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Index Kibbutz

A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. [1]

213 relations: Academy, Agriculture, Agriculture in Israel, Ahdut HaAvoda, Al HaMishmar, Ammunition, Anti-Zionism, Arab world, Arthur Ruppin, Ashkenazi Jews, Atheism, Balanced job complex, Balfour Declaration, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Barkai, Bedouin, Beit Oren, Beit Shemesh, Berl Katznelson, Betar, Bilu, Boarding school, Bruno Bettelheim, Business, Cabinet of Israel, Capitalism, Caregiver, Cereal, Child care, Children of the Sun (2007 film), Cholera, Coastal plain, Cold War, Collective farming, Commune, Communism, Convent, David Ben-Gurion, Degania Alef, Diamond cutting, Discipline, Doctors' plot, Drip irrigation, Education, Effendi, Ehud Barak, Ein Tzurim, Eliezer Ben-Rafael, Emotion, Ersatz good, ..., Exogamy, Factory, Falling in love, Family, Fast Company (magazine), Feminization (sociology), First Aliyah, Free market, Friedrich Engels, Gender equality, Germany, Gilo, Givat Brenner, Glil Yam, Globalization, Habonim Dror, HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed, HaNoar HaTzioni, Hapoel HaMizrachi, Hashomer Hatzair, Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party, Hatzerim, Health system, Hebrew language, High tech, Hora (dance), Intentional community, Interpersonal relationship, Iraq, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Military Industries, Israeli Labor Party, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jewish land purchase in Palestine, Jewish National Fund, Jezreel Valley, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Journalist, Judaean Mountains, Kadima, Karl Marx, Kfar Ruppin, Kibbutz crisis, Kibbutz Movement, Kibbutz volunteer, Kiryat Anavim, Kiryat HaYovel, Knesset, Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art, Kvutza, Lavi, Leninism, List of cities in Israel, List of films about the kibbutz, List of kibbutzim, Lotan, Ma'agan Michael, Maccabees, Malaria, Manufacturing, Mapai, Mapam, Marxism, Megiddo, Israel, Melford Spiro, Meretz, Migvan, Military, Ministry of Economy (Israel), Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition, Mizrahi Jews, Molotov cocktail, Morocco, Moshav, Music, Nahal, Nahsholim, NASDAQ, Nation state, Negev, Netafim, New Historians, Non-Aligned Movement, Nursing, One-state solution, Oneida stirpiculture, Orthodox Judaism, Ottoman Empire, Palestine (region), Palmach, Partition (politics), Passover, Poalei Agudat Yisrael, Pogrom, Primitive communism, Primitivism, Private property, Privatization in Israel, Psychologist, Purim, Rachel Bluwstein, Ramat Yohanan, Religious Kibbutz Movement, Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, Rudolf Slánský, Rural area, Russian Revolution, Sasa, Israel, Sde Boker, Sderot, Sea of Galilee, Second Aliyah, Secularity, Separate spheres, Settlement movement (Israel), Shabbat, Shamir, Israel, Sharon, Shavuot, Shekhinah, Shimon Avidan, Shlomo Gur, Six-Day War, Slánský trial, Socialism, Socialist League of Palestine, Society, Sociology, Soviet Union, Sten, Stonemasonry, Sukkot, Syria, Taipei Times, Tel Aviv University, The Jerusalem Post, The New York Times, Third Aliyah, Tom Segev, Tu BiShvat, Tunisia, Typhus, Ulpan, United Nations, United States, University of Haifa, Urban area, Urban kibbutz, Utopia, Wadi Ara, Wall and tower, Westermarck effect, Western world, World War I, Yiddish, Yigal Allon, Yishuv, Yom Kippur, Zionism, 11 points in the Negev, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Expand index (163 more) »


An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Agriculture in Israel

Agriculture in Israel is a highly developed industry: Israel is a major exporter of fresh produce and a world-leader in agricultural technologies despite the fact that the geography of Israel is not naturally conductive to agriculture.

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Ahdut HaAvoda

Ahdut HaAvoda (אַחְדוּת הַעֲבוֹדָה, lit. Labour Unity) was the name used by a series of political parties.

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Al HaMishmar

Al HaMishmar (על המשמר, lit. On Guard) was a daily newspaper published in Mandate Palestine and Israel between 1943 and 1995.

