184 relations: Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi, Abkhazia, Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Achaemenid Empire, Adurbadagan, Aegean Sea, Al-Ḥurqah, Al-Hirah, Al-Muqawqis, Al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, Al-Tabari, Alexander the Great, Amu Darya, Anatolia, Arameans, Ardabil, Ardashir I, Armenia, Armenians, Aspad Gushnasp, Azarmidokht, Babai the Great, Badhan (Persian governor), Bahram Chobin, Bahram V, Bamshad, Barbad, Barda, Azerbaijan, Battle of Blarathon, Battle of Nineveh (627), Behistun Inscription, Behistun Palace, Boran, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Byzantine navy, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Caliphate, Carthage, Caucasian Albania, Caucasus, Chalcedon, Christianity, Colchis, Comentiolus, Concubinage, Constantinople, Ctesiphon, Damascus, ..., Danube, Dara (Mesopotamia), Darius III, Diyarbakır, Early Slavs, Edessa, Edward Walford, Egypt, Erbil, Farrukh Hormizd, Farrukhzad, Farrukhzad Khosrow V, Ferdowsi, Fergana, Fire temple, Gabriel of Sinjar, Georgia (country), Gilan Province, Golden Age, Greater Khorasan, Harran, Hejaz, Hephthalite Empire, Heraclius, History of the Prophets and Kings, Hormizd IV, Hormuzan, House of Ispahbudhan, House of Mihran, House of Sasan, Hyrcania, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Jerusalem, John Mystacon, Juvansher, Kanadbak, Kanarang, Kavadh II, Khosrow (word), Khosrow and Shirin, Khosrow I, Khosrow III, Kingdom of Iberia, Kisra legend, Lakhmids, Lazica, Lazistan Sanjak, Leo Frobenius, Levant, List of shahanshahs of the Sasanian Empire, Magi, Mah-Adhur Gushnasp, Mardanshah (Sasanian prince), Mardin, Maria (daughter of Maurice), Maurice (emperor), Media (region), Mesopotamia, Middle East, Middle Persian, Mihr Hormozd, Monophysitism, Muhammad, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nagisa (harpist), Narses (general under Maurice), Narsi, Nestorianism, Nizami Ganjavi, Non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era, Pannonian Avars, Parthian Empire, Parvīz, Persian language, Persian literature, Persian miniature, Phocas, Piero della Francesca, Piruz Khosrow, Qumis, Iran, Rhodes, Richard N. Frye, Roman emperor, Roman Syria, Rostam Farrokhzād, San Francesco, Arezzo, Sarkash, Sasanian Armenia, Sasanian civil war of 628-632, Sasanian Egypt, Sasanian Empire, Sasanian Iberia, Sasanian music, Sebeos, Seven Parthian clans, Shabdiz, Shabestan, Shah, Shahin Vahmanzadegan, Shahnameh, Shahrbaraz, Shahriyar (son of Khosrow II), Shapur-i Shahrvaraz, Shirin, Siege, Siege of Constantinople (626), Silvan, Diyarbakır, Slavs, Smbat IV Bagratuni, Spahan (province), Spahbed, Subdivisions of the Byzantine Empire, Syria, Tabaristan, Takht-e Soleymān, The Cambridge History of Iran, The History of the True Cross, Third Perso-Turkic War, Transoxiana, True Cross, Turkic peoples, Umar, Varaztirots II Bagratuni, Vinduyih, Viranşehir, Vistahm, Walls of Constantinople, War reparations, Western Turkic Khaganate, Yazdin, Yemen, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adurbadagan (also transliterated as Aturpatakan) in Middle Persian and Parthian, Atropatene in Greek, and Atrpatakan in Armenian, was a Sasanian province in northern Iran which almost corresponded to the present day Iranian Azerbaijan.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Hind bint al-Nuʻmān (Arabic: هند بنت النعمان), also known as Al-Ḥurqah was a pre-Islamic poet.
Al-Hirah (الحيرة al-Ḥīrah, ܚܝܪܬܐ Ḥīrtā) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now Kufa in south-central Iraq.
Al-Muqawqis (المقوقس) is mentioned in Islamic history as a ruler of Egypt, who corresponded with the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Al-Nu'mān III ibn al-Mundhir (النعمان بن المنذر), also transcribed Na'aman, Nu'aman and Noman and often known by the name Abu Qabus (أبو قابوس), was the last Lakhmid king of Al-Hirah (582 – ca. 602 AD) and a Nestorian Christian Arab.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Aspad Gushnasp (اسپد گشنسپ), known as Gousdanaspa in Byzantine sources, was an Iranian aristocrat from Firuzabad, who led the supporters of Kavadh II against his father, king Khosrau II.
