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Abbottabad District (ایبٹ آباد) is located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Abbottabad Falcons (ایبٹ آباد فالکنز) are a Pakistani men's professional Twenty20 cricket team that competes in the Haier T20 League and based in Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Abbottabad Public School (APS), formerly Railway Public School and Abbottabad Public School and College, is a public, all boys, boarding school for 7th to 12th grade students, located in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
The Abbottabad University of Science and Technology (also named AUST), is a public university located in Havelian (12 km from Abbottabad), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan (جامعہ عبد الولی خان مردان) or AWKUM, is a public university located in Mardan, Pakistan.
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afghans in Pakistan (افغان مهاجرين., Afghan Muhajreen) primarily constitute refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan, but there are small numbers of Afghan asylum seekers, migrant workers, merchants, businesspeople, exchange students and diplomats..
The Afrīdī (اپريدی Aprīdai, plur. اپريدي Aprīdī; آفریدی) is a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
The University of Agriculture, Peshawar (UAP; جامعہ زرعیہ پشاور، یا زرعی یونیورسٹی پشاور; د کرنې پوهنتون، پېښور), is a research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Akora Khattak (اکوړه خټک, Urdu: اکوڑہ خٹک) is a town in Jehangira tehsil of Nowshera District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Al-Khidmat (اﻟﺧدﻣﺖ) Foundation is network that provides humanitarian services across Pakistan.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Amanullah or Amanallah is a male Muslim given name (أمان الله.) meaning the trust or protection of God.
Amb was a princely state of the former British Indian Empire ruled over by chiefs of the Tanoli tribe descended from Mir Painda Khan.
The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, also known as the Treaty of Rawalpindi, was an armistice made between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan has been evident through public demonstrations and burning of the flag of the United States.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Army Burn Hall College (ABHC) is a school and college, formerly operating along English public school lines in Abbottabad, Pakistan, with separate sections for boys and girls.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.
Attock Bridge (اٹک پل) is situated between Attock Khurd and Khairabad Kund on Indus river in Pakistan.
Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Aurat Foundation, founded in 1986, is a women's rights organization based in Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Awami National Party (ملي عوامي ګوند, عوامی نيشنل پارٹی; Acronym: ANP), is a secular and leftist Pashtun nationalist political party in Pakistan.
Ayub Medical College (Urdu, Hindko:, د ایوب طب پوهنځی, or AMC) is a leading public medical institute located in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Ayubia National Park (ایوبیہ ملی باغ), also known as Ayubia (ایوبیہ), is a protected area of located in Abbottabad District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
Azim Khan (عظیم خان) was an ethnic Pashtun and the governor of Kashmir during the period 1810-1816.
Bab-e-Khyber (Pashto and; "Khyber Gate") Naveed Hussain 22 January 2012 Express Tribune Retrieved 29 May 2014 is a monument which stands at the entrance of the Khyber Pass in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Bacha Khan Medical College (باچا خان طبی کالج, د باچا خان طب پوهنځی) is a public medical institution located in Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Bahrain (Torwali/Pashto: بحرین; also spelled Behrain) is a town located in Swat District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 60 km North of Mingora at an elevation of 4700 ft on the right bank of the Swat river.
#REDIRECT Bajaur Agency.
Bala Hissar (Pashto and قلعه بالا حصار), also spelt Bala Hisar, is a historic fortress located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Banū or Bannu (باني ګل / بنو, بنوں) is the principal city of the Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Bannu Brigade was formed after the 1903 reforms of the British Indian Army by Herbert Kitchener when he was Commander-in-Chief, India.
Bannu District (Pashto: بنو, ضلع بنوں.) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Bannu Resolution (د بنو قرارداد), or the Pashtunistan Resolution (د پښتونستان قرارداد), was a formal political statement adopted by Bacha Khan, Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, the Khudai Khidmatgars, members of the Provincial Assembly, Mirzali Khan (Faqir of Ipi), and other tribal chiefs at a loya jirga held at Bannu on June 21, 1947, just seven weeks before the Partition of India.
