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Ketone

Index Ketone

In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(. [1]

181 relations: Acetal, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, Acetophenone, Acetylacetone, Acetylide, Acid dissociation constant, Acyl chloride, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkane, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyne, Alpha and beta carbon, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Auguste Laurent, Baeyer–Villiger oxidation, Benzophenone, Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid, Biochemistry, Bond cleavage, Butanone, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, Carbonyl group, Carbonyl reduction, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Chemical polarity, Chemical shift, Chemistry, Chlorine, Chromium, Citric acid cycle, Combustion, Coordination complex, Cumene process, Cyclobutanone, Cyclohexane, Cyclohexanone, Cyclopropanone, Dakin–West reaction, Decarboxylation, Derivative (chemistry), Dess–Martin periodinane, ..., Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diacetyl, Dicarboxylic acid, Diketone, Diol, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Enamine, Enol, Ester, Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthesis, Fehling's solution, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fries rearrangement, Fructose, Fukuyama coupling, Functional group, Geminal diol, Geminal halide hydrolysis, Grignard reaction, Haloform reaction, Halogen, Haloketone, Heavy water, Hemiacetal, Hoesch reaction, Hydration reaction, Hydrazine, Hydrazone, Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylamine, Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, Hypoglycemia, Imine, Inborn errors of metabolism, Infrared spectroscopy, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iron(III) chloride, Isophorone, Isotopic labeling, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Keto acid, Ketoacidosis, Keto–enol tautomerism, Ketogenic diet, Ketone bodies, Ketonic decarboxylation, Ketose, Ketosis, Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, Leopold Gmelin, Mercury(II) sulfate, Methyl vinyl ketone, Molecular mass, Muscone, Nef reaction, Nitrile, Nitro compound, Norrish reaction, Nuclear Overhauser effect, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic addition, Orbital hybridisation, Organic acid anhydride, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organic redox reaction, Organic synthesis, Organocadmium compound, Organocopper compound, Organolithium reagent, Oxazole, Oxidizing agent, Oxime, Oxygen, Ozonolysis, Peroxide, Peroxy acid, Pheromone, Photosynthesis, Popcorn, Potassium permanganate, Prefix, Prochirality, Propargyl alcohol, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Redox, Reducing agent, Reductive dehalogenation of halo ketones, Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, Robinson annulation, Robinson–Gabriel synthesis, Ruzicka large-ring synthesis, Saturation (chemistry), Secondary (chemistry), Skeletal formula, Sodium amide, Solvent, Spectroscopy, Starvation, Stereochemistry, Stoichiometry, Substituent, Suffix, Sugar, Swern oxidation, Thioacetal, Thioketone, Thiol, Tollens' reagent, Toxicity, Transition metal, Trigonal planar molecular geometry, Triketone, Urine, Vertebrate, Wavenumber, Weinreb ketone synthesis, Willgerodt rearrangement, Wittig reaction, Ynone, 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine. Expand index (131 more) »

Acetal

An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.

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Acetoacetic acid

Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.

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Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetophenone

Acetophenone is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH3 (also represented by the pseudoelement symbols PhAc or BzMe).

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Acetylacetone

Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.

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Acetylide

Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.

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Acid dissociation constant

An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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Acyl chloride

In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Alkane

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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Alkene

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alkoxide

An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

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Alkyne

In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.

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Alpha and beta carbon

The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Auguste Laurent

Auguste Laurent (14 November 1807 – 15 April 1853) was a French chemist who helped in the founding of organic chemistry with his discoveries of anthracene, phthalic acid, and carbolic acid.

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Baeyer–Villiger oxidation

The Baeyer–Villiger oxidation is an organic reaction that forms an ester from a ketone or a lactone from a cyclic ketone, using peroxyacids or peroxides as the oxidant.

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Benzophenone

Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.

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Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid

β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H; its conjugate base is β-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bond cleavage

Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.

