analog, Subcutaneous injection, Sublingual administration, Substance abuse, Substance-related disorder, Suicidal ideation, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse (journal), Systematic review, Tachycardia, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Tartrate, Tenocyclidine, The BMJ, The Daily Telegraph, The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, The Lancet, The Times of India, Tiletamine, Tonic (physiology), Topical medication, Toxicity, Toxicological Sciences, Toxicology (journal), Toxicology Letters, Tracheal intubation, Trademark distinctiveness, Trance, Transdermal, Transfection, Tranylcypromine, Treatment-resistant depression, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B, Tunnel vision, Uncompetitive antagonist, United Kingdom, United States, University of Maryland, College Park, Upstream and downstream (transduction), Urinary bladder, Urinary bladder disease, Urinary incontinence, Urine, Veterinary anesthesia, Vietnam War, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Wayne State University, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, 3-MeO-PCE, 4-Chlorokynurenine, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT3 receptor. 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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in the field of anaesthesia, intensive care, pain, and emergency medicine.
Acta Chemica Scandinavica was a peer-reviewed Nordic scientific journal in the fields of chemistry.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
Addiction is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and other Drugs.
Addiction Biology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on substance abuse.
The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) is a British statutory advisory non-departmental public body, which was established under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
The alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α4β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in learning, consisting of α4 and β2 subunits.
The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits.
American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal, covering emergency medicine.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anesthesia & Analgesia is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative medicine that was established in 1922.
Anesthesiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on anesthesiology.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
The Annals of Emergency Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of emergency medicine care.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Apimostinel (former developmental code name NRX-1074) is an antidepressant, acting as a selective partial agonist of an allosteric site of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex, which is under investigation by Naurex and Allergan for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Arketamine, also (R)-ketamine or (R)-(&minus)-ketamine, is the (R)-(&minus) enantiomer of ketamine.
Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Aversion therapy is a form of psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort.
In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Boshe is a village in Lufeng, Guangdong province of China.
The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
The British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA) is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier (Previously published by Oxford University Press until 2018) on behalf of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (and its Faculty of Pain Medicine), the College of Anaesthetists of Ireland and the Hong Kong College of Anaesthesiologists, for all of which it serves as their official journal.
Bromocriptine (originally marketed as Parlodel, subsequently under many names) is an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Calvin Lee Stevens (November 3, 1923 – November 26, 2014) was an American chemist.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada Gazette (Gazette du Canada) is the official newspaper of the Government of Canada.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH; Centre de toxicomanie et de santé mentale) is a mental health teaching hospital in with central facilities located in Toronto and 10 community locations throughout the province of Ontario, Canada.
A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.
Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2010s.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or algodystrophy, is a disorder of a portion of the body, usually the arms or legs, which manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes to the skin and bones.
Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), also known as the long-tailed macaque, is a cercopithecine primate native to Southeast Asia.
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anaesthesiology.
A cyclohexane conformation is any of several three-dimensional shapes that a cyclohexane molecule can assume while maintaining the integrity of its chemical bonds.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
D.M. Turner (born Joseph Vivian; 5 October 1962 – 31 December 1996) was an author, psychedelic researcher and psychonaut who wrote two books on psychoactive drugs and entheogens.
Date rape is a form of acquaintance rape.
Dehydronorketamine (DHNK), or 5,6-dehydronorketamine, is a minor metabolite of ketamine which is formed by dehydrogenation of its metabolite norketamine.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Detomidine is an imidazole derivative and α2-adrenergic agonist, used as a large animal sedative, primarily used in horses.
The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on biomedical and psychosocial approaches to addiction.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the fields of pharmacology and toxicology.
Drug Testing and Analysis is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 2009 and published by John Wiley & Sons.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 are the set of rules under The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 which contains provisions for classification of drugs under given schedules and there are guidelines for the storage, sale, display and prescription of each schedule.
Drugs.com is an online pharmaceutical encyclopedia which provides drug information for consumers and healthcare professionals, primarily in the USA.
E for Ecstasy is a book written by Nicholas Saunders and published in May 1993.
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF2 gene.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities and technologies that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation, lucid dreaming, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroceuticals.
Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.
Esketamine, also known as (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine and sold under the brand names Ketanest and Ketanest S among others, is a general anesthetic and a dissociative hallucinogen.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eticyclidine (PCE, CI-400) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic effects.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
An exanthem or exanthema (from Greek ἐξάνθημα exánthēma, "a breaking out") is a widespread rash usually occurring in children.
Throughout history, prisoners have been frequent participants in scientific, medical and social human subject research.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Free Association Books is a project started in London in the 1980s.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Frontiers Media SA is an academic publisher of peer-reviewed open access scientific journals currently active in science, technology, and medicine.
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
In neuroanatomy, habenula (diminutive of Latin habena meaning rein) originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland (pineal habenula; pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCN1 gene.
The Health and Social Care Directorates are a set of directorates of the Scottish Government.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydronephrosis describes urine-filled dilation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces as a result of obstruction.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxynorketamine (HNK), or 6-hydroxynorketamine, is a minor metabolite of the anesthetic, dissociative, and antidepressant drug ketamine.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.
Hypodermoclysis, which can also be called interstitial infusion or subcutaneous infusion, is the subcutaneous administration of fluids to the body.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, also known as Inner Traditions, is a book publisher founded by Ehud Sperling in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.
Intraosseous infusion (IO) is the process of injecting directly into the marrow of a bone.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
JAMA Psychiatry (until 2013: Archives of General Psychiatry) is a monthly, peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association.
JAMA Surgery is a monthly professional medical journal which aims to be "a sounding board and forum for all the changes that are occurring in surgery today".