Bateri (Devanagari: बटेरी) is a Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Kohistan District, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Battagram (Urdu: ضلع بٹگرام; Pashto: ضلع بټګرام) is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire on 30 April 1837.
The Battle of Nowshera was fought in March 1823 between the forces of Pashtun tribesmen with support from Azim Khan Barakzai, Durrani governor against the Sikh Khalsa Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.
The Battle of Peshawar took place on 8 May 1758 between Maratha Empire and the Durrani Empire.
The Battle of Wanna was a March 2004 military engagement between the Pakistan Army and members of Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaeda at Azam Warsak, near the South Waziristan town of Wanna.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
The Bettani or Bēṭanī (بېټني) (also spelled Bhittani Bhitti Bhatti in older British sources) is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India.
The bharal (Pseudois nayaur), also called the Himalayan blue sheep or naur, is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Pakistan.
The black partridge (Melanoperdix niger), also known as the black wood partridge, is a small (up to 27 cm long) partridge with a thick bill, grey legs and dark brown iris.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Broghil Valley (بروغل) is a valley and national park located in the upper northern reaches Chitral District, of Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buner District (د بونیر ولسوالی) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Cadet College Kohat is a military high school for boys of grades 8th through twelve.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cantonment is a military or police quarters.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
The Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan (نگران وزیر اعظم) is the head of government in Pakistan following the dissolution of the National Assembly.
The Catholic Church in Pakistan is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the pope in Rome.
The Census in Pakistan (مردم شماری پاکستان), is a decennial census and a descriptive count of Pakistan's population on Census Day, and of their dwellings, conducted and supervised by the Bureau of Statistics of the Ministry of Finance and Statistics.
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Superior Services (denoted as CSS; or Bureaucracy) is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority, and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Charsadda (چارسده, چارسده) is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Charsadda district (ضلع چارسدہ) is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Chief Minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (CM-KP) is the head of the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In Pakistan, the position of Chief Secretary is occupied by the highest-ranking civil servant in each of the four provinces.
Chilisso is a Dardic language in the Kohistani language group spoken by a thousand people in eastern Kohistan, Pakistan.
Chitral (Pashto/چترال; چھترار, Khowar for "field") is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Chitral (ضلع چترال) is the largest district in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, covering an area of 14,850 km².
Chitral Gol National Park (چترال گول نیشنل پارک) is one of the National Parks of Pakistan.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The chukar partridge, or simply chukar (Alectoris chukar), also called Chukor, is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae.
Circle Bakote is a cluster of Union Councils in the eastern part of Abbottabad District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Dal Khalsa was the name of the Sikh army that operated in the 18th century (1747–1780) in the Punjab region.
Dameli is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca) are a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern India's Jammu and Kashmir, and eastern Afghanistan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Daulat Khan Lodi (Pashto: دولت خان لودی) was the governor of Lahore during the reign of Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty.
The Dāwaṛ (داوړ), also Daur or Dawari, are a Karlani Pashtun tribe mostly inhabiting the North Waziristan Agency located in the semi-autonomous Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 (excluding the autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
Dera Ismail Khan (Urdu:, ډېره اسماعيل خان, ډېره اسماعيل خان), often abbreviated to D.I. Khan, is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The District of Dera Ismail Khan (ضلع دېره اسماعیل خان, ضلع دیره اسماعیل خان, ضلع دېره اسماعیل خان; often abbreviated as D.I. Khan) is the most southern of the 26 districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
The Dilzak (Urdu: دلزاک) is a Pashtun tribe, primarily living in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Dir (Urdu, دیر) is a town in Upper Dir District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan at an elevation of 1420 m. It is sometimes known as Dir Khas ("Proper Dir") to distinguish it from the district.
The Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are administrative divisions of the province in which their boundaries are drawn.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Dost Muhammad Khan (دوست محمد خان) is a Pakistani jurist and a senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan since 1 February 2014 who served as Chief Justice of the Peshawar High Court from 17 November 2011 to 31 January 2014.
Drosh, also spelt Dros (دروش), was formerly a town of Badakhshan province of Afghanistan now is a part of Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.