Azarmidokht (Middle Persian: Āzarmīgdukht, آزرمیدخت) was Sasanian queen of Persia from to 630 to 631, and daughter of Khosrow II.
Babai the Great (ܒܐܒܐܝ ܡܚܡܘܕܐ ca. 551 – 628) was an early church father of the Church of the East.
Bādhān ibn Sāsān (in باذان ابن ساسان; also Bādhām باذام in Islamic historiography) was an abna' leader and the Persian Governor of Yemen during the reign of Khosrau II.
Bahrām Chōbīn (Middle Persian:; بهرام چوبین), also known by his epithet Mihrevandak ("servant of Mihr (Mithra)", was a famous spahbed (senior army commander) during late sixth-century Iran. He usurped the Sasanian throne from Khosrow II, ruling for a year as Bahram VI (590-591). However, he was later defeated by Khosrow II and was forced to flee.
Bahram V (𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭 Wahrām, New Persian: بهرام پنجم Bahrām), also known as Bahram Gor (بهرام گور, "onager ") was the fifteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, ruling from 420 to 438.
Bamshad (in Persian: بامشاد) was one of the four most famous and skilled musicians (with Barbad, Nagisa (Nakisa), and Ramtin) who lived in the Persian Sassanid dynasty when Xusro Parviz was in power (591-628).
Barbad (بربد) or Barbad-ī MarvaziBorhan-e Ghate', By Mohammad Hossein ibn-khalaf Tabrizi (باربد جهرمی / باربد / باربذ) was a Persian musician of the Sassanid era, who lived during the rule of Khosrau II, 590 to 628.
Barda (Bərdə) is the capital city of the Barda Rayon in Azerbaijan, located south of Yevlax and on the left bank of the Tartar river.
The Battle of Blarathon was fought in 591 near Ganzak between a combined Byzantine–Persian force and a Persian army led by the usurper Bahram Chobin.
The Battle of Nineveh (Ἡ μάχη τῆς Νινευί) was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
Behistun palace is a ruined Sassanid palace located in Bisotun, from Kermanshah, Iran.
BoranDaryaee, T. (1999).
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Comentiolus (Κομεντίολος, Komentiolos; died 602) was a prominent Eastern Roman (Byzantine) general at the close of the 6th century during the reign of Emperor Maurice.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dara or Daras (Δάρας) was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Edward Walford (1823–1897) was a British magazine editor and a compiler of educational, biographical, genealogical and touristic works, perhaps best known for his 6 Volumes of Old and New London (the first two of which were written by Walter Thornbury), 1878.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Farrukh Hormizd or Farrokh Hormizd (Persian: فرخهرمز), also known as Hormizd V, was a spahbed in northern Persia, he was a prince of Atropatene.
Farrukhzad (Farrūkhzādag; New Persian: فرخزاد), was an Iranian aristocrat from the House of Ispahbudhan and the founder of the Bavand dynasty, ruling from 651 to 665.
Farrukhzad Khosrau V was briefly king of the Sasanian Empire from March 631 to April 631.
Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians, often called dar-e mehr (Persian) or agiyari (Gujarati).
Gabriel of Sinjar (ܓܒܪܐܝܠ ܕܫܝܓܪ) was a court physician of the Sasanian shah Khosrau II.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).
Hormizd IV (𐭠𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭬𐭦𐭣; New Persian: هرمز چهارم), was king of the Sasanian Empire from 579 to 590.
Hormuzan (Middle Persian: Hormazdān, New Persian: هرمزان) was an Iranian aristocrat who served as the governor of Khuzestan, and was one of the Sasanian military officers at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah.
The House of Ispahbudhan or the House of Aspahbadh was one of the seven Parthian clans of the Sasanian Empire.
The House of Mihrān or House of Mehrān was a leading Iranian noble family (šahrdārān), one of the Seven Great Houses of the Sassanid Persian Empire which claimed descent from the earlier Arsacid dynasty.
The House of Sasan was the house that founded the Sasanian Empire, ruling this empire from 224 to 651.
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: Varkâna,Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
John, surnamed Mystacon, "the mustachioed", (Ἰωάννης ὀ Μυστάκων, fl. 580–590),.
Javanshir, also known by his Middle Persian name Juvansher (meaning young lion) was the son of Khosrau II, and Gordiya, the sister of Bahram Chobin.
Kanadbak, also known as Kanara, was an Iranian nobleman, who was the kanarang during the reign of the Sasanian king Khosrau II (r. 590-628), and various other Sasanian monarchs, which includes Yazdegerd III (r. 632-651), the last Sasanian king.
The kanārang (کنارنگ) was a unique title in the Sasanian military, given to the commander of the Sasanian Empire's northeasternmost frontier province, Abarshahr (encompassing the cities of Tus, Nishapur and Abiward).
