91 relations: !Kung language, Africa (journal), Alveolar clicks, Analytic language, Anthony Traill (linguist), Australian Aboriginal languages, Bantu expansion, Bantu languages, Bernd Heine, Botswana, Cambridge University Press, Caprivi Strip, Christopher Ehret, Click consonant, Comparative method, ǀXam language, ǁXegwi language, ǂAakhoe dialect, ǂ’Amkoe language, ǂHaba language, Dahalo language, Damin, East African Rift, Ejective consonant, Endangered language, Ernst Oswald Johannes Westphal, Extinct language, Gciriku language, Gǀui dialect, Gǁana language, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Georgiy Starostin, Hadza language, Hadza people, Ian Maddieson, Indiana University Press, Inflection, Joseph Greenberg, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Kalahari Desert, Kenya, Khoe languages, Khoekhoe language, Khoemana, Khoikhoi, Khwe language, Kwadi language, Kwangali language, Kx'a languages, Language and Linguistics Compass, ..., Language family, Language isolate, Language shift, Languages of Africa, Lower Nossob language, Mbukushu language, Mother Tongue (journal), Namibia, Naro language, Nǁng language, Nguni languages, Northern Ndebele language, Palatal clicks, Papuan languages, Paralanguage, Pharyngealization, Phoneme, Phuthi language, Pygmy peoples, San people, Sandawe language, Sandawe people, Shua language, Sotho language, South Cushitic languages, Sprachbund, Strident vowel, Swadesh list, Swazi language, Taa language, Tanzania, The Languages of Africa, Thomas Sebeok, Tshwa language, Tuu languages, University of the Witwatersrand, Vaal–Orange language, Walter de Gruyter, Xhosa language, Yeyi language, Zulu language. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
!Kung (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people.
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Africa is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the International African Institute.
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The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
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In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
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Anthony Traill (linguist)
Professor Anthony Traill (1939–2007) was a linguist (specifically a phonetician), who was the world's foremost authority on a San (more broadly, a Khoisan) language called !Xóõ.
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Australian Aboriginal languages
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
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The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
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The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
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Bernd Heine (born May 25, 1939 in Mohrungen, East Prussia, now Morąg, Poland) is a German linguist and specialist in African studies.
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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Caprivi, also called the Caprivi Strip (in German: Caprivizipfel), Okavango Strip, and formerly known as Itenge (this part of the country was anciently known as Lyiyeyi (Diyeyi) then Caprivi and currently Zambezi, Itenge was a political dream that did not get realized), is the northeastern panhandle of Namibia, located north of Botswana, southeast of Angola, and southwest of Zambia.
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Christopher Ehret (born July 27, 1941), who currently holds the position of Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, is an American scholar of African history and African historical linguistics particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record.
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Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
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In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
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ǀXam (/Kham) (English pronunciation), or ǀXam Kaǃkʼe, is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa, part of the ǃUi branch of the Tuu languages.
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ǁXegwi, also known as Batwa, is an extinct ǃKwi language spoken at Lake Chrissie in South Africa, near the Swazi border.
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ǂAakhoe (ǂĀkhoe) and Haiǁom are part of the Khoekhoe dialect continuum and are spoken mainly in Namibia.
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ǂ’Amkoe, formerly called by the dialectal name ǂHoan (ǂHȍã, ǂHûân, ǂHua, ǂHû, or in native orthography ǂHȍȁn), is a severely endangered Kx'a language of Botswana.
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ǂHaba (ǂHabá) is a variety of the Khoe languages spoken in Botswana.
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Dahalo is an endangered Cushitic language spoken by at most 400 Dahalo people on the coast of Kenya, near the mouth of the Tana River.
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Damin (Demiin in the practical orthography of Lardil) was a ceremonial language register used by the advanced initiated men of the aboriginal Lardil (Leerdil in the practical orthography) and the Yangkaal peoples of Australia.
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East African Rift
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
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In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
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An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
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Ernst Oswald Johannes Westphal
Ernst Oswald Johannes Gotthard Gotthilf Westphal (1919-1990), was a South African linguist and a world expert in Bantu and Khoisan languages.
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An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
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Gciriku or Dciriku (Diriku) or Dirico (in Angola), also known as Manyo or Rumanyo, is a Bantu language spoken by 305,000 people along the Okavango River in Namibia, Botswana and Angola.
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Gǀui or Gǀwi (pronounced in English, and also spelled ǀGwi, Dcui, Gcwi, or Cgui) is a Khoe dialect of Botswana with 2,500 speakers (2004 Cook).