Edwardes College is the oldest higher education institution in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eudemus (Εὔδημος; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Great's generals.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Firishta or Ferishta(فرِشتہ), full name Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (مُحمّد قاسِم ہِندُو شاہ), was a Persian historian who was born in 1560 and died in 1620.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
The Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR) were a special set of laws of Pakistan which were applicable to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of northwestern Pakistan.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
The Gandapur (Pashto: ګنډہ پور, Urdu: گنڈہ پور) also called Gandapore, is one of two Pashtun tribes (the other being the Bakhtîâr/Pakhtîâr) who originated in southwestern Pakistan.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Gandharis (गंधारी), are a tribe attested from the Rigveda (RV 1.120.1, 1.126.7) and later texts.
Gawar-Bati (Narsati) is a Dardic language spoken in Chitral, Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
The Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (غلام اسحاق خان انسٹیٹیوٹ; commonly referred as GIK, is a private research university located in Topi, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. GIK has eight academic faculties strongly emphasizing on science and engineering and its primary campus is located in the vicinity of Swabi district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Founded by civil servant and former President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1993, the college attracted country's influential scientists such as Abdul Qadeer Khan, Asghar Qadir, and Shaukat Hameed Khan since its establishment, and played formulating role in transforming the college in elevating as one of world's finest science and engineering college. GIK is among one of the top institutions ranked by the HEC, and also has a long-standing competition with the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS).
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Gomal University (جامعہ گومل; ګومل پوهنتون; GU) is a public university in Dera Ismail Khan in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (د خیبر پښتونخوا حکومت, حکومتِ خیبرپختونخوا) is the provincial government of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Gowro, also known as Gabaro, is a Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Kohistan District, Pakistan.
The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Indian Peninsula Railway was a predecessor of the Central Railway, whose headquarters was at the Boree Bunder in Mumbai (later, the Victoria Terminus and presently the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus).
Greek religion can refer to several things, including.
The grey partridge (Perdix perdix), also known as the English partridge, Hungarian partridge, or hun, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds.
Guided democracy, also called managed democracy, is a formally democratic government that functions as a de facto autocracy.
Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India and Pakistan, with some speakers in Afghanistan.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Gūrwēk (گورویک, ګوروېک) is a town in North Waziristan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, on the border with Afghanistan.
Hangu (Pashto) is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.
Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور, "The Town of Hari") is a district in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan with an altitude of around above sea level.
Hashtnagar (in Sanskrit अष्टनगरम्: aṣṭanagaram and more commonly known as اشنغر ashnaghar Pashto) is one of the two constituent parts of Charsadda District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.Later the name was changed from Hashtnagar to Utmanzai.
Hazara District was district of Peshawar Division in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan until 1976.
Hazara University (جامعہ ہزارہ) is a public sector university, situated on the crossroads of the ancient civilization of Gandhara and Ashoka and facing the Silk Route, on the outskirts of Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which had been the ancient link between sub-continent, China and Central Asia.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
High court usually refers to the superior court (or supreme court) of a country or state.
introduction There are five High Courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
The Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), also known as the Impeyan monal, Impeyan pheasant, is a bird in the pheasant family, Phasianidae.
The Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis) is a snowcock in the pheasant family Phasianidae found across the Himalayan ranges and parts of the adjoining Pamir range of Asia.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindkowans (Pashto/هندکوان; "Hindko-speakers") are an linguistic-cultural group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hindus comprise approximately 1.85% of Pakistan's population.
The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (تنظیم حقوق انسانی پاکستان), or HRCP, is an independent, non-profit organisation, founded in 1987, which is not associated or with the government or any political party.Among its main aims are spreading awareness of human rights among the people,collecting information and spreading knowledge about human rights abuses, and to monitor and defend human rights in Pakistan.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Huvishka (Kushan: Οοηϸκι, "Ooishki") was the emperor of the Kushan Empire from the death of Kanishka (assumed on the best evidence available to be in 140 CE) until the succession of Vasudeva I about forty years later.
Imran Ahmad Khan Niazi PP, HI (born 5 October 1952) is the Chairman of Pakistan Movement of Justice and the candidate for the Prime Minister of Pakistan in the upcoming Pakistani general election, 2018.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
Indus Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in part of the Indus valley in Kohistan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.
