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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. [1]

257 relations: Abdominal aorta, Abdominal cavity, Acid–base homeostasis, Acute kidney injury, Adaptation, Adipose capsule of kidney, Adjective, Adrenal gland, Afferent arterioles, Aldosterone, American Medical Association, Amino acid, Ammonium, Amniote, Amphibian, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Angiotensin, Aquaporin, Aquaporin 2, Arcuate arteries of the kidney, Arid, Artificial kidney, Ascending limb of loop of Henle, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, Ayurveda, Basal metabolic rate, Bean, Bible, Bicarbonate, Bile, Bird, Blood pressure, Blood test, Body fluid, Bone marrow, Brain, British cuisine, Calbindin, Calcitriol, Calcium, Cancer, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac output, Catabolism, Cell surface receptor, Cell type, Cetacea, ..., Chondrichthyes, Chronic kidney disease, Clinical urine tests, Cloaca, Collecting duct system, Comparative physiology, Conscience, Cooking, Countercurrent exchange, Countercurrent multiplication, Creatinine, CT scan, Dermatome (anatomy), Diabetic nephropathy, Dialysis, Distal convoluted tubule, Duplicated ureter, Early Modern English, Ecophysiology, Efferent arteriole, Electrolyte, Endocrine system, Enzyme, Erythropoiesis, Erythropoietin, Excretion, Extracellular fluid, Filtration, Filtration fraction, Fish, French cuisine, Gastrointestinal tract, Glomerulonephritis, Glomerulus, Glomerulus (kidney), Glucose, Hagfish, Hartnup disease, Histology, Holonephros, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hormone, Horseshoe kidney, Hydrogen, Hydronephrosis, Hypothalamus, Hypoxia (medical), Inferior suprarenal artery, Interlobar arteries, Interlobar veins, Interlobular arteries, Interlobular veins, Intermediate mesoderm, Interstitial nephritis, Jerusalem, Juxtamedullary nephron, Kidney development, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Kidney stone disease, Kidney transplantation, Kidney tumour, King James Version, Lamprey, Lancelet, Latin, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Liver, Loop of Henle, Lumbar vertebrae, Lupus nephritis, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Mathematical model, Medical history, Medullary ray (anatomy), Mesonephros, Metabolism, Microscopic scale, Minimal change disease, Mixed grill, Molality, Monogenea, Mucus, Multicystic dysplastic kidney, Mustard (condiment), National Council Against Health Fraud, Nephrectomy, Nephridium, Nephrin, Nephritic syndrome, Nephrology, Nephron, Nephrotic syndrome, Nervous system, Nucleic acid, Nutcracker syndrome, Offal, Organ (anatomy), Organ donation, Organ procurement, Pararenal fat, Parasitism, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parathyroid hormone, Parenchyma, Pathology, Pellagra, Pelvic kidney, Peritoneum, Peritubular capillaries, PH, Phosphate, Physical examination, Pinniped, Plasma osmolality, Podocin, Podocyte, Polycystic kidney disease, Posterior pituitary, Potassium, Protein, Proximal tubule, Pyelonephritis, Reabsorption, Renal agenesis, Renal artery, Renal artery stenosis, Renal biopsy, Renal blood flow, Renal calyx, Renal capsule, Renal cell carcinoma, Renal column, Renal corpuscle, Renal cortex, Renal cyst, Renal fascia, Renal function, Renal hilum, Renal lobe, Renal medulla, Renal papilla, Renal pelvis, Renal physiology, Renal plexus, Renal pyramids, Renal replacement therapy, Renal sinus, Renal ultrasonography, Renal vein, Reniculate kidney, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, Renovascular hypertension, Reptile, Retroperitoneal space, Rib, Secretion, Segmental arteries of kidney, Sherry, SLC22A8, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Spanish cuisine, Spinal cord, Spleen, Steak and kidney pie, Stellate veins, Stephen Barrett, Straight arterioles of kidney, Swedish cuisine, Sympathetic nervous system, Tabernacle, Talmud, Tamm–Horsfall protein, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Thin segment, Thoracic diaphragm, Thoracic vertebrae, Toxin, Transversalis fascia, Ultrafiltration, Ultrasound, Urea, Ureter, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Urinary cast, Urinary system, Urinary tract infection, Urinary tract obstruction, Urine, Urine therapy, Urology, Vagus nerve, Vas deferens, Vasoconstriction, Vasopressin, Venae cavae, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vitamin D, Water, Wilms' tumor, World Kidney Day. Expand index (207 more) »

Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.

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Abdominal cavity

The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.

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Acid–base homeostasis

Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).

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Acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adipose capsule of kidney

The adipose capsule of kidney (or perinephric fat or perirenal fat) is a structure between the renal fascia and renal capsule, and may be regarded as a part of the latter.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Afferent arterioles

The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems.

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Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.

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Aquaporins, also called water channels, are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells.

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Aquaporin 2

AQP2 is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidney's collecting duct principal cells and in intracellular vesicles located throughout the cell.