Dr John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, neuroscientist, psychoanalyst, psychonaut, philosopher, writer and inventor.
John Olney (1932April 14, 2015) was a medical doctor and a professor of psychiatry, pathology, and immunology at the Washington University School of Medicine.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
The Journal of Pain and Symptom Management is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1986.
The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs is a peer-reviewed medical journal on psychoactive drugs.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the vocal folds.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Marcia Moore (May 22, 1928 – January 14, 1979) was an American writer, astrologer and yoga teacher brought to national attention in 1965 through Jess Stearn's book Yoga, Youth, and Reincarnation.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methoxetamine, abbreviated as MXE, is a dissociative hallucinogen that has been sold as a designer drug.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
The term morbilliform refers to a rash that looks like measles.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM2 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
NHS Lothian is one of the fourteen regions of NHS Scotland.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicholas Saunders (25 January (or possibly 25 July) 1938 – 3 February 1998) was a British figure in the 'alternative' movement from the 1970s until his death in a car crash in South Africa.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4.
Norman John Baker (born 26 July 1957) is a Liberal Democrat politician in the United Kingdom who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Lewes in East Sussex from the 1997 general election to his defeat in 2015.
Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), are a potential form of brain damage due to drugs that have been studied experimentally and have produced neuronal damage, yet are administered by doctors to humans in the settings of pharmacotherapy and of anesthesia.
The Open Government Licence is a copyright licence for Crown Copyright works published by the UK government.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
In 2003, Operation TKO was a probe conducted by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
In North American financial context an out-of-pocket expense (or out-of-pocket cost) is the direct outlay of cash that may or may not be later reimbursed from a third-party source.
Pain is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain.
Pain wind-up is the perceived increase in pain intensity over time when a given stimulus is delivered repeatedly above a critical rate.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
PCP site 2 is a binding site that was identified as a high-affinity target for phencyclidine (PCP), an anesthetic and dissociative hallucinogen that acts primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Pentosan polysulfate (PPS, (1->4)-β-Xylan 2,3-bis(hydrogen sulfate) with a 4 O-methyl-α-D-glucuronate) is a semi-synthetic polysulfated xylan sold for the relief of various medical conditions including thrombi and interstitial cystitis in humans and osteoarthritis in dogs and horses.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline, and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychonautics (from the Ancient Greek ψυχή psychē and ναύτης naútēs – "a sailor of the soul") refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, especially an important subgroup called holotropic states, including those induced by meditation or mind-altering substances, and to a research paradigm in which the researcher voluntarily immerses himself or herself into an altered mental state in order to explore the accompanying experiences.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Quinazolinone is a heterocyclic chemical compound, a quinazoline with a keto group.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Raclopride is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist on D2 dopamine receptors.
Rapastinel (former developmental code names GLYX-13, BV-102) is a novel antidepressant that is under development by Allergan (previously Naurex) as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.
Renal papillary necrosis is a form of nephropathy involving the necrosis of the renal papilla.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Rodent cocktail is an anesthetic mixture used for rodents in research.
Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Schedule X is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules introduced in 1945.These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
The Security Bureau is a body of the Government of Hong Kong responsible for a range of activities, including law enforcement, search and rescue and administer various laws in relation to the security of Hong Kong.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually long.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Synapse is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of neuroscience published in New York City by Wiley-Liss to address basic science topics on synaptic function and structure.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A tartrate is a salt or ester of the organic compound tartaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid.
Tenocyclidine (TCP) was discovered by a team at Parke-Davis in the late 1950s.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers is an underground comic about a fictional trio of stoner characters, created by the American artist Gilbert Shelton.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicological Sciences is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of research on toxicology.
Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the adverse effects of xenobiotics on the health of humans and other animals.
Toxicology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for the rapid publication of short reports on all aspects of toxicology, especially mechanisms of toxicity.
Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), also known as tyrosine receptor kinase B, or BDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptor or neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK2 gene.
Tunnel vision (also known as "Kalnienk vision") is the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of vision.
Uncompetitive antagonists differ from non-competitive antagonists in that they require receptor activation by an agonist before they can bind to a separate allosteric binding site.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
In molecular biology, the terms upstream and downstream can refer to the temporal and mechanistic order of cellular and molecular events.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urinary bladder disease includes urinary bladder inflammation such as cystitis, bladder rupture and bladder obstruction (tamponade).
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Veterinary anesthesia is anesthesia performed on non-human animals by a veterinarian or a Registered Veterinary Technician.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
3-Methoxyeticyclidine (3-MeO-PCE), also known as methoxieticyclidine, is a dissociative anesthetic that is qualitatively similar to PCE and PCP and has been sold online as a designer drug.
L-4-Chlorokynurenine (4-Cl-KYN; developmental code name AV-101) is an orally active small molecule prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid, a NMDA receptor antagonist.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
ATC code N01AX03, ATCvet code QN01AX03, CI 581, CI-581, CI581, CL 369, CL-369, CL369, CLSTA 20, CN 52372 2, CN 52372-2, CN-52372 2, CN-52372-2, CN52372 2, CN52372-2, Calypsol, Cat tranquilizer, Cat valium, K (drug), K hole, K-Hole, K-hole, KETAMINE, Ketaject, Ketalar, Ketalar base, Ketamin, Ketamina, Ketamine HCl, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Ketamine hydrochloride, Ketaminol, Ketaminum, Ketanest, Ketaset, Ketolar, Khole, Kétamine, Legal status of ketamine, Recreational use of ketamine, Side effects of ketamine, Special K (drug), Tekam, Vetalar.