Islamia College, Peshawar (اسلامیہ کالج پشاور) is a public research university located in midst of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
Jahangir Khan, HI (جهانگير خان; born 10 December 1963 in Karachi, Pakistan) sometimes spelled "Jehangir Khan", is a former World No.
Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind (Urdu:, जमीयत उलेमा-ए-हिन्द, translation: Organisation of Indian Islamic Scholars) is one of the leading Islamic organisations in India.
The Janapadas were the realms, republics (GanaPada) and kingdoms (SaamaRajya) of the Vedic period on the Indian subcontinent.
Jansher Khan (جان شیر خان; born 15 June 1969, in Peshawar, Pakistan) is a former World No.
Jayapala, was the ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty from 964 to 1001 CE.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
A jirga (occasionally jarga or jargah; Pashto) is a traditional assembly of leaders that make decisions by consensus and according to the teachings of Pashtunwali.
Jundallah (جندالله, lit. "Soldiers of God") is a militant group associated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP).
The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kabul markhor or straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros; کابلی مرغومی) is an endangered goat-antelope native to Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Kafir Kot (Pashto: کافر کوټ; also spelt Kafirkot) are ancient ruins of Hindu temples located in Dera Ismail Khan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, near the cities of Mianwali and Kundian.
Kalam (Kalami/Pashto/کالام) is a valley located at distance of 99 km from Mingora in the northern upper reaches of Swat valley along the bank of Swat River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Kalami (کالامي) also known as Gawri (ګاوری), is a Dardic language spoken in the Swat Kohistan region in the upper Swat District and in the upper Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa; Nuristani: Kasivo; کالاش), or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch. They are considered unique among the peoples of Pakistan. They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious community, practising a religion which some scholars characterise as a form of animism, and other academics as "a form of ancient Hinduism". The neighbouring Nuristani people of the adjacent Nuristan (historically known as Kafiristan) province of Afghanistan once practised the faith adhered to by the Kalash. By the late 19th century, much of Nuristan had been converted to Islam, although some evidence has shown the people continued to practice their customs. Over the years, the Nuristan region has also been the site of much war activity that has led to the death of many endemic Nuristanis and has seen an inflow of surrounding Afghans to claim the vacant region, who have since admixed with the remaining natives. The Kalash of Chitral maintained their own separate cultural traditions.Newby, Eric. A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush. 2008.
Kalasha (locally: Kalashamondr) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group.
The kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos) is a pheasant found in forests and thickets, especially in the Himalayan foothills, from Pakistan to western Thailand.
Kalkoti, or Goedijaa, is a Dardic language of the Shina group spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).
The Kanishka stupa was a monumental stupa established by the Kushan king Kanishka during the 2nd century CE in today's Shaji-ki-Dheri on the outskirts of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karak (کرك, کرک) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subbranch.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khushāl Khān Khattak (1613 – 25 February 1689; خوشحال خان خټک Khʷushḥāl Khān Khaṭṭak), also called Khushāl Bābā (خوشحال بابا), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, chief, and freedom fighter from the Khattak tribe of the Pashtuns.
Khyber (خېبر قبايلي سيمه; خیبر) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khyber Medical University (جامعہ طبی خیبر, د خیبر طبي پوهنتون, abbreviated as KMU), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly is the unicameral legislative body of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber train safari (خیبر بخار سفاری, د خیبر تپ صفري) is a tourist train, operated and maintained by Tourism Corporation of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Pakistan Railways between Peshawar and Attock Khurd.
The Kohala Bridge across the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus River, forms part of one of the land routes from the Azad Kashmir to Pakistan.
Kohat (کوهاټ, کوہاٹ), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan which serves as the capital of the Kohat District.
Kohat District (ضلع کوہاٹ) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, Kohat city is the capital of the district.
Kohistan (اباسين کوهستان; "Land of Mountains"), also called Abasin Kohistan or Indus Kohistan, was an administrative district within Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan, covering an area of; it had a population of 472,570 at the 1998 Census.
The koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) is a species of Galliform, being closely related to progenitive grouse that lived during the Miocene.