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Arcuate arteries of the kidney

The arcuate arteries of the kidney are vessels of the renal circulation.

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A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.

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Artificial kidney

Artificial kidney is often a synonym for hemodialysis, but may also, refer to renal replacement therapies (with exclusion of kidney transplantation) that are in use and/or in development.

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Ascending limb of loop of Henle

Within the nephron of the kidney, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is a segment of the loop of Henle downstream of the descending limb, after the sharp bend of the loop.

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Atrial natriuretic peptide

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.

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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic human disorder.

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Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the recessive form of polycystic kidney disease.

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Body fluid

Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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British cuisine

British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.

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Calbindin refers to several calcium-binding proteins.

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Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and other variants, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D which has three hydroxyl groups.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Cell surface receptor

Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.

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Cell type

A cell type is a classification used to distinguish between morphologically or phenotypically distinct cell forms within a species.

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.

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Collecting duct system

The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.

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Comparative physiology

Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.

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Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.

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Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

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Countercurrent multiplication

A countercurrent mechanism system is a mechanism that expends energy to create a concentration gradient.

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Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Dermatome (anatomy)

A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.

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Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.

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In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.

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Distal convoluted tubule

The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.

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Duplicated ureter

Duplicated ureter or Duplex Collecting System is a congenital condition in which the ureteric bud, the embryological origin of the ureter, splits (or arises twice), resulting in two ureters draining a single kidney.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.

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Efferent arteriole

The efferent arterioles are blood vessels that are part of the urinary tract of organisms.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).

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Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Filtration fraction

In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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French cuisine

French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).

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Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.

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Glomerulus (kidney)

The glomerulus, plural glomeruli, is a network of capillaries known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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Hartnup disease

Hartnup disease (also known as "pellagra-like dermatosis" and "Hartnup disorder") is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting the absorption of nonpolar amino acids (particularly tryptophan that can be, in turn, converted into serotonin, melatonin, and niacin).

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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The holonephros is the kidney of the larvae of cyclostomes and the Gymnophiona.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus (in Latin), renal fusion or super kidney, is a congenital disorder affecting about 1 in 600 people, more common in men.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydronephrosis describes urine-filled dilation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces as a result of obstruction.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Inferior suprarenal artery

The inferior suprarenal arteries usually (variations are common) originate at the trunk of the renal artery before its terminal division, and usually present substantially different diameters corresponding to the age variable.

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Interlobar arteries

The interlobar arteries are vessels of the renal circulation which supply the renal lobes.

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Interlobar veins

The interlobar veins are veins of the renal circulation which drain the renal lobes.

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Interlobular arteries

Interlobular arteries (or cortical radiate arteries or cortical radial arteries) are renal blood vessels given off at right angles from the side of the arcuate arteries looking toward the cortical substance.

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Interlobular veins

The stellate veins join to form the interlobular veins, which pass inward between the rays, receive branches from the plexuses around the convoluted tubules, and, having arrived at the bases of the renal pyramids, join with the venae rectae.

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Intermediate mesoderm

Intermediate mesenchyme or intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm (an embryological tissue) that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate.

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Interstitial nephritis

Interstitial nephritis (or tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules, i.e., is inflammation of the spaces between renal tubules.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Juxtamedullary nephron

A juxtamedullary nephron is a type of nephron, found only in birds and mammals.

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Kidney development

Kidney development, or nephrogenesis, describes the embryologic origins of the kidney, a major organ in the urinary system.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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Kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.

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Kidney transplantation

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.

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Kidney tumour

Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Loop of Henle

In the kidney, the loop of Henle (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa nephroni) is the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule.

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Lumbar vertebrae

The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.

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Lupus nephritis

Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medullary ray (anatomy)

In anatomy, the medullary ray (Ferrein's pyramid) is the middle part of the cortical lobule or renal lobule, consisting of a group of straight tubes connected to the collecting ducts.

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The mesonephros (middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Minimal change disease

Minimal change disease (also known as MCD and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.

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Mixed grill

Many regional cuisines feature a mixed grill, a meal consisting of a traditional assortment of grilled meats.

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Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.

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Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasites commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that results from the malformation of the kidney during fetal development.

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Mustard (condiment)

Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).

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National Council Against Health Fraud

The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) was a not-for-profit, US-based organization, run by Dr.

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Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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Nephrin is a protein necessary for the proper functioning of the renal filtration barrier.

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Nephritic syndrome

Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome) is a syndrome comprising signs of nephritis, which is kidney disease involving inflammation.

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Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

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The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.

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Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nutcracker syndrome

The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta (AA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), although other variants exist.

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Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ donation

Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of theirs to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin.

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Organ procurement

Organ procurement (previously called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically for organ transplantation.

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Pararenal fat

The pararenal fat (or paranephric fat, paranephric body, or pararenal fat body) is collection of adipose tissue located superficial to the renal fascia.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

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Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.