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Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.

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Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arthur Ruppin

Arthur Ruppin (1 March 1876 – 1 January 1943) was a Zionist thinker and leader.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Balanced job complex

A balanced job complex is a way of organizing a workplace or group that is both directly democratic and also creates relative equal empowerment among all people involved.

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Balfour Declaration

The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).

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Bar and Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.

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For people with the surname, see Barkai (surname). Barkai (בַּרְקַאי, lit. Morning Star) is an Israeli kibbutz in the Menashe Regional Council on the western side of Wadi Ara.

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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Beit Oren

Beit Oren (בֵּית אֹרֶן, lit. Home of the Pine) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Beit Shemesh

Beit Shemesh (בֵּית שֶׁמֶשׁ,; بيت شيمش; Bethsames, Beth Shamesh, Bethshamesh or Bet shemesh and most often Beth-Shemesh in English translations of the Hebrew Bible) is a city located approximately west of Jerusalem in Israel's Jerusalem District, with a population of in.

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Berl Katznelson

Berl Katznelson (ברל כצנלסון, 25 January 1887 – 12 August 1944) was one of the intellectual founders of Labor Zionism, instrumental to the establishment of the modern state of Israel, and the editor of Davar, the first daily newspaper of the workers' movement.

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The Betar Movement (also spelled Beitar) is a Revisionist Zionist youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky.

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Bilu (ביל"ו); also Palestine Pioneers), was a movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. Its members were known as Bilu'im.

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Boarding school

A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.

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Bruno Bettelheim

Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 – March 13, 1990) was the director of the Orthogenic School for Disturbed Children at the University of Chicago from 1944 to 1973.

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Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Cabinet of Israel

The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Child care

Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.

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Children of the Sun (2007 film)

Children of the Sun (ילדי השמש) is a 2007 documentary feature film about the Israeli kibbutz directed by Ran Tal.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Coastal plain

A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.

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A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.

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David Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

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Degania Alef

Degania Alef (דְּגַנְיָה א', D'ganya Alef) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Diamond cutting

Diamond cutting is the practice of changing a diamond from a rough stone into a faceted gem.

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Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.

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Doctors' plot

The Doctors' plot (дело врачей, "doctors' case", also known as the case of doctors-saboteurs or doctors-killers) was an antisemitic campaign organized by Joseph Stalin.

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Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Effendi, Effendy or Efendi (originally from αφέντης; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish language: افندي Efendi, in أفندي, Afandī; in افندی (Afghani), "Afandi") is a title of nobility meaning a Lord or Master.

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Ehud Barak

Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.

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Ein Tzurim

Ein Tzurim (עֵין צוּרִים, lit. Rocks Spring) is a religious kibbutz in southern Israel.

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Eliezer Ben-Rafael

Eliezer Ben-Rafael (born 1938 in Belgium) is an Israeli sociologist.

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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Ersatz good

An ersatz good is a substitute good, especially one that is considered inferior to the good it replaces.

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Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.

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A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Falling in love

In romantic relationships, falling in love is the concept of moving from a feeling of neutrality towards a person to one of love, except in cases of love at first sight where there is an instant and long-lasting bond.

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Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.

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Fast Company (magazine)

Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology, business, and design.

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Feminization (sociology)

In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.

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First Aliyah

The First Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הראשונה, HaAliyah HaRishona), also known as the agriculture Aliyah, is a term used to describe a major wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) to Palestine between 1882 and 1903.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gilo (גִּלֹה) is an Israeli settlement in south-western East Jerusalem, with a population of 40,000, mostly Jewish inhabitants.

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Givat Brenner

Givat Brenner (גִּבְעַת בְּרֶנֶר, lit. Brenner Hill; غفعات برينر), is a kibbutz in the Central District of Israel.

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Glil Yam

Glil Yam (גְּלִיל יָם) is a kibbutz in central Israel.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Habonim Dror

Habonim Dror (הַבּוֹנִים דְּרוֹר, "the builders of freedom") is the evolution of two Jewish Labour Zionist youth movements that merged in 1982.

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HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed

Histadrut HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed (הסתדרות הנוער העובד והלומד, lit. "Federation of Young Students and Workers" and most commonly translated as Working and Studying Youth), abbreviated No'al, is an Israeli youth movement, a sister movement of Habonim Dror, and affiliated with the Labor Zionist movement.