Kolai-Palas District is a district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan language: Κοζουλου Καδφιζου, also Κοζολα Καδαφες; Kharoṣṭhī: Kujula Kasasa; Ancient Chinese: 丘就卻, Qiujiuque; reigned 30–80 CE, or 40-90 CE according to BopearachchiOsmund Bopearachchi, 2007) was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Kulachi (کلا چی) is a city named after the Kulachi Baloch tribe and is the headquarters of Kulachi Tehsil (an administrative subdivision) of Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Kurram (د کورمې قبايلي سيمه; کرم ایجنسی) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Saiful Muluk (جھیل سیف الملوک.) is a mountainous lake located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Lakki Marwat (لکۍ مروت; لکی مروت) is one of the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan.
A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when one candidate or party receives an overwhelming supermajority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus utterly eliminating the opponents.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
Lashkar-e-Islam (لشكرِ اسلام), (LI or LeI) literally Army of Islam also transliterated as Lashkar-e-Islami, Lashkar-i-Islam) is a militant organization active in and around Khyber Agency, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. LeI was founded in 2004 by Mufti Munir Shakir. The most recent leader was Mangal Bagh. On March 12, 2015, Lashkar-e-Islam announced that it was joining Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Pakistan banned the organization in June 2008 On April 17, 2008, Bagh claimed that LeI has over 180,000 volunteers in Khyber Agency On April 27, 2008, it was reported that a "Lashkar-e-Islam" has changed its name to "Jaish-e-Islami". It is unclear whether this is the same group, or another which happened to use the same name. The reports stated that this LeI is located in Bajaur Agency, and headed by Wali Rehman.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
A Chief Minister in Pakistan is the elected Head of Government of one of Pakistan's four Provinces or the two non-provincial sub-national territories that have assemblies.
A Governor in Pakistan is the appointed Head of State of a province.
Pakistan has 29 protected areas known as national parks (پاکستان کی ملی باغ).
This is a list of provinces of Pakistan by their gross state product (GSP) (the value of the total economy, and goods and services produced in the respective province) in nominal terms.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
The long-tailed marmot (Marmota caudata) or golden marmot is a marmot species in the family Sciuridae.
Lower Dir (لر دیر ，دیر زیریں) is one of the 26 districts in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Lower Kohistan is a district in Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
In the Pashtunwali, a code of laws of the Pashtun peoples living in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and neighboring countries, loya jirga (لويه جرګه, "grand assembly") is a special type of jirga that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war.
Lulusar-Dodipat National Park is located in the Kaghan Valley in Mansehra District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Mahabat Khan Mosque (Pashto and مہابت خان مسجد), sometimes spelt Mohabbat Khan Mosque, is a 17th-century Mughal-era mosque in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Mahmud Shah Durrani (1769 – April 18, 1829; Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic) was born Prince and the ruler of the Durrani Empire (Afghanistan) between 1801 and 1803, and again between 1809 and 1818.
The Mahsud or Mehsud (محسود), also spelled Maseed (ماسيد), is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Malakand (ملاکنډ) is a division of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (سلطنت مملوک), (غلام خاندان) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia.
Mamnoon Hussain (ممنون حسین; born 23 December 1940) is a Pakistani businessman and conservative politician who is the 12th President of Pakistan, in office since 2013.
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar (Burma).
The mangey, mungey or mangay is a membranophone percussion instrument of Afghanistan, India and Pakistan.
Mansehra District is a district in the Hazara division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Mardān (Pashto,; Urdu; Pashto) is located in Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Mardan District is located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The markhor (Capra falconeri; مرغومی marǧūmi; Persian/Urdu), also known as the screw horn goat, is a large species of wild goat that is found in northeastern Afghanistan, northern and central Pakistan, Northern India, southern Tajikistan, southern Uzbekistan and in the Himalayas.
