69 relations: Adam's Peak, Ancient history, Arumuka Navalar, Īḻattup pūtaṉtēvaṉār, Bhrigu, Black July, Catholic Church, Chola dynasty, Classical antiquity, Dondra, Dravidian architecture, Eelam, Floruit, Gerardus Mercator, Hindu temple, Hinduism in Sri Lanka, Hugh Nevill, Karaiyar, Kayts, Keerimalai, Ketu (mythology), Koil, Koneswaram temple, Kudiramalai, Lingam, Mannar District, Mannar, Sri Lanka, Manthai, Munneswaram (village), Munneswaram temple, Naga people (Lanka), Naguleswaram temple, Nayanars, Northern Province, Sri Lanka, Paadal Petra Sthalam, Pallava dynasty, Pancha Ishwarams, Pandyan dynasty, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Post-classical history, Prince Vijaya, Ptolemy, Puja (Hinduism), Puranas, Puttalam, Ramayana, Ravana, Sambandar, Sangam literature, ..., Sangam period, Sanskrit, Semeru, Shaivism, Shiva, Skanda Purana, Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lankan Tamils, Sri Venkateswara University, Sundarar, Tamil language, Tamilakam, Taprobana, Tenavaram temple, Tevaram, Trincomalee, University of California, Vayu. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
Adam's Peak is a tall conical mountain located in central Sri Lanka.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Arumuka Navalar (18 December 1822 – 5 December 1879) was a Sri Lankan Tamil Shaivite scholar, polemicist, and a religious reformer who was central in reviving native Hindu Tamil traditions in Sri Lanka and India.
Īḻattuppūtaṉtēvaṉār (Tamil: ஈழத்துப் பூதன்தேவனார், pronounced Īḻattup Pūtaṉtēvaṉār) was one of the earliest known classical Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka)Tamil poets from the Sangam period.
Maharishi Bhrigu (Bhṛgu) was one of the seven great sages, the Saptarshis, one of the many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation) created by Brahma Born in ballia.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Dondra (Sinhala:දෙවුන්දර තුඩුව/Devi Nuwara - God's Town/City of Gods, Tamil: Tevan/Ten Thurai, Corruption: Devundara/Dondra - Lord's Port/South Port) is a settlement on the extreme southernmost tip of Sri Lanka, in the Indian Ocean near Matara, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
Eelam (ஈழம், īḻam, also spelled Eezham, Ilam or Izham in English) is the native Tamil name for the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism has a long tradition in Sri Lanka.
Hugh L. Nevill (1847 – 1897) was a British civil servant, best known for his scholarship and studies of the culture of Sri Lanka.
Karaiyar (and) is a caste found mainly on the northern and eastern coastal areas of Sri Lanka and the Coromandel coast of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and globally among the Tamil diaspora.
Kayts (translit), is one of the important villages in Velanai Island which is a small island off the coast of the Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.
Keerimalai (கீரிமலை kīrimalai) is a town in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.
Ketu (Sanskrit: केतु, IAST) is the descending (i.e 'south') lunar node in Vedic, or Hindu astrology.
Koil or Koyil or Kovil, (meaning: residence of GodThe modern Tamil word for Hindu temple is kōvil (கோவில்) meaning " the residence of God". In ancient Tamil Nadu, the king (கோ, Kō) was considered to be a ‘representative of God on earth' and lived in a kōvil, which also means "king’s house". Old words for king like Kō (கோ "King"), Iṟai (இறை "Emperor") and Āṇṭavan (ஆண்டவன் "Conqueror") are now primarily used to refer to God.) is the Tamil term for a distinct style of Hindu temple with Dravidian architecture.
Koneswaram temple (திருக்கோணேச்சரம் Tirukkōṇēccaram, also known as Dakshinakailasha (தென்கயிலை, Těņkayilai, litt. Southern Kailasa) is a classical-medieval Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva in Trincomalee, Eastern Sri Lanka. The temple is situated atop Konesar Malai, a promontory that overlooks the Indian Ocean, the nearby eastern coast (the Trincomalee District), as well as Trincomalee Harbour or Gokarna Bay. Konesvaram is revered as one the Pancha Ishwarams, of Sri Lanka for long time. Being a major place for Hindu pilgrimage, it was labelled "Rome of the Gentiles/Pagans of the Orient" in some records. Konesvaram holds a significant role in the religious and cultural history of Sri Lanka, as it was likely built during the reign of the early Cholas and the Five Dravidians of the Early Pandyan Kingdom. Pallava, Chola, Pandyan and Jaffna designs here reflect a continuous Tamil Saivite influence in the Vannimai region beginning during the classical period. The river Mahavali is believed to be risen at Sivanolipatha Malai, footer_align.
Kudiramalai is a cape and ancient port town on the west coast of Sri Lanka.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
Mannar District (மன்னார் மாவட்டம் Maṉṉār Māvaṭṭam; මන්නාරම දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Mannar (மன்னார், මන්නාරම), formerly spelled Manar, is a large town and the main town of Mannar District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Manthai (மாந்தை) is a coastal town and an ancient harbor situated in the Mannar district, of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Munneswaram or Munnessarama is a village in the Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Munneswaram temple (මුන්නේශ්වරම් කෝවිල, முன்னேசுவரம் கோயில்) is an important regional Hindu temple complex in Sri Lanka.
The Naga people were believed to be an ancient tribe who once inhabited Sri Lanka.