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Butanone

Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

Carbon-13 (C13)nuclear magnetic resonance (most commonly known as carbon-13 NMR or 13C NMR or sometimes simply referred to as carbon NMR) is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to carbon.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Carbonyl reduction

In organic chemistry, carbonyl reduction is the organic reduction of any carbonyl group by a reducing agent.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chemical shift

In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Cumene process

The cumene process (cumene-phenol process, Hock process) is an industrial process for developing phenol and acetone from benzene and propylene.

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Cyclobutanone

Cyclobutanone is an organic compound with molecular formula C4H6O.

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Cyclohexane

Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).

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Cyclohexanone

Cyclohexanone is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)5CO.

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Cyclopropanone

Cyclopropanone is an organic compound with molecular formula C3H4O consisting of a cyclopropane carbon framework with a ketone functional group.

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Dakin–West reaction

The Dakin–West reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms an amino-acid into a keto-amide using an acid anhydride and a base, typically pyridine.

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Decarboxylation

Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Derivative (chemistry)

In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.

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Dess–Martin periodinane

Dess–Martin periodinane (DMP) is a chemical reagent used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diacetyl

Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2.

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Dicarboxylic acid

A dicarboxylic acid is an organic compound containing two carboxyl functional groups (−COOH).

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Diketone

A diketone or dione is a molecule containing two ketone groups.

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Diol

A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).

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Electrophile

In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Electrophilic addition

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

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Enamine

An enamine is an unsaturated compound derived by the condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine.

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Enol

Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.

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Ester

In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid synthesis

Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.

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Fehling's solution

Fehling's solution is a chemical reagent used to differentiate between water-soluble carbohydrate and ketone functional groups, and as a test for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, supplementary to the Tollens' reagent test.

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Friedel–Crafts reaction

The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.

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Fries rearrangement

The Fries rearrangement reaction is one of the important reactions in organic chemistry.

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Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Fukuyama coupling

The Fukuyama coupling is a coupling reaction taking place between a thioester and an organozinc halide in the presence of a palladium catalyst.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Geminal diol

A geminal diol (or gem-diol for short) is any organic compound having two hydroxyl functional groups (-OH) bound to the same carbon atom.

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Geminal halide hydrolysis

Geminal halide hydrolysis is an organic reaction.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Haloform reaction

The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R–CO–CH3 group) in the presence of a base.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Haloketone

A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group or more generally a carbonyl group with an α-halogen substituent.

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Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.

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Hemiacetal

A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.

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Hoesch reaction

The Hoesch reaction or Houben–Hoesch reaction is an organic reaction in which a nitrile reacts with an arene compound to form an aryl ketone.

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Hydration reaction

In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hydrazone

Semihydrazone Hydrazones are a class of organic compounds with the structure.

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Hydride

In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hydroxylamine

Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.

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Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia describes the condition and effects of low blood glucose caused by excessive insulin.

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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Imine

An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.

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Inborn errors of metabolism

Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Iron(III) chloride

Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.

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Isophorone

Isophorone is an α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketone.

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Isotopic labeling

Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.

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IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.

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Keto acid

Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.

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Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.

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Keto–enol tautomerism

In organic chemistry, keto–enol tautomerism refers to a chemical equilibrium between a keto form (a ketone or an aldehyde) and an enol (an alcohol).

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Ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.

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Ketone bodies

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Ketonic decarboxylation

Ketonic decarboxylation (also known as ketonization) is a type of organic reaction and a decarboxylation converting two equivalents of a carboxylic acid to a symmetric ketone by the application of heat with expulsion of one equivalent of water and one equivalent of carbon dioxide.

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Ketose

A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.

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Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.

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Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement

The Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction in organic chemistry in which a primary or secondary organic peroxide is converted to the corresponding ketone and alcohol under acid or base catalysis.

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Leopold Gmelin

Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.

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Mercury(II) sulfate

Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate, is the chemical compound HgSO4.

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Methyl vinyl ketone

Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK, IUPAC name: butenone) is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Muscone

Muscone is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk.

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Nef reaction

The Nef reaction is an organic reaction describing the acid hydrolysis of a salt of a primary or secondary nitroalkane (1) to an aldehyde or a ketone (3) and nitrous oxide (4).

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Nitrile

A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.

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Nitro compound

Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).