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HaNoar HaTzioni

Hanoar Hatzioni (הנוער הציוני, lit. The Zionist Youth), fully "Histadrut Halutzit Olamit Hanoar Hatzioni", or "HH" for short, is a youth movement established in 1926, with its head offices now in Israel.

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Hapoel HaMizrachi

Hapoel HaMizrachi (הפועל המזרחי, lit. Mizrachi Workers) was a political party and settlement movement in Israel and is one of the predecessors of the National Religious Party, which later became the modern-day Jewish Home Party.

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Hashomer Hatzair

Hashomer Hatzair (הַשׁוֹמֵר הַצָעִיר, also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Young Guard) is a Socialist-Zionist, secular Jewish youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary, and was also the name of the group's political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British Mandate of Palestine (see Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine).

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Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party

The Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine (מִפְלֶגֶת פּוֹעָלִים הַשׁוֹמֵר הַצָעִיר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Mifleget Poalim Hashomer Hatzair be'Eretz Yisrael) was a Marxist-Zionist political party in the British Mandate of Palestine, connected to the Hashomer Hatzair movement.

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Hatzerim (חֲצֵרִים, lit. Farmyards) is a kibbutz located 8 kilometers west of Beersheba in the Negev desert in Israel.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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High tech

High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.

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Hora (dance)

Hora, also known as horo and oro, is a type of circle dance originating in the Balkans but also found in other countries.

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Intentional community

An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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Israel Military Industries

IMI Systems, formerly Israel Military Industries, also referred to as Ta'as (תע"ש מערכות,התעשייה הצבאית), is an Israeli weapons manufacturer.

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Israeli Labor Party

The Israeli Labor Party (מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit.), commonly known as HaAvoda (הָעֲבוֹדָה), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.

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Jewish Agency for Israel

The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.

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Jewish land purchase in Palestine

Jewish land purchase in Palestine refers to the acquisition of land in Palestine by Jews from the 1840s until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.

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Jewish National Fund

The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.

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Jezreel Valley

The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.

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Jordan Valley (Middle East)

The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.

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A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.

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Judaean Mountains

The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills (הרי יהודה Harei Yehuda, جبال الخليل Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel and the West Bank where Jerusalem and several other biblical cities are located.

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Kadima (lit) was a centrist and liberal political party in Israel.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kfar Ruppin

Kfar Ruppin (כְּפַר רוּפִּין, lit. Ruppin Village) is a kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley about southeast of Beit She'an in northern Israel.

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Kibbutz crisis

The Kibbutz crisis (משבר הקיבוצים) was an acute economic crisis many of the kibbutzim in Israel experienced during the 1980s and that many still experience today.

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Kibbutz Movement

The Kibbutz Movement (התנועה הקיבוצית, HaTenoa'a HaKibbutzit) is the largest settlement movement for kibbutzim in Israel.

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Kibbutz volunteer

Kibbutz volunteers are people who come from all over the world to live and work in a kibbutz in Israel.

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Kiryat Anavim

Kiryat Anavim (קִרְיַת עֲנָבִים, lit. City of Grapes) is a kibbutz in the Judean Hills of Israel.

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Kiryat HaYovel

Kiryat HaYovel (קריית היובל) is a neighborhood in southwestern Jerusalem on Mount Herzl.

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The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.

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Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art

The KW Institute for Contemporary Art (Kunst-Werke) is a contemporary art institution located at Auguststrasse 69 in the Mitte district of Berlin.

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Kvutza or kevutza ("group") can be used as.

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Lavi (לָבִיא, lit. Lion) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.

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List of cities in Israel

Israeli cities in this list are the cities in Israel, and Israeli settlements with city status in the occupied West Bank; Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem.

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List of films about the kibbutz

This is a list of films and television series in which the Israeli kibbutz is prominently featured.

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List of kibbutzim

As of 2010, there was a total of 270 kibbutzim in Israel; circa 100,000 inhabitants lived in them.

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Lotan (Ugaritic: 𐎍𐎚𐎐-ltn, transliterated Lôtān, Litan, or Litānu, meaning "coiled") is a servant of the sea god Yam defeated by the storm god Hadad-Baʿal in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle.