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Mirzali Khan Wazir (حاجي ميرزالي خان وزير; b. 1897, d. 16 April 1960), also known as the Faqir of Ipi or Ipi Faqir (ايپي فقير), was a Pashtun tribal leader and warrior from the Utmanzai Wazir tribe, in today's Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muttahida Majlis–e–Amal (MMA) (Urdu:; lit. United Council of Action), is a political alliance consisting of ultra–conservative, Islamist, religious, and far-right parties of Pakistan.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
The Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (خیبر پښتونخوا, خیبر پختونخوا) has been known by a number of names throughout its history.
Nanga Parbat (Urdu), locally known as Diamer, is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
Nicaea was a city in what is now the Punjab, one of the two cities founded by Alexander the Great on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river.
Nicanor (Nικάνωρ Nikā́nōr) was a Macedonian officer of distinction who served as satrap of Media under Antigonus.
North Waziristan (Urdu:شمالی وزیرستان) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering.
Nowshera Cantonment is a cantonment adjacent to Nowshera in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, on the opposite bank of the Kabul River.
Nowshera (ضلع نوشہرہ) is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار, pr. Nowkhaar) is the chief city of Nowshera District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, and is one of the largest cities in the province.
An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations.
Operation Zarb-e-Azb (Pashto/آپریشن ضربِ عضب ALA-LC) was a joint military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups, including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani network. The operation was launched on 15 June 2014 in North Waziristan along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. As of 14 July 2014, the operation internally displaced about 929,859 people belonging to 80,302 families from North Waziristan. Part of the war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers were involved in Zarb-e-Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding in North Waziristan. The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and civilian sectors. As a consequence, the overall security situation improved and terrorist attacks in Pakistan dropped to a six-year low since 2008. Zarb-e-Azb was followed by Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad which began in February 2017, following a resurgence in terrorist incidents.
Orakzai District (د اورکزو قبايلي سيمه) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Organized crime in Pakistan refers to the activities of groups of organized crime in Pakistan, The Pakistani Mafia is spread in many countries and are also politically supported and politicized.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Pakistan Herald Publications Limited (PHPL) is a newspaper and magazine publisher based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Pakistan Muslim League (پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s.
The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) PML-N) is a centre-right conservative party in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) (پاکستان تحريک انصاف, English: Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a political party in Pakistan founded in 1996 by former national cricket captain Imran Khan.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 10 October 2002 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the provincial assemblies.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Palula (also spelt Phalura, Palola, Phalulo, and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, the name used by Khowar speakers) is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village of Puri (also Purigal) in the Shishi valley, and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Panjkora River (دریائے پنجکوڑہ) is a river in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan.
General Paolo Crescenzo Martino Avitabile (Abu Tabela) (25 October 1791 – 28 March 1850) was an Italian soldier, mercenary and adventurer.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Peshawar District (ضلع پشاور, ضلع پېښور) is a district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Peshawar High Court is the highest judicial institution of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.
The Peshawar Panthers are a domestic T20 and List A cricket team based in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Peshawar Zalmi (پېښور زلمي; پشاور زلمی; Peshawar Youth) is a Pakistani franchise T20 cricket team which plays in the Pakistan Super League and represents Peshawar, the capital city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The pied bush chat (Saxicola caprata) is a small passerine bird found ranging from West Asia and Central Asia to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) were Pakistani administrative subdivisions designated in the Article 246(b) of the Constitution of Pakistan.
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Pushkalavati (Pashto and) was the capital of the Gandhara kingdom.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
Razmak (Pashto and رزمک) is one of the three subdivisions of North Waziristan Agency in Pakistan, the other two being Mirali and Miramshah.
The red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerines.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
The rock dove, IOC World Bird List, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (also; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).
Rubab, robab or rabab (رباب, रुबाब, Rübab, Rübab, رُباب rubāb, Tajik and Uzbek рубоб) is a lute-like musical instrument originating from central Afghanistan.
Russophilia (literally love of Russia or Russians) is individual or collective admiration of Russia and Russian culture.
Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (ابو منصور سبکتگین) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D.C.E. Bosworth, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Saiful Muluk National Park (سیف الملوک نیشنل پارک) is located in the Kaghan Valley in Mansehra District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, in northern Pakistan.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
The Sarhad Rural Support Programme (SRSP) is the largest non-governmental organization working to alleviate poverty in North West Pakistan.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451.
