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# Key (cryptography)

In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm. [1]

65 relations: Algorithm, Certificate authority, Cipher, Ciphertext, Crypto-shredding, Cryptographic key types, Cryptography, Cryptosystem, Dice, Diceware, Digital signature, Digital Signature Algorithm, Discrete logarithm, Disk storage, Dumpster diving, Electronic Key Management System, Elliptic-curve cryptography, Encryption, Entropy (information theory), Factorization, Glossary of cryptographic keys, Google Books, History of cryptography, HMAC, Imageboard, Kerckhoffs's principle, Key authentication, Key derivation function, Key distribution center, Key escrow, Key exchange, Key generation, Key management, Key schedule, Key server (cryptographic), Key signature (cryptography), Key signing party, Key size, Key stretching, Key-agreement protocol, Mathematical proof, Message authentication code, One-time pad, Paper key, Parameter, Passphrase, Password, Password psychology, Plaintext, Public key certificate, ... Expand index (15 more) »

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Certificate authority

In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.

## Cipher

In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption&mdash;a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

## Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

## Crypto-shredding

Crypto-shredding is the practice of 'deleting' data by deliberately deleting or overwriting the encryption keys.

## Cryptographic key types

A cryptographic key is a string of data that is used to lock or unlock cryptographic functions, including authentication, authorization and encryption.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

## Cryptosystem

In cryptography, a cryptosystem is a suite of cryptographic algorithms needed to implement a particular security service, most commonly for achieving confidentiality (encryption).

## Dice

Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.

## Diceware

Diceware is a method for creating passphrases, passwords, and other cryptographic variables using ordinary dice as a hardware random number generator.

## Digital signature

A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.

## Digital Signature Algorithm

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures.

## Discrete logarithm

In the mathematics of the real numbers, the logarithm logb a is a number x such that, for given numbers a and b. Analogously, in any group G, powers bk can be defined for all integers k, and the discrete logarithm logb a is an integer k such that.

## Disk storage

Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.

## Dumpster diving

Dumpster diving, commonly referred to in the UK and many parts of Europe as totting, skipping, skip diving or skip salvage, is a popular form of modern salvaging of waste in large commercial, residential, industrial and construction containers to find items that have been discarded by their owners, but that may prove useful to the picker.

## Electronic Key Management System

The Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) system is a United States National Security Agency led program responsible for Communications Security (COMSEC) key management, accounting, and distribution.

## Elliptic-curve cryptography

Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.

## Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

## Entropy (information theory)

Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.

## Factorization

In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind.

## Glossary of cryptographic keys

This glossary lists types of keys as the term is used in cryptography, as opposed to door locks.

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

## History of cryptography

Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.

## HMAC

In cryptography, an HMAC (sometimes disabbreviated as either keyed-hash message authentication code or hash-based message authentication code) is a specific type of message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function and a secret cryptographic key.

## Imageboard

An imageboard or image board is a type of Internet forum which operates mostly via posting images.

## Kerckhoffs's principle

In cryptography, Kerckhoffs's principle (also called Kerckhoffs's desideratum, assumption, axiom, doctrine or law) was stated by Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the 19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.

## Key authentication

Key authentication is used to solve the problem of authenticating the keys of the person (say "person B") to whom some other person ("person A") is talking to or trying to talk to.

## Key derivation function

In cryptography, a key derivation function (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudorandom function.

## Key distribution center

In cryptography, a key distribution center (KDC) is part of a cryptosystem intended to reduce the risks inherent in exchanging keys.

## Key escrow

Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.

## Key exchange

Key exchange (also key establishment) is any method in cryptography by which cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm.

## Key generation

Key generation is the process of generating keys in cryptography.

## Key management

Key management refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem.

## Key schedule

In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of cipher, where the (de-)ciphering of data is typically done as an iteration of rounds.

## Key server (cryptographic)

In computer security, a key server is a computer that receives and then serves existing cryptographic keys to users or other programs.

## Key signature (cryptography)

In cryptography, a key signature is the result of a third-party applying a cryptographic signature to a representation of a cryptographic key.

## Key signing party

In public-key cryptography, a key signing party is an event at which people present their public keys to others in person, who, if they are confident the key actually belongs to the person who claims it, digitally sign the certificate containing that public key and the person's name, etc.

## Key size

In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).

## Key stretching

In cryptography, key stretching techniques are used to make a possibly weak key, typically a password or passphrase, more secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the time it takes to test each possible key.

## Key-agreement protocol

In cryptography, a key-agreement protocol is a protocol whereby two or more parties can agree on a key in such a way that both influence the outcome.

## Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.

## Message authentication code

In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed.

In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.

## Paper key

A paper key is a machine-readable print of a cryptographic key.

## Parameter

A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

## Passphrase

A passphrase is a sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data.

A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.

Living on the intersection of cryptography and psychology, password psychology is the study of what makes passwords or cryptographic keys easy to remember or guess.

## Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.

## Public key certificate

In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.

## Public key fingerprint

In public-key cryptography, a public key fingerprint is a short sequence of bytes used to identify a longer public key.

## Public key infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.

## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

## Random number generation

Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).

## Randomness

Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.

## RSA (cryptosystem)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.

## Salt (cryptography)

In cryptography, a salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that "hashes" data, a password or passphrase.

## Security level

In cryptography, security level is a measure of the strength that a cryptographic primitive &mdash; such as a cipher or hash function &mdash; achieves.

## Security through obscurity

In security engineering, security through obscurity (or security by obscurity) is the reliance on the secrecy of the design or implementation as the main method of providing security for a system or component of a system.

## Session key

A session key is a single-use symmetric key used for encrypting all messages in one communication session.

## Social engineering (security)

Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.

## Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.

## Weak key

In cryptography, a weak key is a key, which, used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way.

## Web of trust

In cryptography, a web of trust is a concept used in PGP, GnuPG, and other OpenPGP-compatible systems to establish the authenticity of the binding between a public key and its owner.

## References

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