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Ma'agan Michael

Ma'agan Michael (מַעֲגַן מִיכָאֵל, lit. Michael's Anchorage) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Mapai (מַפָּא"י, an acronym for, Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael, lit. "Workers' Party of the Land of Israel") was a centre-left political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day Israeli Labor Party in 1968.

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Mapam (מפ"ם, an acronym for Mifleget HaPoalim HaMeuhedet, lit. United Workers Party, حزب العمال الموحد, abbreviated 'مبام') was a left-wing political party in Israel.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Megiddo, Israel

Megiddo (מְגִדּוֹ، المجیدو) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Melford Spiro

Melford Elliot "Mel" Spiro (April 26, 1920 – October 18, 2014) was an American cultural anthropologist specializing in religion and psychological anthropology.

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Meretz (מֶרֶצ, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing, social-democraticMeretz is commonly described as social-democratic political party.

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Migvan (מגוון, lit. Colourful) is a small urban kibbutz located in the city of Sderot in the northwestern Negev desert in Israel.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Ministry of Economy (Israel)

The Ministry of Economy (משרד הכלכלה, Misrad HaKalkala) is a ministry of the Israeli government that oversees commerce, industry and labor in Israel.

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Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition

The Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition (הקשת הדמוקרטית המזרחית, HaKeshet HaDemocratit HaMizrahit) is a social justice organization among Mizrahi Jews (Jews from Arab and Muslim lands and the East) in Israel.

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Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.

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Molotov cocktail

A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Moshav (מוֹשָׁב, plural, lit. settlement, village) is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second wave of ''aliyah''.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Nahal (נח"ל) (acronym of Noar Halutzi Lohem, lit. Fighting Pioneer Youth) refers to a paramilitary Israel Defense Forces program that combines military service and the establishment of agricultural settlements, often in peripheral areas.

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Nahsholim (נַחְשׁוֹלִים, lit. Tidal waves) is a kibbutz and beach resort in northern Israel.

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The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.

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Netafim is an Israeli manufacturer of irrigation equipment.

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New Historians

The New Historians (ההיסטוריונים החדשים, HaHistoryonim HaChadashim) are a loosely defined group of Israeli historians who have challenged traditional versions of Israeli history, including Israel's role in the Palestinian Exodus in 1948 and Arab willingness to discuss peace.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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One-state solution

The one-state solution and the similar binational solution are proposed approaches to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

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Oneida stirpiculture

The stirpiculture experiment at the Oneida Community was the first positive eugenics experiment in American history, resulting in the planned conception, birth and rearing of 58 children.

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Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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The Palmach (Hebrew:, acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew), lit. "strike forces") was the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine.

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Partition (politics)

In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Poalei Agudat Yisrael

Poalei Agudat Yisrael (פועלי אגודת ישראל, lit. Agudat Yisrael Workers) was a trade union and Jewish political party in Poland, and was a minor political party in Israel.

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The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Privatization in Israel

The privatization in Israel refers to the transferring or selling of a service or property owned by the Israeli government or any public organization to private ownership.

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A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

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Rachel Bluwstein

Rachel Bluwstein Sela (September 20 (Julian calendar), 1890 – April 16, 1931) was a Hebrew-language poet who immigrated to Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire, in 1909.

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Ramat Yohanan

Ramat Yohanan (רָמַת יוֹחָנָן, lit. Yohanan Heights) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Religious Kibbutz Movement

The Religious Kibbutz Movement (הקיבוץ הדתי, HaKibbutz HaDati) is an organizational framework for Orthodox kibbutzim in Israel.

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Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany

The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Luxemburger Abkommen "Luxembourg Agreement" or Wiedergutmachungsabkommen "Wiedergutmachung Agreement", Hebrew: הסכם השילומים Heskem HaShillumim "Reparations Agreement") was signed on September 10, 1952,USHMM:, USHMM photograph #11019.

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Rudolf Slánský

Rudolf Slánský (31 July 1901 – 3 December 1952) was a Czech Communist politician.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Sasa, Israel

Sasa (סָאסָא) is a kibbutz in the Upper Galilee area of northern Israel.

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Sde Boker

Sde Boker (שְׂדֵה בּוֹקֵר, lit. Herding Field) is a kibbutz in the Negev desert of southern Israel.