Keerimalai Naguleswaram temple (கீரிமலை நகுலேஸ்வரம் கோயில்), historically known also as the Thirutambaleswaram Kovil of Keerimalai, is a famous Hindu temple in Keerimalai, located north of Jaffna, Northern Province, Sri Lanka in the suburb of Kankesanthurai.
The Nayanars (alt.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The Paadal Petra Kovil (Tamil: பாடல் பெற்ற தலங்கல்) are 275 temples that are revered in the verses of Saiva Nayanars in the 6th-9th century CE and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Pancha Ishwarams (five abodes of Shiva) (translit) are five coastal ancient kovils built in dedication to the Hindu supreme being Ishwara in the form of the god Shiva, located along the circumference of Sri Lanka (Eelam).
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Post-classical history (also called the Post-Antiquity era, Post-Ancient Era, or Pre-Modern Era) is a periodization commonly used by the school of "world history" instead of Middle Ages (Medieval) which is roughly synonymous.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Puttalam (Sinhalese: පුත්තලම; Tamil: புத்தளம்) is a large town in Puttalam District, North Western Province, Sri Lanka.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa;; Sanskrit: रावण) is a character in the Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as the Rakshasa king of Lanka.
Sambandar (also called Thirugyana Sambandar, Tirugnana Sambanthar, Campantar, Champantar, Jnanasambandar, Gnanasambandar) was a young Saiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who lived around the 7th century CE.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semeru, or Mount Semeru (Indonesian: Gunung Semeru), is an active volcano located in East Java, Indonesia.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
The Skanda Purana (IAST: Skanda Purāṇa) is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Sri Venkateswara University (commonly referred to as S. V. University or SVU) is a state university in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Sundarar (Tamil Cundarar), also known affectionately as Tampiran Tōḻan (Comrade of the Master, meaning friend of Shiva) was an eighth-century poet who was one of the most prominent Nayanars, the Shaiva bhakti (devotional) poets of Tamil Nadu.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
Taprobana (Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobane (Ταπροβανῆ) was the name by which the Indian Ocean island of Sri Lanka was known to the ancient Greeks.
Tenavaram temple (தென்னாவரம் கோயில்) (historically known as the Tenavaram Kovil, Tevanthurai Kovil or Naga-Risa Nila Kovil) was a historic Hindu temple complex situated in the port town Tenavaram, Tevanthurai (or Dondra Head), Matara) near Galle, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.(see) Its primary deity was a Hindu god Tenavarai Nayanar (Upulvan) and at its zenith was one of the most celebrated Hindu temple complexes of the island, containing eight major kovil shrines to a thousand deity statues of stone and bronze and two major shrines to Vishnu and Shiva. Administration and maintenance was conducted by residing Hindu Tamil merchants during Tenavaram's time as a popular pilgrimage destination and famed emporium employing over five hundred devadasis. The complex, bordered by a large quadrangle cloister, was a collection of several historic Hindu Kovil shrines, with its principle shrine designed in the Kerala and Pallava style of Dravidian architecture. The central temple dedicated to Vishnu (Tenavarai Nayanar) known as Upulvan to the Sinhalese was the most prestigious and biggest, popular amongst its large Tamil population, pilgrims and benefactors of other faiths such as Buddhism, kings and artisans. The other shrines that made up the Kovil Vatta were dedicated to Ganesh, Murukan, Kannagi and Shiva, widely exalted examples of stonework construction of the Dravidian style. The Shiva shrine is venerated as the southernmost of the ancient Pancha Ishwarams of Lord Shiva (called Tondeswaram), built at coastal points around the circumference of the island in the classical period. Tenavaram temple owned the entire property and land of the town and the surrounding villages, ownership of which was affirmed through several royal grants in the early medieval period. Its keepers lived along streets of its ancient agraharam within the complex. Due to patronage by various royal dynasties and pilgrims across Asia, it became one of the most important surviving buildings of the classical Dravidian architectural period by the late 16th century. The temple compound was destroyed by Portuguese colonial Thome de Sousa d'Arronches, who devastated the entire southern coast. The property was then handed over to Catholics. Tenavaram's splendor and prominence ranked it in stature alongside the other famous Pallava-developed medieval Hindu temple complex in the region, Koneswaram of Trincomalee. Excavations at the complex mandapam's partially buried ruins of granite pillars, stairs and slab stonework over the entire town have led to numerous findings. Reflecting the high points of Pallava artistic influence and contributions to the south of the island are the temple's 5th- to 7th-century statues of Ganesh, the Lingam, sculpture of Nandi and the Vishnu shrine's 10th-century Makara Thoranam (stone gateway), the frame and lintel of which include small guardians, a lustrated Lakshmi, dancers, musicians, ganas, and yali-riders. Tenavaram temple was built on vaulted arches on the promontory overlooking the Indian Ocean. The central gopuram tower of the vimana and the other gopura towers that dominated the town were covered with plates of gilded brass, gold and copper on their roofs. Its outer body featured intricately carved domes, with elaborate arches and gates opening to various verandas and shrines of the complex, giving Tenavaram the appearance of a golden city to sailors who visited the port to trade and relied on its light reflecting gopura roofs for navigational purposes.
The Tevaram (தேவாரம்) denotes the first seven volumes of the Tirumurai, the twelve-volume collection of Śaiva devotional poetry.
Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; ත්රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
Vāyu (Sanskrit) is a primary Hindu deity, the lord of the winds, the father of Bhima and the spiritual father of Hanuman.