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Gǁana (pronounced in English, and also spelled ǁGana, Gxana, Dxana, Xgana) is a Khoe dialect cluster of Botswana.
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Genetic relationship (linguistics)
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
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Georgiy Sergeevich "George" Starostin (Гео́ргий Серге́евич Ста́ростин; born 4 July 1976) is a Russian linguist who presides the Center of Comparative Studies at the Russian State University for the Humanities.
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Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.
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The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.
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Ian Maddieson is a linguist who was at University of California, Berkeley, and is now an adjunct professor emeritus at the University of New Mexico.
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Indiana University Press
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
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Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
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Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.
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The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
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The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
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The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
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Khoemana, also known as Korana or Griqua, is a moribund Khoe language of South Africa.
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The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
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Khwe (also rendered Kxoe, Khoe; or) is a dialect continuum of the Khoe family of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and parts of Zambia, with some 8,000 speakers.
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Kwadi was a "click language" and is an exinct language of uncertain classification once spoken in the southwest corner of Angola.
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Kwangali, or RuKwangali, is a Bantu language spoken by 85,000 people along the Okavango River in Namibia, where it is a national language, and in Angola.
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The Kx'a languages, also called Ju–ǂHoan, are a family established in 2010 linking the ǂ’Amkoe (ǂHoan) language with the ǃKung (Juu) dialect cluster, a relationship that had been suspected for a decade.
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Language and Linguistics Compass
Language and Linguistics Compass is an online peer-reviewed linguistics journal established by Blackwell Publishers (now Wiley-Blackwell) in 2006.
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A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
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A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
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Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
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Languages of Africa
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
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Lower Nossob language
Lower Nossob an extinct Khoisan language once spoken along the Nossob River on the border of South Africa and Botswana, near Namibia.
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Mbukushu or Thimbukushu is a Bantu language spoken by 45,000 people along the Okavango River in Namibia, where it is a national language and in Botswana, Angola and Zambia.
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Mother Tongue (journal)
Mother Tongue is an annual academic journal published by the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory (ASLIP) that has been published since 1995.
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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
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Naro, also Nharo, is a Khoe language spoken in Ghanzi District of Botswana and in eastern Namibia.
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Nǁng or Nǁŋǃke, commonly known by its primary dialect Nǀuu (Nǀhuki), is a moribund Tuu (Khoisan) language once spoken in South Africa.
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The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni people.
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Northern Ndebele language
Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.
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The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa.
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The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
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Paralanguage is a component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation, etc.
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Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
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Phuthi (Síphùthì) is a Nguni Bantu language spoken in southern Lesotho and areas in South Africa adjacent to the same border.
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In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.
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Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
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The Sandawe are an indigenous ethnic group of Southeast Africa, based in the Kondoa District of Dodoma Region in central Tanzania.
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Shua, or Shwakhwe, is a Khoe language of Botswana.
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Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
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South Cushitic languages
The South Cushitic or Rift languages of Tanzania belong to the Afro-Asiatic family.
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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
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Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly-pharyngealized vowels accompanied by (ary)epiglottal trill, with the larynx being raised and the pharynx constricted.
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The Swadesh list is a classic compilation of basic concepts for the purposes of historical-comparative linguistics.
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The Swazi or Swati language (Swazi: siSwati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa by the Swazi people.
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Taa, also known as ǃXóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.
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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
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The Languages of Africa
The Languages of Africa is a 1963 book of essays by Joseph Greenberg, in which the author sets forth a genetic classification of African languages that, with some changes, continues to be the most commonly used one today.
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Thomas Albert Sebeok (born Sebők,, in Budapest, Hungary, on November 9, 1920; died December 21, 2001 in Bloomington, Indiana) was a polymath American semiotician and linguist.
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Tsoa or Tshwa, also known as Kua and Hiechware, is an East Kalahari Khoe dialect cluster spoken by several thousand people in Botswana and Zimbabwe.
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The Tuu languages, or Taa–ǃKwi (Taa–ǃUi, ǃUi–Taa, Kwi) languages, are a language family consisting of two language clusters spoken in Botswana and South Africa.
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University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg.
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Vaal–Orange, also known as Seroa, is an extinct ǃKwi language of South Africa and Lesotho.
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Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
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Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
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Yeyi (autoethnonym Shiyɛyi) is a Bantu language spoken by many of the approximately 50,000 Yeyi people along the Okavango River in Namibia and Botswana.
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Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
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Bushman's language, ISO 639:khi, Khoesaan languages, Khoesan languages, Khoi-San languages, Khoi-san languages, Khoisan (language group), Khoisan language, Khoisan language families, List of Khoisan languages, Macro-Khoisan, San language, San languages, South Khoisan.