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Norrish reaction

The Norrish reaction in organic chemistry describes the photochemical reactions taking place with ketones and aldehydes.

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Nuclear Overhauser effect

The nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE or nOe) is the transfer of nuclear spin polarization from one spin bath to another spin bath via cross-relaxation.

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Nucleophile

Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Nucleophilic addition

In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

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Orbital hybridisation

In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic reaction

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.

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Organic redox reaction

Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Organocadmium compound

An organocadmium compound is an organometallic compound containing a carbon to cadmium chemical bond.

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Organocopper compound

Organocopper compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon to copper chemical bonds.

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Organolithium reagent

Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.

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Oxazole

Oxazole is the parent compound for a vast class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxime

An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozonolysis

Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.

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Peroxide

Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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Peroxy acid

A peroxy acid (often spelled as one word, peroxyacid, and sometimes called peracid) is an acid which contains an acidic –OOH group.

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Pheromone

A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Popcorn

Popcorn, popcorns, or pop-corn, is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.

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Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.

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Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Prochirality

In stereochemistry, prochiral molecules are those that can be converted from achiral to chiral in a single step.

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Propargyl alcohol

Propargyl alcohol, or 2-propyn-1-ol, is an organic compound with the formula C3H4O.

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Proton nuclear magnetic resonance

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (proton NMR, hydrogen-1 NMR, or 1H NMR) is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Reductive dehalogenation of halo ketones

In organic chemistry, α-halo ketones can be reduced with loss of the halogen atom to form enolates.

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Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis.

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Robinson annulation

The Robinson annulation is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry for ring formation.

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Robinson–Gabriel synthesis

The Robinson–Gabriel synthesis is an organic reaction in which a 2-acylamino-ketone reacts intramolecularly followed by a dehydration to give an oxazole.

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Ruzicka large-ring synthesis

The Ruzicka large-ring synthesis or Ruzicka reaction or Ruzicka cyclization is an organic reaction in which a dicarboxylic acid is converted to a cyclic ketone at high temperature and a suitable catalyst such as thorium oxide.

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Saturation (chemistry)

In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.

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Secondary (chemistry)

Secondary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e. g. alcohols, alkyl halides, amines) or reactive intermediates (e. g. alkyl radicals, carbocations).

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Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.

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Sodium amide

Sodium amide, commonly called sodamide, is the inorganic compound with the formula NaNH2.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Starvation

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Stereochemistry

Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.

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Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

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Substituent

In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Swern oxidation

The Swern oxidation, named after Daniel Swern, is a chemical reaction whereby a primary or secondary alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde or ketone using oxalyl chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and an organic base, such as triethylamine.

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Thioacetal

Thioacetals are the sulfur analogues of acetals.

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Thioketone

Thioketones (also known as thiones or thiocarbonyls) are organosulfur compounds related to conventional ketones.

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Thiol

Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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Tollens' reagent

Tollens' reagent is a chemical reagent used to determine the presence of an aldehyde, aromatic aldehyde and alpha-hydroxy ketone functional groups.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Trigonal planar molecular geometry

In chemistry, trigonal planar is a molecular geometry model with one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle, called peripheral atoms, all in one plane.

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Triketone

A triketone or trione is a molecule containing three ketone groups.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Wavenumber

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.

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Weinreb ketone synthesis

The Weinreb–Nahm ketone synthesis is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry to make carbon–carbon bonds.

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Willgerodt rearrangement

The Willgerodt rearrangement or Willgerodt reaction is an organic reaction converting an aryl alkyl ketone to the corresponding amide by reaction with ammonium polysulfide, named after Conrad Willgerodt.

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Wittig reaction

The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.

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Ynone

In organic chemistry, an ynone is an α,β-unsaturated ketone with the structure R1C≡C‒C(.

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2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine

2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH, Brady's reagent, Borche's reagent) is the chemical compound C6H3(NO2)2NHNH2.

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-one, Alkanone, Cyclic ketone, Cyclic ketones, Haller-Bauer reaction, Haller–Bauer reaction, Keto group, Keto-, Keton, Ketone group, Ketones, Keytones, Oxy group, RCOR, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketone

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