121 relations: !Kung language, Afrikaans, Ancestral land conflict in Botswana, Apartheid, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australoid race, Bantu expansion, Bantu peoples, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Qualified Franchise, Caprivi Strip, Carleton S. Coon, Caucasian race, Central !Kung, Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Charles Darwin, Christian, Click consonant, Congo Basin, Cosmology, ǂ’Amkoe language, ǂHaba language, Damara people, Dutch Cape Colony, Dutch East India Company, Early human migrations, Ekoka !Kung, Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, Ethnic groups in South Africa, Evolution, Exonym and endonym, François Bernier, Gǁana language, Genadendal, Genetic genealogy, Genetic relationship (linguistics), German South West Africa, Gobabis, Great Fish River, Griqua people, Grootfontein, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Hadza language, Haplogroup A (Y-DNA), Haplogroup B-M60, Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA), Henry Harpending, Herero and Namaqua genocide, Herrnhut, Homo sapiens, ..., Hottentot (racial term), Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Hunter-gatherer, Isaac Schapera, Joseph Greenberg, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Kalahari Desert, Khoe languages, Khoekhoe language, Khoemana, Khoikhoi, Khoisan languages, Khwe language, Kwadi language, Kx'a languages, Language family, Later Stone Age, Laurens van der Post, Lucy Lloyd, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Macro-haplogroup L (mtDNA), Marine Isotope Stage 5, Megadrought, Mongoloid, Moravian Church, Most recent common ancestor, Multiracial, Nama people, Namibia, Naro language, Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, Nǁng language, Negroid, Niger–Congo languages, Okavango Delta, Papuan languages, Pastoralism, Polymorphism (biology), Richard Borshay Lee, Riviersonderend Mountains, Rundu, San people, San religion, Sandawe language, Sandawe people, Sangoan, Sekele language, Sexual selection, Sexual selection in humans, Shua language, Smallpox, Social Evolution & History, Southern Africa, Southern Dispersal, Specimens of Bushman Folklore, Steatopygia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tanzania, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Traditional African religions, Tshwa language, Tuu languages, University of the Western Cape, W. W. Norton & Company, Wilhelm Bleek, Windhoek, Xhosa language, Xhosa people, Y chromosome, Zulu language. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
!Kung (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Ancestral land conflict in Botswana has centred on the desert land occupied by the San people, including the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), established in 1961 for wildlife, while the San were permitted to continue their hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Australoid (also Australasian, Australo-Melanesian, Veddoid,Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994),. R. P. Pathak, Education in the Emerging India (2007),.) is a broad racial classification introduced by Thomas Huxley in 1870 to refer to certain peoples indigenous to South and Southeast Asia and Oceania.
The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Cape Qualified Franchise was the system of non-racial franchise that was adhered to in the Cape Colony, and in the Cape Province in the early years of the Union of South Africa.
Caprivi, also called the Caprivi Strip (in German: Caprivizipfel), Okavango Strip, and formerly known as Itenge (this part of the country was anciently known as Lyiyeyi (Diyeyi) then Caprivi and currently Zambezi, Itenge was a political dream that did not get realized), is the northeastern panhandle of Namibia, located north of Botswana, southeast of Angola, and southwest of Zambia.
Carleton Stevens Coon (June 23, 1904 – June 3, 1981) was an American physical anthropologist, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, lecturer and professor at Harvard University, and president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Central !Kung (Central !Xuun), or Central Ju, is a recently distinguished variety of the !Kung dialect cluster, spoken in a small area of northern Namibia: Neitsas, in Grootfontein district, and Gaub, in Tsumeb district.
Central Kalahari Game Reserve is an extensive national park in the Kalahari desert of Botswana.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
ǂ’Amkoe, formerly called by the dialectal name ǂHoan (ǂHȍã, ǂHûân, ǂHua, ǂHû, or in native orthography ǂHȍȁn), is a severely endangered Kx'a language of Botswana.
ǂHaba (ǂHabá) is a variety of the Khoe languages spoken in Botswana.
The Damara, plural Damaran (Khoekhoegowab: ǂNūkhoen, Black people, Bergdamara, referring to their extended stay in hilly and mountainous sites, also called at various times the Daman or the Damaqua) are an ethnic group who make up 8.5% of Namibia's population.
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
Ekoka !Kung (Ekoka !Xuun, Ekoka-!Xû, !Kung-Ekoka) or Western !Xuun (North-Central Ju) is a variety of the !Kung dialect cluster, spoken originally in the area of the central Namibian–Angolan border, west of the Okavango River, but since the Angolan Civil War also in South Africa.
Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (born September 13, 1931) is an American author.
The ethnic groups in South Africa have a variety of origins.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
François Bernier (25 September 162022 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller.
Gǁana (pronounced in English, and also spelled ǁGana, Gxana, Dxana, Xgana) is a Khoe dialect cluster of Botswana.
Genadendal is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, built on the site of the oldest mission station in the country.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
Gobabis is a city in eastern Namibia.
The Great Fish River (called great to distinguish it from the Namibian Fish River) (Groot-Visrivier) is a river running through the South African province of the Eastern Cape.