Shērōē (also spelled Shīrūya, شیرویه in New Persian), better known by his dynastic name of Kavadh II (kwʾt' Kawād; New قباد Qobād or Qabād), was king of the Sasanian Empire briefly in 628.
Khosrow is a male given name of Iranian origin, most notably held by Khosrow I of Sassanid Persia, but also by other people in various locations and languages.
Khosrow and Shirin (خسرو و شیرین), is the title of a famous Persian tragic romance by the poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) who also wrote Layla and Majnun.
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.
Khosrow III (629) was Sasanian rival king who briefly ruled in Khorasan during the reign of the Mihranid general Shahrbaraz who took control of the Sasanian Empire after having besieged Ctesiphon.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kisra legend is a migration story shared by a number of political and ethnic groups in modern Nigeria, Benin, and Cameroon, primarily the Borgu kingdom and the people of the Benue River valley.
The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.
Lazica (ეგრისის სამეფო, Egrisi; ლაზიკა, Laziǩa; Λαζική, Lazikē; لازستان, Lazistan; Եգեր, Yeger) was the Latin name given to the territory of Colchis during the Roman/Byzantine period, from about the 1st century BC.
Lazistan (ლაზონა / Lazona, ლაზეთი / Lazeti, ჭანეთი / Ç'aneti; لازستان, Lazistān) was the Ottoman administrative name for the sanjak, under Trebizond Vilayet, comprising the Laz or Lazuri-speaking population on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
Leo Viktor Frobenius (29 June 1873 – 9 August 1938) was an ethnologist and archaeologist and a major figure in German ethnography.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Shahanshahs of the Sasanian Empire (Middle Persian: Šāhān šāh ī Ērān ud Anērān, "King of Kings of Iranians and non-Iranians") ruled over a vast territory.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Mah-Adhur Gushnasp (ماهآذر گشنسپ), also known by the Arabicized form of Mahadharjushnas, was an Iranian nobleman who served as the wuzurg framadār (vizier or prime minister) of the Sasanian Empire during the reign of the child ruler Ardashir III (r. 628–629).
Mardanshah (مردانشاه) was a 7th-century Sasanian prince.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Maria or Maryam was, according to the 12th-century chronicle of Michael the Syrian, a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Maurice, and wife of the Sassanid Persian shah Khosrau II.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mihr Hormozd (مهرهرمزد) was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Suren.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Nagisa (from Persian negin,(Negin-Sa) alternately Nakisa) was a master harpist and composer of the royal court of King Khosrau II of Persia (died 628 AD).
Narses was a Byzantine general of Armenian ancestry active during the reigns of the emperors Maurice and Phocas in the late sixth and early seventh centuries.
Narsi or Narse (𐭭𐭥𐭮𐭧𐭩), was an Iranian nobleman who served as the Sasanian governor of Kaškar.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
This is a list of the non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Parvēz, Pērvaz or Parvīz (پرویز, meaning "fortunate, victorious"; plwyc Parvēz, also ʾplwyc Abarvēz/Aparvēz), is a Persian male given name, mostly popular in Iran, Central Asia, South Asia and among Azeris.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas; – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610.
Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Piruz Khosrow (Middle Persian: Pērōz Khusraw), also known as Piruzan or Firuzan, was a powerful Persian aristocrat who was the leader of the Parsig (Persian) faction that controlled much of the affairs of the Sasanian Empire during the civil war of 628-632.
Qumis (قومس; Middle Iranian Kōmiš), also known as Hecatompylos (Ἑκατόμπυλος, in صددروازه Saddarvazeh) was an ancient city of uncertain location which was the capital of the Arsacid dynasty by 200 BCE.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Rostam Farrokhzād (رستم فرخزاد) was an Iranian nobleman from the Ispahbudhan family, who served as the spahbed ("army chief") of Adurbadagan and Khorasan during the reign of Boran (r. 631–632) and Yazdegerd III (r. 632–651).
The Basilica of San Francesco is a late Medieval church in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy, dedicated to St Francis of Assisi.
Sarkash is the least renowned of the three most influential musicians of the Sassanids.
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia (Պարսկահայաստան – Parskahayastan), may either refer to the periods where Armenia (𐭠𐭫𐭬𐭭𐭩 – Armin) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 AD when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428.
The Sasanian civil of 628-632, also known as the Sasanian Interregnum was a conflict that broke out after the death of Khosrau II between the Sasanian nobles of different factions.
Sasanian Egypt (known in Middle Persian sources as Agiptus) refers to the brief rule of Roman Egypt and parts of Libya by the Sasanian Empire.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sasanian Iberia (სასანური ქართლი sasanuri kartli; known in Middle Persian sources as Wirōzān/Wiruzān/Wiručān) refers to the period the Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire.
Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.
Sebeos was a 7th-century Armenian bishop and historian.
The Seven Parthian clans or Seven Houses were seven feudal aristocracies of Parthian origin, who were allied with the Sasanian court.
Shabdiz (شبديز, lit. "night-colored", "black") was the legendary black stallion of Khosrau Parvez, one of the most famed Sassanid Persian kings (reigned 590 to 628CE).
A shabestan or shabistan (شبستان; Old Persian xšapā.stāna) is an underground space that can be usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Iran.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shahen or Shahin (Middle Persian: Shāhēn Vahūmanzādagān, in Greek sources: Σαὴν; died ca. 626) was a senior Sasanian general (spahbed) during the reign of Khosrau II (590–628).
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Shahrbaraz or Shahrvaraz (died 9 June 630) was king of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630.
Shahriyar (also spelled Shahryar) was a Sasanian prince—he was the son of Khosrow II (r. 590-628) and his Christian queen Shirin.
Shapur-i Shahrvaraz (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩𐭩 𐭧𐭱𐭨𐭥𐭥𐭥𐭰), also known as Shapur V, was a Sasanian usurper who reigned for a short time in 630 until he was deposed in favor of Azarmidokht.
Shirin (? – 628 AD) (شيرين) was a wife of the Sassanid Persian Shahanshah (king of kings), Khosrow Parviz.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by large numbers of allied Slavs, ended in a strategic victory for the Byzantines.
Silvan (Turkish: Silvan, ميا فارقين Meyafarikîn, ميافارقين, Meiafarakin or Mayyafariqin; Նփրկերտ, Np'rkert; Mαρτυρόπολις, Martyropolis; Kurdish: Farqîn; ܡܝܦܪܩܝܛ) is a city and district in the Diyarbakır Province of Turkey.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smbat IV Bagratuni (Սմբատ Դ Բագրատունի; Συμβάτιος) was an Armenian prince from the Bagratuni Dynasty who served first in the Byzantine army before switching, ca.
Spahan, also known as Parthau was a Sasanian province in Late Antiquity, that lay within central Iran, almost corresponding to the present-day Isfahan Province in Iran.
Spāhbed (𐭮𐭯𐭠𐭧𐭯𐭲; also spelled spahbod and spahbad, early form spāhpat) is a Middle Persian title meaning "army chief" used chiefly in the Sasanian Empire.
The East Roman or Byzantine Empire (330–1453) had a developed administrative system, which can be divided into three major periods: the late Roman/early Byzantine, which was a continuation and evolution of the system begun by the emperors Diocletian and Constantine the Great, which gradually evolved into the middle Byzantine, where the theme system predominated alongside a restructured central bureaucracy, and the late Byzantine, where the structure was more varied and decentralized and where feudal elements appeared.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.
Takht-e Soleymān (تخت سلیمان), also known as Azar Goshnasp (آتشکده آذرگشنسپ), literally "the Fire of the Warrior Kings", is an archaeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran.
The Cambridge History of Iran is a multi-volume survey of Iranian history published by Cambridge University Press.
The History of the True Cross or The Legend of the True Cross is a sequence of frescoes painted by Piero della Francesca in the Basilica of San Francesco in Arezzo.
The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Varaztirots II Bagratuni (Վարազ-Տիրոց Բ Բագրատունի; c. 590 – 645) was an Armenian nakharar from the Bagratuni family, the son of Smbat IV Bagratuni.
Vinduyih (Middle Persian: Windōē) or Bendoy (بندوی) was a Sasanian nobleman from the Ispahbudhan family.
Viranşehir (Wêranşar) is a market town serving a cotton-growing area of Şanlıurfa Province, in southeastern Turkey, 93 km east of Şanlıurfa city and 53 km north-west of the Syrian border at Ceylanpınar.
Bistam or Vistahm (also transliterated Wistaxm, بیستام), was a Parthian dynast of the Ispahbudhan house, and maternal uncle of the Sasanian shah of Persia, Khosrow II (reigned 591–628).
The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
Yazdin (died 627) was an Iranian aristocrat, who served as the financial minister of the Sasanian king Khosrow II (r. 590-628).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Chosroes, Chosroes II, Chosroes II Parwêz, Chosroes II the Ever Victorious, Khosrau II, Khosrau II Parviz, Khosrau II of Persia, Khosrau II the Ever Victorious, Khosrow II of Persia, Khosrow II the Ever Victorious, Khosrow Parviz, Khosru II, Khosru Parvez, Khosru ii, Khusrau II, Khusraw II, Khusraw Parviz, Khusro II, Khusro Parvez, Khusrow II, Xosrov II, Xosrov II the Ever Victorious, Xusro II.