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Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Pelvic kidney

A pelvic kidney is a normal kidney located in the pelvis, instead of the abdomen.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Peritubular capillaries

In the renal system, peritubular capillaries are tiny blood vessels, supplied by the efferent arteriole, that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Plasma osmolality

Plasma osmolality measures the body's electrolyte-water balance.

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Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes.

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Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.

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Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.

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Posterior pituitary

The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proximal tubule

The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.

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Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.

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In renal physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the process by which the nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid (pre-urine) and returns them to the circulating blood.

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Renal agenesis

Renal agenesis is a medical condition in which one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) fetal kidneys fail to develop.

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Renal artery

The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia.

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Renal biopsy

Renal biopsy (also kidney biopsy) is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope.

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Renal blood flow

In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow (RBF) is the volume of blood delivered to the kidneys per unit time.

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Renal calyx

The renal calyces are chambers of the kidney through which urine passes.

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Renal capsule

The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney, and covered in a layer of perirenal fat known as the adipose capsule of kidney.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

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Renal column

The renal column (or Bertin column, or column of Bertin) is a medullary extension of the renal cortex in between the renal pyramids.

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Renal corpuscle

A renal corpuscle is the blood-filtering component of the nephron of the kidney.

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Renal cortex

The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.

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Renal cyst

A renal cyst or kidney cyst, is a fluid collection in or on the kidney.

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Renal fascia

The renal fascia or Gerota's fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys and the adrenal glands.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Renal hilum

The renal hilum (Latin: hilum renale) or renal pedicle is the hilum of the kidney, that is, its recessed central fissure where its vessels, nerves and ureter pass.

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Renal lobe

The renal lobe is a portion of a kidney consisting of a renal pyramid and the renal cortex above it.

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Renal medulla

The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney.

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Renal papilla

The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney.

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Renal pelvis

The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the basin-like or funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney.

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Renal physiology

Renal physiology (Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney.

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Renal plexus

The renal plexus is formed by filaments from the celiac ganglia and plexus, aorticorenal ganglia, lower thoracic splanchnic nerves and first lumbar splanchnic nerve and aortic plexus.

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Renal pyramids

Renal pyramids (or malpighian pyramids or Malpighi's pyramids named after Marcello Malpighi, a seventeenth-century anatomist) are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney.

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Renal replacement therapy

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is therapy that replaces the normal blood-filtering function of the kidneys.

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Renal sinus

The renal sinus is a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calyces, blood vessels, nerves and fat.

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Renal ultrasonography

Renal ultrasonography (Renal US) is the examination of one or both kidneys using medical ultrasound.

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Renal vein

The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.

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Reniculate kidney

The reniculate kidney is a multilobed kidney found in marine and aquatic mammals such as pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) and cetaceans (dolphins and whales) but absent in terrestrial mammals except bears.

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Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Renovascular hypertension

Renovascular hypertension (or "renal hypertension") is a condition in which high blood pressure is caused by the kidneys' hormonal response to narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidneys.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Retroperitoneal space

The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.

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In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Segmental arteries of kidney

The segmental arteries are branches of the renal arteries.

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Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.

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Solute carrier family 22 member 8, or organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A8 gene.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Spanish cuisine

Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Steak and kidney pie

Steak and kidney pie is a savoury pie that is filled principally with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of beef, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy.

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Stellate veins

The stellate veins are veins that lie beneath the fibrous tunic of the kidney.

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Stephen Barrett

Stephen Joel Barrett (born 1933) is an American retired psychiatrist, author, co-founder of the National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF), and the webmaster of Quackwatch.

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Straight arterioles of kidney

In the blood supply of the kidney, the straight arterioles of kidney (or vasa recta renis) are a series of straight capillaries in the medulla (Latin: vasa, "vessels"; recta, "straight").

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Swedish cuisine

Swedish cuisine is the traditional food of the people of Sweden.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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The Tabernacle (מִשְׁכַּן, mishkan, "residence" or "dwelling place"), according to the Tanakh, was the portable earthly dwelling place of God amongst the children of Israel from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Tamm–Horsfall protein

The Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein (THP), also known as uromodulin, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the UMOD gene.

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The Merry Wives of Windsor

The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare first published in 1602, though believed to have been written in or before 1597.

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Thin segment

The thin segment is a segment of the nephron, which consists of.

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Thoracic diaphragm

For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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Thoracic vertebrae

In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Transversalis fascia

The transversalis fascia (or transverse fascia) is a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies between the inner surface of the transverse abdominal muscle and the parietal peritoneum.

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Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary cast

Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.

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Urinary system

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Urinary tract obstruction

Urinary tract obstruction is a urologic disease consisting of a decrease in the free passage of urine through one or both ureters and/or the urethra.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Urine therapy

In alternative medicine, urine therapy or urotherapy, (also urinotherapy or uropathy or auto-urine therapy) is the application of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin, or gums, with one's own urine.

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Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.

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Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

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Vas deferens

The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Venae cavae

The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Wilms' tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults.

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World Kidney Day

World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global health awareness campaign focusing on the importance of the kidneys and reducing the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney

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