Scylax of Caryanda (Σκύλαξ ο Καρυανδεύς) was a renowned Greek explorer and writer of the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Aiwan-e Bala (ایوانِ بالا) or Senate of Pakistan is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the Qaumi Assembly makes up the Majlis-e-Shoora.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
Sahibzada Mohammad Shahid Khan Afridi (شاہدافریدی; شاهد اپریدی; born 1980), popularly known as Boom Boom, is a former Pakistani cricketer and former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shangla District is located in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (شوکت خانم میموریل کینسر ہسپتال اور تحقیق اداره, abbreviated as SKMCH&RC) is a chain of research-oriented tertiary level oncology hospitals in Lahore and Peshawar in Pakistan.
The Shaybanids (سلسله شیبانیان) were a PersianizedIntroduction: The Turko-Persian tradition, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed.
Sheikh Buddin National Park (also spelled Sheikh Badin National Park) is located in Dera Ismail Khan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The snow partridge (Lerwa lerwa) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae found widely distributed across the high-altitude Himalayan regions of India, Pakistan, Nepal and China.
The snowcocks are a group of bird species in the genus Tetraogallus of the pheasant family, Phasianidae.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South Waziristan (Urdu: جنوبی وزیرستان) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km² (4,473 mi²).
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan is a body of judges empowered under of the constitution of Pakistan to hear cases of misconduct against judges.
Swabi District (سوابۍ,صوابی) is a district in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
An electoral swing analysis (or swing) shows the extent of change in voter support, typically from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tank (ٹانک; ٹاک)), is a southern district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The city of Tank is the capital of the district, which consists of Union Council City I and Union Council City II. There are sixteen Union councils of district Tank. Until 1992 Tank was a tehsil within Dera Ismail Khan District. Tank is bounded by the districts of Lakki Marwat to the northeast, Dera Ismail Khan to the east and southeast, FR Tank to the north and the South Waziristan Agency to the west. The climate in Tank reaches 110–120 °F. However, in the cold, harsh winters in the mountains to the west, people come to Tank to enjoy a pleasant stay and then return during the summer.
Taxila Tehsil, headquartered at Taxila, is one of the seven Tehsils (sub-divisions) of Rawalpindi District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM, Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Law) is a Pakistani militant group whose objective is to enforce Sharia law in the country.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus filchneri) is a subspecies of the gray wolf that is native to China in the regions of Gansu, Qinghai, and the Tibetan Plateau.
Time in Pakistan is given by Pakistan Standard Time (PKT).
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
Torghar District—alternatively Tor Ghar District (ضلع تور غر) (lit. black mountain) and formerly also known as Kala Dhaka (کالا ڈهاکه)—is the smallest district of Pakistan and one of the 26 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Torwali (توروالی), or Turvali, is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
A town is a human settlement.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.
Tulipa clusiana, the lady tulip, is an Asian species of tulip native to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and the western Himalayas.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Umar Gul (Urdu:, عمرګل) (born 14 April 1984) is a Pakistani cricketer, who plays all three formats of the game as a right arm fast medium bowler for the Pakistani cricket team.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A Union Council (شیروان, Sherwan) forms the second-tier of local government and fifth administrative division in Pakistan.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
The University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (UET Peshawar) is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The University of Malakand (یونیورسٹی آف ملاکنڈ; ملاکنډ پوهنتون); abbreviated as UOM) is a public university located at the bank of the Swat River in Chakdara, Lower Dir District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Founded in 2001, the university offers undergraduate and postgraduate degress in various academic disciplines. As of 2010, the university secured its place at the general category and ranked "seventh" by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Peshawar (جامعۂ پشاور; د پېښور پوهنتون; abbreviated UoP; known more popularly as Peshawar University), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The University of Swat (یونیورسٹی آف سوات) is a public sector university.
Upper Dir (دیر بالا) is one of the 26 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Upper Kohistan is an administrative district within Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The urial (Ovis orientalis vignei), also known as the arkars or shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Valley of Peshawar is a broad valley situated in northern Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Vasudeva I (Kushano Bactrian: ΒΑΖΟΔΗΟ "Bazodeo", Chinese: 波調 "Bodiao") fl. 200 CE (AD), was a Kushan emperor, last of the "Great Kushans." Named inscriptions dating from year 64 to 98 of Kanishka's era suggest his reign extended from at least 191 to 232 CE.