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Sderot (שְׂדֵרוֹת,, lit. Boulevards) is a western Negev city and former development town in the Southern District of Israel.

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Sea of Galilee

The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.

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Second Aliyah

The Second Aliyah (העלייה השנייה, HaAliyah HaShniya) was an important and highly influential aliyah (Jewish emigration to Palestine) that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman-ruled Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen.

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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Separate spheres

Terms such as separate spheres and domestic–public dichotomy refer to a social phenomenon, within modern societies that feature, to some degree, an empirical separation between a domestic or private sphere and a public or social sphere.

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Settlement movement (Israel)

Settlement movement (תנועת התיישבות) is a term used in Israel to describe national umbrella organisations for kibbutzim, moshavim, moshavim shitufiim, and community settlements.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shamir, Israel

Shamir (שָׁמִיר) is a kibbutz in Upper Galilee area of Israel.

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Sharon (שָׁרוֹן Šārôn "plain") is a given name as well as an Israeli surname.

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Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.

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The Shekhina(h) (also spelled Shekina(h), Schechina(h), or Shechina(h); שכינה) is the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God.

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Shimon Avidan

Shimon Avidan (Hebrew: שמעון אבידן; February 7, 1911 – September 11, 1994), born Siegbert Koch (Hebrew: זיגברט קוך), was an Israeli soldier and officer, the commander of the Givati Brigade during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.

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Shlomo Gur

Shlomo Gur (Gerzovsky) (1913-2000), founder member of Kibbutz Tel Amal, is credited with creating and then managing the construction of 57 ''homa u'migal'' (tower and stockade settlements) during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Slánský trial

The Slánský trial (officially Proces s protistátním spikleneckým centrem Rudolfa Slánského meaning "Trial of anti-state conspiracy centered around Rudolf Slánský") was a show trial against elements of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) who were thought to have adopted the line of the maverick Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Socialist League of Palestine

The Socialist League of Palestine was a political organization in Mandate Palestine.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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The STEN (or Sten gun) was a family of British submachine guns chambered in 9×19mm and used extensively by British and Commonwealth forces throughout World War II and the Korean War.

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The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.

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Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Taipei Times

The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.

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Tel Aviv University

Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Third Aliyah

The Third Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה השלישית, HaAliyah HaShlishit) refers to the third wave—or aliyah—of modern Zionist immigration to Palestine from Europe.

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Tom Segev

Tom Segev (תום שגב; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist.

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Tu BiShvat

Tu BiShvat (ט״ו בשבט) is a Jewish holiday occurring on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Shevat (in 2018, Tu BiShvat begins at sunset on January 30 and ends at nightfall on January 31).

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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An ulpan (אולפן) is an institute or school for the intensive study of Hebrew.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Haifa

The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה, جامعة حيفا) is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Urban kibbutz

An urban kibbutz (קיבוץ עירוני, Kibbutz Ironi) is a form of kibbutz located within an existing city.

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A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

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Wadi Ara

Wadi Ara (also Nahal 'Iron) (وادي عارة, נחל עירון, ואדי עארה), is an area in Israel populated mainly by Arab citizens of Israel.

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Wall and tower

Tower and Stockade (חוֹמָה וּמִגְדָּל, translit. Homa u'migdal, lit. "wall and tower"), was a settlement method used by Zionist settlers in Mandatory Palestine during the 1936–39 Arab Revolt.

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Westermarck effect

The Westermarck effect, or reverse sexual imprinting, is a hypothetical psychological effect through which people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to sexual attraction.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yigal Allon

Yigal Allon (יגאל אלון; 10 October 1918 – 29 February 1980) was an Israeli politician, a commander of the Palmach, and a general in the IDF.

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The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.

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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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11 points in the Negev

11 points in the Negev (11 הנקודות, 11 HaNekudot) refers to a Jewish Agency plan for establishing eleven settlements in the Negev in 1946, prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.

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1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.

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1948 Arab–Israeli War

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.

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Redirects here:

History of the kibbutz movement, Kibbutzes, Kibbutzim, Kibbutznik, Kibbutzniks, Kibbuz, Kibutz, Kibutzim, Kubbutzim, קיבוץ, קיבוצים.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibbutz

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