The Griqua (Griekwa, sometimes incorrectly referred to as Korana or Koranna) are a subgroup of Southern Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people, who have a unique origin in the early history of the Cape Colony.
Grootfontein (Large Spring after the nearby hot springs) is a city of 23,793 inhabitants in the Otjozondjupa Region of central Namibia.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.
Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup B (B-M60) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup common to paternal lineages in Africa.
Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Henry Cosad Harpending (January 13, 1944 – April 3, 2016) was an American anthropologist, geneticist and author.
The Herero and Nama genocide was a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment that the German Empire undertook in German South West Africa (now Namibia) against the Ovaherero and the Nama.
Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow; Ochranov) is an Upper Lusatian town in the Görlitz district in Saxony, Germany, known for the community of the Moravian Church established by Nicolas Ludwig, Count von Zinzendorf in 1722.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Hottentot (British and South African English) is a term historically used of the Khoikhoi, the non-Bantu indigenous nomadic pastoralists of South Africa.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Isaac Schapera (23 June 1905 Garies, Cape Colony – 26 June 2003 London, England), was a social anthropologist at the London School of Economics specialising in South Africa.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
Khoemana, also known as Korana or Griqua, is a moribund Khoe language of South Africa.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Khwe (also rendered Kxoe, Khoe; or) is a dialect continuum of the Khoe family of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and parts of Zambia, with some 8,000 speakers.
Kwadi was a "click language" and is an exinct language of uncertain classification once spoken in the southwest corner of Angola.
The Kx'a languages, also called Ju–ǂHoan, are a family established in 2010 linking the ǂ’Amkoe (ǂHoan) language with the ǃKung (Juu) dialect cluster, a relationship that had been suspected for a decade.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
The Later Stone Age (or LSA) is a period in African prehistory that follows the Middle Stone Age.
Sir Laurens Jan van der Post, CBE (13 December 1906 – 16 December 1996), was a 20th-century Afrikaner author, farmer, war hero, political adviser to British heads of government, close friend of Prince Charles, godfather of Prince William, educator, journalist, humanitarian, philosopher, explorer and conservationist.
Lucy Catherine Lloyd (7 November 1834 – 31 August 1914) was the creator, along with Wilhelm Bleek, of the 19th-century archive of ǀXam and !Kung texts.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born 25 January 1922) is an Italian-born population geneticist, who has been a professor (now emeritus) at Stanford University since 1970.
In human mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the human mtDNA phylogenetic tree.
Marine Isotope Stage 5 or MIS 5 is a Marine Isotope Stage in the geologic temperature record, between 130,000 and 80,000 years ago.
A megadrought (or mega-drought) is a prolonged drought lasting two decades or longer.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
Nama (in older sources also called Namaqua) are an African ethnic group of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Naro, also Nharo, is a Khoe language spoken in Ghanzi District of Botswana and in eastern Namibia.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.
Nǁng or Nǁŋǃke, commonly known by its primary dialect Nǀuu (Nǀhuki), is a moribund Tuu (Khoisan) language once spoken in South Africa.
Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Grassland) (formerly spelled "Okovango" or "Okovanggo") in Botswana is a very large, swampy inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the endorheic basin of the Kalahari.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Richard Borshay Lee (born 1937) is a Canadian anthropologist.
The Riviersonderend Mountains are a mountain range in the Cape Fold Belt of the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Rundu is the capital of the Kavango-East Region, northern Namibia, on the border with Angola on the banks of the Kavango River about above sea level.
The traditional religion and mythology of the San people is poorly attested due to their interactions with Christianity.
Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
The Sandawe are an indigenous ethnic group of Southeast Africa, based in the Kondoa District of Dodoma Region in central Tanzania.
The Sangoan archaeological industry is the name given by archaeologists to a Palaeolithic tool manufacturing style which may have developed from the earlier Acheulian types.
Sekele (Vasekele, the Angolan Bantu name), or Northern ǃXuun (Northern Ju); also known by the outdated term ǃʼOǃKung (ǃʼO ǃuŋ) "Forest ǃKung" and in one source as Maligo (Sekele Maligo), is the northern variety of the !Kung (ǃXuun) dialect continuum.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans.
Shua, or Shwakhwe, is a Khoe language of Botswana.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social Evolution & History is a peer-reviewed academic journal focused on the development of human societies in the past, present, and future.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
In the context of the recent African origin of modern humans, the Southern Dispersal scenario (also the coastal migration hypothesis) refers to the early migration along the southern coast of Asia, from the Arabian peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia and Oceania.
Specimens of Bushman Folklore is a book by the linguist Wilhelm H. I. Bleek and Lucy C. Lloyd, which was published in 1911.
Steatopygia is the state of having substantial levels of tissue on the buttocks and thighs.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
Tsoa or Tshwa, also known as Kua and Hiechware, is an East Kalahari Khoe dialect cluster spoken by several thousand people in Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The Tuu languages, or Taa–ǃKwi (Taa–ǃUi, ǃUi–Taa, Kwi) languages, are a language family consisting of two language clusters spoken in Botswana and South Africa.
The University of the Western Cape is a public university located in the Bellville suburb of Cape Town, South Africa.
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek (8 March 1827 – 17 August 1875) was a German linguist.
Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.