Obv: Bust of king emerging from a cloud, with a crested helmet and holding a club.
Vima Takto or Vima Taktu was a Kushan emperor who reigned c. 80–90 CE.
Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the Eastern Iranian branch of the language family spoken today in Wakhan District, Afghanistan and also in Northern Pakistan, China, and Tajikistan.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Wazirs or Waziris (وزير) are a Karlani Pashtun tribe found mainly in the Pakistan-Afghanistan border region of North and South Waziristan.
Wazīr Akbar Khān (1816–1845; وزير اکبر خان), born Mohammad Akbar Khān (محمد اکبر خان) and also known as Amīr Akbar Khān (امير اکبر خان), was an Afghan prince, general, and finally emir for about three years until his death.
Waziristan (Pashto and وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Waziristan campaign 1919–1920 was a military campaign conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
The yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) is an Asian marten species, which is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently relatively stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and lack of major threats.
The Yidgha language is an Eastern Iranian language of the Pamir group spoken in the upper Lotkoh Valley (Tehsil Lotkoh) of Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Mohammad Younis Khan (محمد یونس خان, Urdu) (born 29 November 1977) is a former Pakistani cricketer and former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team in all three formats of the game.
The Yūsufzai, also called Yousafzai, is a tribe of Pashtun people found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, and in some eastern parts of Afghanistan.
On 16 December 2014, six gunmen affiliated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) conducted a terrorist attack on the Army Public School in the northwestern Pakistani city of Peshawar.
Demographics of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Frontier Province, Frontier of Pakistan, Frontier, Pakistan, Hazara Pakhtunkhwa, KPK (Pakistan), KPK province, KPK, Pakistan, KPk, Khaibar pakhtunkhwa, Khyber Pakhtonkhwa, Khyber Pakhtonkhwa Province, Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Province, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (Pakistan), Khyber Pakhtun khwa (Pakistan), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah, Khyber Pakhtunkwa, Khyber Pakthunkhwa, Khyber Paktunkhwa, Khyber Pashtoonkhwa, Khyber Pashtunkhwa, Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Khyber Puktunkhwa, Khyber Pushtoonkhwa, Khyber Pushtunkhwa, Khyber pakhtunkhwa, Khyber province, Khyber pukhtoonkhwa, Khyber-PK, Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwah, Khyber-Pakthunkhwa, Khyber-Paktunkhwa, Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa, KhyberPakhtunkhwa, KhyberPakthunkhwa, KhyberPaktunkhwa, Khyber–Pakhtunkhwa, Kumbar, Kyber Pakhtunkwha, Languages of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, N.W.F.P, N.W.F.P., NWFP (Pakistan), NWFP (region), NWFP, Pakistan, North West Frontier Agency, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, North Western Frontier Province, North west frontier province, North-West Frontier Province Sarhad, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, North-West Frontier, Pakistan, North-West Pakistan, North-west Pakistani frontier, North-west frontier province, North-western Pakistan, Northwest Frontier Province, Northwest Frontier, Pakistan, Northwest Pakistan, Northwest frontier, Northwestern Pakistan, Nwfp, PK-NW, Pakhtonkhwa, Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakhtoonkhwa province, Pakhtun province, Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Pakistan Northwest, Pakistani North-West Frontier, Pakistani Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistani frontier, Pakistani frontier province, Paktonkhwa, Paktunkhwa, Pashtoonkhwa, Pashtun province, Pashtunkhwa, Pakistan, Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pukhtoonkhwa, Pukhtunhwa, Pukhtunkhwa, Puktunkhwa, Pushtoonkhwa, Pushtunkhwa, Religion in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sarhad Province, Sharmai Hydropower Project, The North-West Frontier Province, The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Śhumāl maġribī sarhadī sūbha, خیبر پښتونخوا, خیبر ﭘﺨﺘﻮنخوا, شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ.